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nth  AVZ.  &  43pd   ST. 


AH  About 




"cALL    cABOUT 



WILLIAM  H.  'UKERf,  M.  A. 




Copyright   1922 

BY  f 

New  York 


International  Copyright  Secured 

All  Rights  Reserved  in  U.  S.  A.  and 

PRINTED  IN  U.  S.  A. 

ALL     ABO  U  T     COFFEE 




Paintpd  from  nature  by  M.  E.  Eaton — Detail  aketohes  show  anther,  pistil,  and  section  of  corolla 

To  My    Wife 



SEVENTEEN  years  ago  the  author  of  this  work  made  his  first  trip  abroad  to  gather 
material  for  a  book  on  coffee.  Subsequently  he  spent  a  year  in  travel  among  the 
coffee-producing  countries.  After  the  initial  surveys,  correspondents  were  ap- 
pointed to  make  researches  in  the  principal  European  libraries  and  museums ;  and  this 
phase  of  the  work  continued  until  April,  1922.  Simultaneous  researches  were  conducted 
in  American  libraries  and  historical  museums  up  to  the  time  of  the  return  of  the  final 
proofs  to  the  printer  in  June,  1922. 

Ten  years  ago  the  sorting  and  classification  of  the  material  was  begun.  The  actual 
writing  of  the  manuscript  has  extended  over  four  years. 

Among  the  unique  features  of  the  book  are  the  Coffee  Thesaurus ;  the  Coffee  Chro- 
nology, containing  492  dates  of  historical  importance ;  the  Complete  Reference  Table  of 
the  Principal  Kinds  of  Coffee  Grown  in  the  World ;  and  the  Coffee  Bibliography,  con- 
taining 1,380  references. 

The  most  authoritative  works  on  this  subject  have  been  Robinson's  The  Early  His- 
tory of  Coffee  Houses  in  England,  published  in  London  in  1893;  and  Jardin's  Le  Cafe, 
published  in  Paris  in  1895.  The  author  wishes  to  acknowledge  his  indebtedness  to  both 
for  inspiration  and  guidance.  Other  works,  Arabian,  French,  English,  German,  and 
Italian,  dealing  with  particular  phases  of  the  subject,  have  been  laid  under  contribution; 
and  where  this  has  been  done,  credit  is  given  by  foot-note  reference.  In  all  cases  where 
it  has  been  possible  to  do  so,  however,  statements  of  historical  facts  have  been  verified  by 
independent  research.  Not  a  few  items  have  required  months  of  tracing  to  confirm  or  to 

There  has  been  no  serious  American  work  on  coffee  since  Hewitt's  Coffee:  Its  His- 
tory, Cultivation  and  Uses,  published  in  1872;  and  Thurber's  Coffee  from  Plantation  to 
Cup,  published  in  1881.  Both  of  these  are  now  out  of  print,  as  is  also  Walsh's  Coffee:  Its 
History,  Classification  and  Description,  published  in  1893. 

The  chapters  on  The  Chemistry  of  Coffee  and  The  Pharmacology  of  Coffee 
have  been  prepared  under  the  author's  direction  by  Charles  W.  Trigg,  industrial  fellow 
of  the  Mellon  Institute  of  Industrial  Research. 

The  author  wishes  to  acknowledge,  with  thanks,  valuable  assistance  and  numerous 
courtesies  by  the  officials  of  the  following  institutions : 

British  Museum,  and  Guildhall  Museum,  London ;  Bibliotheque  Nationale,  Paris ; 
Congressional  Library,  Washington ;  New  York  Public  Library,  Metropolitan  Museum  of 
Art,  and  New  York  Historical  Society,  New  York;  Boston  Public  Library,  and  Boston 
Museum  of  Fine  Arts ;  Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington ;  State  Historical  Museum, 
Madison,  Wis. ;  Maine  Historical  Society,  Portland ;  Chicago  Historical  Society;  New 
Jersey  Historical  Society,  Newark ;  Harvard  University  Library ;  Essex  Institute,  Salem, 
Mass. ;  Peabody  Institute,  Baltimore. 



Thanks  and  appreciation  are  due  also  to : 

Charles  James  Jackson,  London,  for  permission  to  quote  from  his  Illustrated  His- 
tory of  English  Plate; 

Francis  Hill  Bigelow,  author ;  and  The  Maemillan  Company,  publishers,  for  permis- 
sion to  reproduce  illustrations  from  Historic  Silver  of  the  Colonies; 

H.  G.  D wight,  author;  and  Charles  Scribner's  Sons,  publishers,  for  permission  to 
quote  from  Constantinople,  Old  and  New,  and  from  the  article  on  "Turkish  Coffee 
Houses"  in  Scribner's  Magazine; 

Walter  G.  Peter,  Washington,  D.  C,  for  permission  to  photograph  and  reproduce 
pictures  of  articles  in  the  Peter  collection  at  the  United  States  National  Museum ; 

Mary  P.  Hamlin  and  George  Arliss,  authors,  and  George  C.  Tyler,  producer,  for  per- 
mission to  reproduce  the  Exchange  coffee  house  setting  of  the  first  act  of  Hamilton; 

Judge  A.  T.  Clearwater,  Kingston,  N.  Y. ;  R.  T.  Haines  Halsey,  and  Francis  P. 
Garvan,  New  York,  for  permission  to  publish  pictures  of  historic  silver  coffee  pots  in 
their  several  collections; 

The  secretaries  of  the  American  Chambers  of  Commerce  in  London,  Paris,  and 
Berlin ; 

Charles  Cooper,  London,  for  his  splendid  co-operation  and  for  his  special  contribu- 
tion to  chapter  XXXV; 

Alonzo  H.  De  Graff,  London,  for  his  invaluable  aid  and  unflagging  zeal  in  directing 
the  London  researches; 

To  the  Coffee  Trade  Association,  London,  for  assistance  rendered; 

To  G.  J.  Letliem,  London,  for  his  translations  from  the  Arabic ; 

Geoffrey  Sephton,  Vienna,  for  his  nice  co-operation; 

L.  P.  de  Bussy  of  the  Koloniaal  Institute,  Amsterdam,  Holland,  for  assistance  ren- 
dered ; 

Burton  Holmes  and  Blendon  R.  Campbell,  New  York,  for  courtesies; 

John  Cotton  Dana,  Newark,  N.  J.^  for  assistance  rendered; 

Charles  H.  Barnes,  Medford,  Mass.,  for  permission  to  publish  the  photograph  of 
Peregrine  White's  Mayflower  mortar  and   pestle; 

Andrew  L.  Winton,  Ph.D.^  Wilton,  Conn.,  for  permission  to  quote  from  his  The 
Microscopy  of  Vegetable  Foods  in  the  chapter  on  The  Microscopy  of  Coffee  and  to 
reprint  Prof.  J.  Moeller's  and  Tschirch  and  Oesterle's  drawings; 

F.  Hulton  Frankel,  Ph.D.,  Edward  M.  Frankel,  Ph.D.,  and  Arno  Viehoever,  for 
their  assistance  in  preparing  the  chapters  on  The  Botany  of  Coffee  and  The  Microscopy 
of  Coffee; 

A.  L.  Burns,  New  York,  for  his  assistance  in  the  correction  and  revision  of  chapters 
XXV,  XXVI,  XXVII,  and  XXXIV,  and  for  much  historical  information  supplied  in 
connection  with  chapters  XXX  and  XXXI ; 

Edward  Aborn,  New  York,  for  his  help  in  the  revision  of  chapter  XXXVI; 

George  W.  Lawrence,  former  president,  and  T.  S.  B.  Nielsen,  president,  of  the  New 
York  Coffee  and  Sugar  Exchange,  for  their  assistance  in  the  revision  of  chapter  XXXI ; 

Helio  Lobo,  Brazilian  consul  general,  New  York ;  Sebastiao  Sampaio,  commercial  at- 
tache of  the  Brazilian  Embassy,  AVashington ;  and  Th.  Langgaard  de  Menezes,  American 
representative  of  the  Sociedade  Promotora  da  Defeza  do  Cafe ; 

Felix  Coste,  secretary  and  manager,  the  National  Coffee  Roasters  Association;  and 
C.  B.  Stroud,  superintendent,  the  New  York  Coffee  and  Sugar  Exchange,  for  information 
supplied  and  assistance  rendered  in  the  revision  of  several  chapters; 


F.  T.  Holmes,  New  York,  for  his  help  in  the  compilation  of  chronological  and  de- 
scriptive data  on  coffee-roasting  machiner}' ; 

Walter  Chester,  New  York,  for  critical  comments  on  chapter  XXVIII. 

The  author  is  especially  indebted  to  the  following,  who  in  many  ways  have  con- 
tributed to  the  successful  compilation  of  the  Complete  Reference  Table  in  chapter  XXIV, 
and  of  those  chapters  having  to  do  with  the  early  history  and  development  of  the  green 
coffee  and  the  wholesale  coffee-roasting  trades  in  the  United  States: 

George  S.  "Wright,  Boston;  A.  E.  Forbes,  William  Fisher,  Gwynne  Evans,  Jerome  J. 
Schotten,  and  the  late  Julius  J.  Schotten,,  St.  Louis;  James  H.  Taylor,  William  Bayne, 
Jr.,  A.  J.  Dannemiller,  B.  A.  Livierato,  S.  A.  Schonbrunn,  Herbert  Wilde,  A.  C.  Fitzpat- 
rick,  Charles  Meehan,  Clarence  Creighton,  Abram  Wakeman,  A.  H.  Davies,  Joshua 
Walker,  Fred  P.  Gordon,  Alex.  H.  Purcell,  George  W.  Vanderhoef,  Col.  William  P. 
Roome,  W.  Lee  Simmonds,  Herman  Simmonds,  W.  H.  Aborn,  B.  Lahey,  John  C.  Lou- 
don, J.  R.  Westfal,  Abraham  Reamer,  R.  C.  Wilhelm,  C.  H.  Stewart,  and  the  late  Au- 
gust Haeussler,  New  York ;  John  D.  Warfield,  Ezra  J.  Warner,  S.  0.  Blair,  and  George 
D.  McLaughlin.  Chicago  ;  W.  H.  Harrison,  James  Heekin,  and  Charles  Lewis,  Cincinnati ; 
Albro  Blodgett  and  A.  M.  Woolson,  Toledo ;  R,  V.  Engelhard  and  Lee  G.  Zinsmeister, 
Louisville;  E.  A.  Kahl,  San  Francisco;  S.  Jackson,  New  Orleans;  Lewis  Sherman,  Mil- 
waukee ;  Howard  F.  Boardman,  Hartford ;  A.  H.  Devers,  Portland,  Ore. ;  W.  James 
Mahood,  Pittsburgh;  William  B.  Harris,  East  Orange,  N.  J. 

New  York.  June  17,  1922. 


C  O  X  T  E  N  T  S 


i:ncoiiiiums  and  descriptive  phrases  applied  to  the  plant,  the  berry,  and  the  beverage.  .Page  xxvix 

Showing  the  various  steps  through  which  the  bean  passes  from  plantation  to  cup Page  xxix 


Dealing  with  the  Etymology  of  Coffee 

Origin  and  translation  of  the  word  from  the  Arabian  into  various  languages  —  Views  of  many 
writers    ; Page    1 


History  of  Coffee  Propagation 
A  brief  account  of  the  cultivation  of  the  coffee  plant  in  the  Old  World,  and  of  its  introduction  into 
the  New  —  A  romantic  coffee  adventure Page  5 


Early  History  of  Coffee  Drinking 
Coffee  in  the  Near  East  in  the  early  centui'ies  —  Stories  of  its  origin  —  Discovery  by  phyMcians 
and  adoption  by   the  Church  —  Its   spread  through  Arabia,  Persia,  and  Turkey  —  Persecu- 
tions and  intolerances  —  Early  coffee  manners  and  customs Page  11 


Introduction  of  Coffee  into  Western  Europe 

When  the  three  great  temperance  beverages,  cocoa,  tea,  and  coffee,  came  to  Europe  —  Coffee  first 
mentioned  by  Rauwolf  in  1582  —  Early  days  of  coffee  in  Italy  —  How  Pope  Clement  VIII 
haptizetl  it  and  made  it  a  triily  Christian  beverage  —  The  first  European  coffee  house,  in 
Venice,  1645  —  The  famous  Caff 6  Florian  —  Other  celebrated  Venetian  coffee  houses  of  the 
eighteenth  century  —  The  romantic  story  of  Pedrocchi,  tJie  poor  lemonade-vender,  who  built 
the  most  beautiful  coffee  house  in  the  world  I'age  25- 


The  Beginnings  of  Coffee  in  France 
What  French  travelers  did  for  coffee  —  the  introduction  of  coffee  by  P.  de  la  Roque  into  Marseilles 
in  1&44  — Tlie  first  commercial  importation  of  coffee  from  Egypt  —  The  first  French  coffee 
house  —  Failure  of  the  attempt  by  physicians  of  Marseilles  to  discredit  coffee  —  Soli- 
man  Aga  introduces  coffee  into  Paris  —  Cabarets  ft  caffe  —  Celebrated  works  on  coffee  by 
French  writers Page   31 




The  Introduction  op  Coffee  into  England 

The  first  printed  reference  ito  coffee  in  English  —  Early  mention  of  coffee  by  noted  English  travelers 
and  writers  —  The  Lacedaemonian  "black  broth"  controversy  —  How  Gonopios  introduced 
coffee  drinking  at  Oxford^- The  first  English  coffee  house  in  Oxford  —  Two  English  botan- 
ists on  coffee Page    35 


The  Introduction  op  Coffee  into  Holland 
How  the  enterprising  Dutch  traders  captured  the   first   world's   market  for  coffee  —  Activities  of 
the  Netherlands  East  India  Company  —  The  first  coffee  house  at  the  Hague  —  The  first  public 
auction  at  Amsterdam  in  1711,  when  Java  coffee  brought  forty-seven  cents  a  pound,  green 

Page  43 


The  Introduction  op  Coffee  into  Germany 

The  contributions  made  by  German  travelers  and  writers  to  the  literature  of  the  early  history 
of  coffee  —  The  first  coffee  house  in  Hamburg  opened  by  an  English  merchant  —  Famous 
coffee  houses  of  old  Berlin  —  The  first  coffee  periodical  and  the  first  kaffeeklatsch  — 
Frederick  the  Great's  coffee  roasting  monopoly  —  Coffee  persecutions  —  "Coffee-smellers"  — 
The  first  coffee  king Page   45 


Telling  How  Coffee  Came  to  Vienna 
The  romantic  adventure  of  Franz  George  Kolsehitzky,  who  carried  "a  message  to  Garcia"  through 
the  enemy's  lines  and  won  for  himself  the  honor  of  being  the  first  to  teach  the  Viennese 
the  art  of  making  coffee,  to  say  nothing  of  falling  heir  to  the  supplies  of  the  green  beans 
left  behind  by  the  Turks ;  also  the  gift  of  a  house  from  a  grateful  municipality,  and  a 
statue  after  death  —  Affectionate  regard  in  which  "Brother-heart"  Kolsehitzky  is  held  as 
the  patron  saint  of  the  Vienna  Eaffeesieder  —  Life  in  the  early  Vienna  caf6s Page  49 


The  Coffee  Houses  op  Old  London 
One  of  the  most  picturesque  chapters  in  the  history  of  coffee  —  The  first  coffee  house  in  London  — 
The  first  coffee  handbill,  and  the  first  newspaper  advertisement  for  coffee  —  Strange  coffee 
mixtures  —  Fantastic  coffee  claims  —  Coffee  prices  and  coffee  licenses  —  Coffee  club  of  the 
Rota  —  Early  coffee-house  manners  and  customs  —  Coffee-house  keepers'  tokens  —  Opposition 
to  the  coffee  house  —  "Penny  universities"  —  Weird  coffee  substitutes  —  The  proposed  coffee- 
house newspaper  monopoly  —  Evolution  of  the  club  —  Decline  and  fall  of  the  coffee  house  — 
Pen  pictures  of  coffee-house  life  —  Famous  coffee  houses  of  tihe  seventeenth  and  eighteenth 
centuries —  Some  Old  World  pleasure  gardens  —  Locating  the  notable  coffee  houses.  .Page  53 


History  op  the  Early  Parisian  Coffee  Houses 
The  introduction  of  coffee  into  Paris  by  ThSvenot  in  1657  —  How  Soliman  Aga  established  the 
custom  of  coffee  drinking  at  the  court  of  Louis  XIV  —  Opening  of  the  first  coffee  houses  — 
How  the  French  adaptation  of  the  Oriental  coffee  house  first  appeared  in  the  real  French 
caf6  of  FrauQois  Procoi)e  - —  Important  part  played  by  the  coffee  houses  in  the  development 
-  of  French  literature  and  the  stage  —  Their  association  with  the  Revolution  and  the  found- 
ing of  the  Republic  —  Quaint  customs  and  patrons —  Historic  Parisian  cafes Page  91 



Introduction  op  Coffee  into  North  America 

Captain  John  Smith,  founder  of  the  Ck)lony  of  Virginia,  is  the  first  to  bring  to  North  America  a 
linowledge  of  coffee  in  1607  —  The  coffee  grinder  on  the  Mayflower  —  Coffee  drinking  in  1668  — 
William  Penn's  coffee  purchase  in  1683  —  Coffee  in  colonial  New  England  —  The  psychology 
of  the  Boston  "tea  party,"  and  why  the  United  States  became  a  nation  of  coffee  drinkers  in- 
stead of  tea  drinkers,  like  England  —  The  first  coffee  license  to  I>orothy  Jones  In  1670  —  The 
first  coffee  house  in  New  England  —  Notable  coffee  houses  of  old  Boston  —  A  sky-scraper 
coffee-house  Page   105 


History  of  Coffee  in  Old  New  York 
The  burghers  of  New  Amsterdam  begin  to  substitute  coffee  for  "must,"  or  heer,  for  breakfast  in 
1668  —  William  Penn  makes  his  first  purchase  of  coffee  in  the  green  bean  from  New  York 
merchants  in  1683  —  The  King's  Arms,  the  first  coffee  house  —  The  historic  Merchants, 
sometimes  called  the  "Birthplace  of  our  Union"  —  The  coffee  house  as  a  civic  forum  —  The 
Exchange,  Whitehall,  Burns,  Tontine,  and  other  celebrated  coffee  houses  —  The  Vauxhall  and 
Ranelagh  pleasure  gardens Page   115 


Coffee  Houses  of  Old  Philadelphia 

Ye  Coffee  House,  Philadelphia's  first  coffee  house,  opened  about  1700  —  The  two  London  coffee 

houses  —  The  City   tavern,  or  Merchants  coffee  house  —  How  these,  and  other  celebrated 

resorts,  dominated  the  social,  political,  and  business  life  of  the  Quaker  City  in  the  eighteenth 

century   Page    125 


The  Botany  of  the  Coffee  Plant    - 
Its  complete  classification  by  class,  sub-class,  order,  family,  genus,  and  species  —  How  the  Coffea 
arabica  grows,  flowers,  and  bears  —  Other  species  and  hybrids  described  —  Natural  caffein- 
free  coffee  —  Fungoid  diseases  of  coffee Page   131 


The  Microscopy  of  the  Coffee  Fruit 
How  the  beans  may  be  examined  under  the  microscope,  and  what  is  revealed  —  Structure  of  the 
berry,   the  green,   and   the  roasted  beans  —  The  coffee-leaf  disease  under  the  microscope  — 
Value  of  microscopic  analysis  in  detecting  adulteration Page  149 


The  Chemistry  of  the  Coffee  Bean  - 

By  Charles  W.  Trigg. 
Chemistry  of  the  preparation  and  treajtment  of  the  green  bean  —  Artificial  aging  —  Renovating 
damaged  coffees  —  Extracts  —  "Oaffetannic  acid"  —  Caffein,  caffein-f ree  coffee  —  Caffeol  — 
Fats  and  oils  —  Carbohydrates  —  Roasting  —  Scientific  aspects  of  grinding  and  packaging  — 
The  coffee  brew  —  Soluble  coffee  —  Adulterants  and  substitutes  —  Official  methods  of  anal- 
ysis  Page   155 


C  O  X  T  E  X  T  S 

Pharmacology  of  the  Coffee  Deink  ., 

liy   Charles   IF.    Trigg 
General  physiological  action  —  Effect  on  chiklven  —  Effect  on  longevity  —  Behavior  in  the  alimen- 
tary  rSgime  —  Place   in  dietary  —  Action  on    bacteria  —  Use    in    medicine  —  Physiological 
,, action  of  "caffetannic  acid"  —  Of  caffeol  —  Of  caflfein  —  Effect  of  caffein  on  mental  and  motor 
efficiency  —  Conclnsions     Page   174 


The  Commercial  Coffees  of  the  World 

The  geographical  distribution  of  the  coffees  grown   in   North  America,   Centi-al   America,    South 

America,  tlie  West  India  Islands,  Asia,  Africa,  the  Pacific  Islands,  and  the  Easit  Indies  — 

A  statistical  study  of  tlie  distribution  of  the  principal  kinds  —  A  commercial  coffee   chart 

of    the   world's    leading   growths,    with   market   names    and    general    trade    characteristics 

Page  189 


Cultivation  of  the  Coffee  Plant 

The  early  days  of  coffee  culture  in  Abyssinia  and  Arabia  —  Coffee  cultivation   in  general  —  Soil. 

climate,    rainfall,    altitude,   propagation,   prepairing    the    i^lantation,    shade,    w^ind    breaks, 

fertilizing,  praning,  catch  crops,  pests,  and   diseases  —  How    coffee    is    grown   around    the 

world  —  Cultivation  in  all  the  principal  producing  countries Page  197 


Preparing  Green  Coffee  for  Market 
Early  Arabian  methods  of  preparation  —  How  primitive  devices  were  replaced  by  modern  methods 
—  A  chronological  story  of  the  development  of  scientific  plantation  machinery,  and  the 
part  played  by  English  and  American  inventors  —  The  marvelous  coffee  package,  one 
of  the  most  ingenious  in  all  nature  —  How  coffee  is  harvested  —  Picking  —  Preparation  by 
the  drj-  and  the  wet  methods  —  Pulping  —  Fermentation  and  washing  —  Drying  —  Hulling, 
or  peeling,  and  polishing — Siting,  or  grading  —  Preparation  methods  of  different  countries 

Page  245 


The  Production  and  Consumption  of  Coffee 
A  statistical  study  of  world  production  of  coffee  by  countries  —  Per  capita  figures  of  the  leading 
consuming  countries  —  Coffee-consumption  figures  comi>ared  with  tea-consumption  figures  in 
the  United  States  and  the  United  Kingdom  t— Three  centuries  of  coffee  trading — Coffee 
drinking  in  the  United  States,  past  and  present  —  Reviewing  the  1921  trade  in  the  United 
States    Page   273 


How  Green  Coffees  Are  Bought  and  Sold 
Buying  coffee  in  the  producing  countries  — Transi>orting  coffee  to  the  coaisuming  markets  —  Some 
recoi"d  coffee  cargoes  shipped  to  th^  United  States  —  Transport  over  seas  —  Java  coffee 
"ex-sailing  vessels"  —  Handling  coffee  at  New  York,  New  Orleans,  and  San  Francisco  — 
The  coffee  exchanges  of  Europe  and  the  United  States — ^Commission  men  and  brokers  — 
Trade  and  exchange  contracts  for  delivery  —  Important  rulings  affecting  coffee  trading  — 
Some  well-known  green  coffee  marks Page    SOS 





^M                                Greejsi  and  Roasted  Coffee  Characteristics  ' 
'  The  trade  values,  bean  characteristics,  and  cup  merits  of  the  leading  coffees  of  commerce,  with  a 
"Complete   Reference   Table  of  the   Principal    Kinds    of    Coffee    Grown    in    the    World" — 
Appearance,  aroma,  and  flavor  in  cup-testing  —  How  experts  test  coffee  —  A  typical  sample- 
roasting  and  cup-testing  outfit Page    341    V 


Factory  Preparation  op  Roasted  Coffee 
Coffee  roasting  as  a  business  —  Wholesale  coffee-roasting  machinery  —  Separating,  milling,  and 
mixing  or  blending  green  coffee,  and  roasting  by  coal,  coke,  gas,  and  electricity  —  Facts 
about  coffee  roasting  —  Cost  of  roasting  —  Green-coffee  shrinkage  table  —  "Dry"  and  "wet" 
roasts  —  On  roasting  coffee  etficiently  —  A  typical  coal  roaster  —  Cooling  and  stoning  — 
Finishing  or  glazing  —  Blending  roasted  coffees  —  Blends  for  restaurants  —  Grinding  and 
packaging  —  Coffee  additions  and  fillers  —  Treated  coffees,  and  dry  extracts Page  379 


Wholesale  Merchandising  of  Coffee 
How  coffees  are  sold  at  wholesale  —  The  wholesale  salesman's  place  in  merchandising  —  Some 
coffee  costs  analyzed  —  Handy  coffee-selling  chart  —  Terms  and  credits  —  About  package 
coffees  —  Various  types  of  coffee  containers  —  Coffee  package  labels  —  Coffee  package 
economies  —  Practical  grocer  helps  —  Coffee  sampling  —  Premium  method  of  sales  promo- 
tion     , Page   407 


Retail  Merchandising  op  Roasted  Coffee 
How  coffees  are  sold  at  retail  —  The  place  of  the  grocer,  the  tea  and  coffee  dealer,  the  chain 
store,  and  the  wagon-route  distributer  in  the  scheme  of  distribution  —  Starting  in  the  retail 
coffee  business  —  Small  roasters  for  retail  dealers  —  Model  coffee  departments  —  Creating 
a  coffee  trade  —  Meeting  competition  —  Splitting  nickels  —  Figuring  costs  and  profits  —  A 
credit  policy  for  retailers  —  Premiums Page   415 


A  Short  History  of  Coffee  Advertising 
Early  coffee  advertising  —  The  first  coffee  advertisement  in  1587  was  frank  propaganda  for  the 
legitimate  use  of  coffee  —  The  first  printed  advertisement  in  English  —  The  first  newspaper 
advertisement  —  Early  advertisements  in  colonial  America  —  Evolution  of  advertising  — 
Package  coffee  advertising — ^  Advertising  to  the  trade  —  Advertising  by  means  of  news- 
papers, magazines,  bill-boards,  electric  signs,  motion  pictures,  demonstrations,  and  by  samples 
—  Advertising  for  retailers  —  Advertising  by  government  propaganda  —  The  Joint  Coffee 
Trade  publicity  campaign  in  the  United  States  —  Coffee  advertising  efficiency Page  431 


The  Coffee  Trade  in  the  United  States 
The  coffee  business  started  by  Dorothy  Jones  of  Boston  —  Some  early  sales  —  Taxes  imposed  by 
Congress  in  war  and  peace  —  The  first  coffee-plantation-machine,  coffee-roaster,  coffee- 
grinder,  and  coffee-pot  patents  —  Early  trade  marks  for  coffee  —  Beginnings  of  the  coffee 
urn,  the  coffee  container,  and  the  soluble-coffee  business  —  Chronological  record  of  the  most 
important  events  in  the  history  of  the  trade  from  the  eighteenth  century  to  the  twentieth 

Page  4G7 





Development  of  the  Green  and  Roasted  Coffee 
Business  in  the  United  States 
A  brief  history  of  the  growth  of  coffee  trading  —  Notable  firms  and  personalities  that  have  played 
important  parts  in  green  coffee  in  the  principal  coffee  centers  —  Green  coffee  trade  organ- 
izations—  Growth  of  the  wholesale  coffee- roasting  trade,  and  names  of  those  who  have 
made  history  in  it  —  The  National  Coffee  Roasters  Association  —  Statistics  of  distribution  of 
coffee-roasting  establishments  in  the  United  States   Page  475 


Some  Big  Men  and  Notable  Achievements 
^  B.  G.  Arnold,  the  first,  and  Hermann  Sielcken,  the  last  of  the  American  "coffee  kings"  —  John 
Arbuckle,  the  original  package-coffee  man  —  Jabez  Bums,  the  man  who  revolutionized  the 
roasted-coffee  business  by  his  contributions  as  inventor,  manufacturer,  and  writer  —  Ck>ffee 
trade  booms  and  panics  —  Brazil's  first  valorization  enterprise  —  War-time  government 
control  of  coffee  —  The  story  of  soluble  coffee Page  517 


A  History  of  Coffee  in  Literature 
The  romance  of  coffee,  and  its  influence  on  the  discourse,    poetry,    history,    drama,    philosophic 
writing,  and  fiction  of  the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth  centuries  and  on  the  writers  of  to- 
day —  Coffee  quips  and  anecdotes Page   541 


Coffee  in  Relation  to  the  Fine  Arts 

How  coffee  and  coffee  drinking  have  been  celebrated  in  painting,  engraving,  sculpture,  caricature, 

lithography,  and  music  —  Epics,  rhapsodies,   and   cantatas  in  praise  of  coffee  —  Beautiful 

specimens  of  the  art  of  the  potter  and  the  silversmith  as  shown  in  the  coffee  service  of 

various  periods  in  the  world's  history  —  Some  historical  relics Page  587 


The  Evolution  of  Coffee/ Apparatus 
Showing  the  development  of  coffee-roasting,  coffee-grinding,   coffee-making,   and  coffee-serving  de- 


vices  from  the  earliest  time  to  the  present  day  -^"The  original  coffee  grinder,  the  first  coffee 
roaster,  and  the  first  coffee  pot  —  T^e  original  French  drip  pot,  the  De  Belloy  percolator  — 
Count  Rumford's  improvement  —  How  the  commercial  coffee  roaster  was  developed  —  The 
^y olution-jQf^  fi  1  tra tio n  ,ii^^eg  —  The  old  Carter  "pull-out"  roaster  —  Trade  customs  in 
New^iork  ana  ist.  rSms  in  the  sixties  and  seventies  —  The  story  of  the  evolution  of  the 
Burns  roaster  —  How  the  gas  roaster  was  developed  in  France,  Great  Britain,  and  the 
United  States Page    615 


World's  Coffee  Manners  and  Customs 
How  coffee  is  roasted,  prepared,  and  served  in  all  the  leading  civilized  countries  —  The  Arabian 
coffee  ceremony  —  The  present-day  coffee  houses  of  Turkey  —  Twentieith   century   improve- 
ments in  Europe  and  the  United  States Page   655 




Preparation  of  the  Uniyersal  Beverage 
I  he  evolution  of  grinding  and  brewing  methods  —Coffee  was  first  a  food,  then  a  wine,  a  medicine, 
a  devotional  ref reshment>  a  confection,  and  finally  a  beverage  —  Brewing  by  boiling,  infu- 
sion, percolation,  and  filtration  —  Ck)ffee  making  in  Enrope  in  the  nineteenth  century  —  Early 
coffee  making  in  the  United  States  —  Latest  developments  in  better  coffee  making  —  Various 
aspects  of  scientific  coffee  brewing  —  Advice  to  coffee  lovers  on  how  to  buy  coffee,  and  how 
to  make  it  in  perfection Page   693 


Giving  dates  and  events  of  historical  interest  in  legend,  travel,  literature,  cultivation,  plantation 
treatment,  trading,  and  In  the  preparation  and  use  of  coffee  from  the  earliest  time  to  the 
present    ' Page   725 


A  list  of  references  gathered  from  the  principal  general  and  scientific  libraries  —  Arranged  in 
alphabetic  order  of  topics Page  738 


Page  769 



Color  Plates 

Facing  paye 
Cofifee  branches,  flowers,  and  fruit  (painted 

by  Blendon  Campbell)  Frontispiece v 

Coffea   arabica;   leaves,   flowers,   and   fruit 

(painted  by  M.  E.  Eaton) 1 

Tlie  coffee  tree  bears  fruit,  leaf,  and  blossom 

at  the  same  time  16 

A  close-up  of  ripe  coffee  berries 32 

Coffee  under  the  Stars  and  Stripes 144 

Coffee  scenes  in  British  India 160 

Picking  and  sacking  coffee  in  Brazil 176 

Mild-coffee  culttire  and  preparation 192 

.  Facing  page 

Coffee  scenes  in  Java 200 

Coffee  scenes  in  Sumatra 216 

Coffee   preparation   in    Central    and    South 

America  248   M 

Typical  coffee  scenes  in  Costa  Rica 336  " 

Principal    varieties    of   green-coffee    beans, 

natural  size  and  color 352 

Coal-roasting  plant,  New  York 408 

Coffee  scenes  in  the  Near  and  Far  East 544 

Primitive  transportation  methods,  Arabia . .  640 
Hulling  coffee  in  Aden,  Arabia 656 

Black  and  White  Illustrations 


Coffee  tree  in  flower 4 

De  Clieu  and  his  coffee  plant 7 

Legendary  discovery  of  coffee  drink 10 

Title  page  of  Dufour's  book 13 

Frontispiece  from  Dufour's  book 15 

Turkish  coffee  house,  17th  century 21 

Serving  coffee  to  a  guest,  Arabia 23 

First  printed  reference  to  coffee 24 

An  18th-century  Italian  coffee  house 2() 

Nobility  in  an  early  Venetian  caff^ 27 

Goldoni  in  a  Venetian  coffee  house 28 

Florian's  famous  coffee  house 29 

Title  page  of  La  Roque's  work 82 

Coffee  tree  as  pictured  by  La  Roque 32 

Coffee  branch  in  La  Roque's  work 33 

First  printed  reference  in  English 37 

Reference  in  Sherley's  travels 39 

References  in  Biddulph's  travels 40 

Mol's  coffee  house  at  Exeter 41 

Reference  in  Sandys'  travels 42 

Richter's  coffee  house,  Leipsic 40 

Coffee  house,  Germany,  17th  century 47 

Kolschitzky  in  his  Blue  Bottle  coffee  house . .  48 

First  coffee  house  in  Leopoldstadt. 50 

Statue  of  Kolschitzky 51 

First  advertisement  for  coffee 55 

First  newspaper  advertisement 57 


Coffee  house,  time  of  Charles  II 60 

London  coffee  house,  17th  century 61 

Coffee  house,  Queen  Anne's  time 62 

Coffee-house  keepers'  tokens  (plate  1) 63 

A  broadside  of  1663 64 

Coffee-house  keepers'  tokens  (plate  2) 65 

A  broadside  of   1667 68 

A  broadside  of   1670 70 

A  broadside  of   1672 70 

A  broadside  of  1674 71 

White's  and   Brooke's   coffee   houses 78 

London  coffee-house  politicians 78 

Great  Fair  on  the  frozen  Thames 79 

Lion's  head   at  Button's 80 

Trio  of  notables  at  Button's 81 

Vauxhall  Gardens  on  a  gala  night 82 

Rotunda  in  Ranelagh  Gardens 83 

Garraway's  coffee  house 84 

Button's  coffee  house 84 

Slaughter's  coffee  house 85 

Tom's  coffee  house 85 

Lloyd's  coffee  house 86 

Dick's  coffee  house 87 

Grecian  coffee  house 87 

Don  Saltero's  coffee  house 88 

British  coffee  house 88 

French  coffee  house  in  London 89 




Raiuponaux'  Royal  Drummer  ca fg 90 

La  Foire  St.-Germaiu 92 

Street  coffee  vender  of  Paris 92 

Armenian  decorations  in  Paris  cafe 93 

Corner  of  liistoric  Caf6  de  Procope 93 

C4if6  de  Procope,  Paris 9.j 

Cashier's  desk  in  coffee  liouse,  Paris 9G 

Caf6    Foy 97 

Caf6  des  Mille  Colonnes 99 

Caf 6  de  Paris 101 

Interior  of  a  typical  Parisian  cafe 103 

Chess  at  tlie  Caf6  de  la  R^gence 104 

Types  of  colonial  coffee  roasters 100 

Early  family  coffee  roaster 100 

Historic  relics,  early  New  England 107 

Maytlower   "coffee   grinder" 108 

Crown  coffee  house,  Boston lOS 

Coffee  devices,  Massachusetts  colony 109 

Coft'ee  devices  of  western  pioneers 110 

Coffee  pots  of  oolouial  days 110 

Green  Dragon  tavern.  Boston Ill 

Metal  coffee  pots.  New  York  colony 112 

Exchange  coffee  house,  Boston 113 

President-elect     Washington's    official    wel- 
come at  Merchants  Coffee  House 114 

King's  Arms  coffee  house,  New  York IIG 

Burns  coffee  house 117 

Merchants  coffee  house 119 

Tontine  coffee  house 121 

Tontine  building  of  1850 122 

Xiblo's    Garden 122 

Coffee  relics,  Dutch  New  York 122 

New  York's  Vauxhall  Garden  of  1803 123 

Tavern  and  grocers'  signs,  old  New  York ....   124 
Second  London  coffee  house,  Philadelphia . .   127 

Selling  slaves,  old  London  coffee  house 128 

City  tavern,  Philadelphia 129 

Coffee-house  scene  in  "Hamilton" 130 

Coffee  tree,  flowers  and  fruit 132 

Germination  of  the  coffee  plant 133 

Brazil  coffee  plantation  in  flower 134 

f'offea  arahica,  Porto  Rico 135 

Coffea  arahica,  flower  and  fruit,  Costa  Rica.   135 

Young  Coffea  arabica.  Kona,  Hawaii 136 

Survivors  of  first  Liberiau  trees  in  Java ....   130 

Coffea  arabica  in  flower.  Java 137 

Liberian  coffee  tree,  Lamoa,  P.  1 138 

Coffea  congensis,  2J^  years  old 138 

Flowering  of  5-year-old  Coffea  excelsa 139 

Branches  of  Coffee  excelsa 140 

Coffea  stenophylla 140 

Near  view  of  Coffea  arahica  berries 141 

Wild  caffein-f ree  coffee  tree 142 

Coffee   bean    characteristios. 142 

Coffea  arabica  berries 143 

Rohusta  coffee  in  flower 144 

One-year-old  rohusta  estate 145 


Coffea  Quillou  Cowers 146 

Quillou  coffee  tree  in  blossom 147 

Coffea    L'gandae 148 

Coffea  arahica  under  the  microscope 149 

Cross-section  of  coffee  bean 150 

Cross- section  of  hull  and  bean 150 

Epicarp  and  pericarp  under  microscope....  151 
Endocarp  and  endosperm  under  microscope.   152 

Spermoderm  under  microscope 152 

Tissues  of  embryo  under  microscope 152 

Coffee-leaf  disease  under  microscope 353 

Green  and  roasted  coffee  under  microscope. .  153 
Green  and  roasted  Bogota  under  microscope  154 

Cross-section  of  endosperm 156 

I'ortiou  of  the  investing  membrane , .  157 

Structure  of  the  green  bean 157 

Ground  coffee  under  microscope 167 

Coffee  tree  in  bearing,  Lamoa,  P.  1 196 

Early  coffee  implements 198 

Ci-oss-section  of  mountain  slope,  Yemen 198 

First  steps  in  coffee-growing 199 

Coffee  nursery,  Guatemala 200 

Coffee  under  shade,  Porto  Rico 201 

Boekit  Gompong  estate,  Sumatm 202 

Estate  in  Antioquia,  Colombia 203 

Weeding  and  harrowing,  Sao  Paulo 204 

Fazenda  Dumout,  Sao  Paulo 205 

Fazenda  Guatapara,  Sao  Paulo 206 

Picking  coffee,  Sao  Paulo 207 

Intensive  cultivation,  Sao  Paulo 207 

Private  railroad,  Sao  Paulo 208 

Coffee  culture  in  Sao  Paulo 209 

Heavily  laden  coffee  tree,  Bogota 210 

Picking  coffee,  Bogota 211 

Altamira  Hacienda,  Venezuela 212 

Carmen  Hacienda,  Venezuela 213 

Heavy  fruiting,  Coffea  rohusta.  Java 214 

Road  through  coffee  estate,  Java 215 

Native  picking  coffee,  Sumatra 216 

Administrator's  bungalow,  Java 216 

Administrator's  bungalow,  Sumatra 217 

Coffee  culture  in  Guatemala 218 

Indians  picking  coffee,  Guatemala 219 

Bungalow,  coffee  estate,  Guatemala 220 

Thirty-year-old  coffee  trees,  Mexico 221 

Mexican  coffee  picker. .' 222 

Receiving   coffee,    Mexico 223 

Heavily  laden  coffee  tree,  Porto  Rico 224 

Coffee  cultivation,  Costa  Rloa 225 

Picking  Costa  Rica  coffee 226 

Mountain  coffee  estate,  Costa  Rica 226 

Mysore  coffee  estate 227 

Coffee  growing  under  shade,  India 228 

Coffee  estate  at  Harar 229 

Wild  coffee  near  Adis  Abeba 231 

Mocjia  coffee  growing  on  terraces 232 

Picking  Blue  Mountain  Ijerries,  Jamaica...  233 




Coffee   pickers,   Guadeloupe 234 

Coffee  in  blossom,  Panama 235 

Robusta  coffee,  Cochin-Ghina 237 

Bourbon  trees,   French  Indo-Ohina 238 

Picking  coffee  in  Queensland 239 

Coffee  in  bloom,  Kona,  Hawaii 240 

Coffee  at  Hamakua,   Hawaii 241 

Coffee  trees,  South  Kona,  Hawaii 242 

Plantation  near  Sagada,  P.  1 243 

Coffee  preparation,  Sao  Paulo 244 

Walker's  original  disk  pulper 246 

Early  English  coffee  peeler 246 

Group  of  English  cylinder  pulpers 247 

Copper  covers  for  pulper  cylinders 248 

Granada  unpulped  coffee  separator 249 

Hand-power  double-disk  pulper 249 

Tandem    coffee   pulper 250 

Horizontal   coffee   washer 251 

Vertical  coffee  washer 251 

Coban  pulper,  Venezuela 252 

Niagara  power  coffee  huller 252 

British  and  American  coffee  driers 253 

American  Guardiola  drier 254 

Smout  i>eeler   and   polisher 254 

Smout  peeler  and  polisher,  exposed 255 

O'Krassa's   coffee  drier 255 

Six  well-known  huUers  and  separators 256 

El  Monarca  coffee  classifier 257 

Hydro-electric  installation,  Guatemala 258 

Preparing  Brazil  coffee  for  market 259 

Working  coffee  on  the  drying  flats 260 

Fermenting  and  washing  tanks,  Sao  Paulo.  260 

Drying  grounds,  Fazenda  Schmidt 261 

Prei)aring  Colombian  coffee  for  market 262 

Old-fashioned   ox-power   huller 263 

Street-car  coffee  transport,  Orizaba 264 

Coffee  on  drying  floors,  Porto  Rico 264 

Sun-drying  coffee 265 

Drying  patio,  Costa  Rica 266 

Early  Guardiola  steam  drier 266 

Indian  women  cleaning  Mocha  coffee 267 

Cleaning-and-grading  machinery,  Aden 268 

Drying  coffee  at  Harar 269 

Preparing  Java  coffee  for  market 270 

Coffee  transport  in  Java 271 

Meeting  of  Amsterdam  coffee  brokers,  1820.  291 

Bill  of  public  sale  of  coffee,  1790 292 

Last  sample  before  export,  Santos 304 

Stamping  bags  for  export 304 

Preparing  Brazil  coffee  for  export 305 

Grading  coffee  at  Santos 306 

The  test  by  the  cups,  Santos 306 

New  York  importers'  warehouse,  Santos 307 

Pack-mule  transport  in  Venezuela 308 

Coffee-carrying  cart,  Guatemala 308 

Pack-oxen  fording  stream,  Colombia 308 

Coffee  transport,  Mexico  and  South  America  309 


Donkey  coffee-transport  at  Harar 310 

Coffee  camels  at  Harar 310 

Selling  coffee  by  tapping  hands,  Aden 310 

Packing  and  transporting  coffee,  Aden 311 

Coffee  camel  train  at  Hodeida 312 

Methods  of  loading  coffee,  Santos 313 

Coffee  freighter,  Cauca  River,  Colombia 314. 

Coffee  steamers  on  the  Magdalena 314 

Loading  heavy  cargo  on  Santa  Cecilia 315 

Unloading  Java  coffee  from  sailing  vessel . .  317 

Receiving  piers  for  coffee.  New  York 318 

Unloading  coffee,  covered  pier.  New  York . .  319 

Receiving  and  storing  coffee,  New  York 320 

Tester  at  work.  Bush  Terminal,  New  York.  321 
Loading  lighters,  Bush  Docks,  Brooklyn...  321 

New  Terminal  system  on  Staten  Island 322 

Motor  tractor.  Bush  piers 322 

Unloading  with  modern  conveyor 323 

Coffee  handling.  New  Orleans  piers 324 

Coffee  in  steel -covered  sheds,  New  Orleans.  325 
Unloading  and  storing  coffee,  San  Francisco  326 
Modern  device  for  handling  green  coffee ....  327 
Handling  green  coffee  at  European  ports. . .  328 

New  York  Coffee  and  Sugar  Exchange 329 

Coffee  section,  Coffee  and  Sugar  Exchange. .  330 

Blackboards,  Coffee  Exchange 331 

"Coffee  afloat"  blackboard 332 

Well  known  green-coffee  marks 339 

Bourbon-Santos  beans,  roasted 343 

Flat  and  Bourbon-Santos  beans,  roasted...  343 

Rio  beans,  roasted 343 

Mexican  beans,  roasted 347 

Guatemala  beans,  roasted 347 

Bogota  (Colombia)  beans,  roasted 348 

Maracaibo  beans,   roasted 349 

Mocha  benas,  roasted 351 

Washed  Java  beans,  roasted. 353 

Sample- roasting  and  cup- testing  outfit 357 

Modern  gas  coffee-roasting  plant 380 

Sixteen-cylinder  coal  roasting  plant 382 

Green-coffee  separating  and  milling  machines  384 

English  gas  coffee-roasting  plant 386 

German  gas  coffee- roasting  plant 386 

French  gas  coffeenroasting  plant 387 

Jumbo  coffee  roaster,  Arbuckle  plant 388 

Roasting  plant  of  Reid,  Murdoch  &  Co 389 

Complete  gas  coffee-plant  installation 390 

Burns  Jubilee  gas  roaster 391 

Burns  coal   roaster 392 

Open  perforated  cylinder  with  flexible  back 

head  392 

Trying  the  roast 394 

Monitor  gas  roaster 394 

A  group  of  roasting-room  accessories 394 

Dumping  the  roast 395 

A  four-bag  coffee  flnisher 396 

Burns  sample-coffee  roaster 396 




Lambert  coal  coffee-roasting  outfit 397 

Coles  No.  22  grinding  mill 398 

Monitor  coffee-granulating  machine 398 

C'lallenge  pulverizer  398 

Burns  No.  12  grinding  mill 399 

Monitor  steel-cut  grinder,  separator,  etc 399 

Johnson  carton-filling,  weighing,  and  sealing 

machine  400 

Ideal  steel -cut  mill 400 

Smyser  package-making  and  filling  machine  401 

Automatic  coffee-packing  machine 402 

Complete  coffee-cartoning  outfit 403 

Automatic  coffee-weighing  machines 404 

Units  in  manufacture  of  soluWe  coffee 405 

Tyi^s  of  coffee  containers 411 

Fresh-roasted-coffee  idea  in  retailing 414 

Premium  tea  and  coffee  dealer's  display. . . .  416 

Chain-store  interior   417 

Familiar  A  &  P  store  front 418 

Specialist  idea  in  coffee  merchandising 419 

Monitor  gas  roaster,  cooler,  and  stoner 420 

Royal  gas  coffee  roaster  for  retailers 420 

Burns  half-bag  roaster,  cooler,  and  stoner.  421 

Lambert  Jr.  roasting  outfit  for  retailers 421 

Faulder  and  Simplex  gas  roasters 422 

Coffee  roasters  used  in  Paris  shops 423 

Small   German  roasters 424 

Popular  French  retail  roaster 424 

Uno  cabinet  gas  roaster  and  cooler 424 

Educational  window  exhibit 425 

Better-class  American  grocery,  interior 426 

Prize-winning  window  display 427 

Americanized  English  grocer's  shop 429 

Famous  package  coffees 430 

First  coffee  advertisement  in  U.  S 433 

Coffee  advertisement  of  1790 434 

First  colored  handbill  for  package  coffee. . .  435 

Reverse  side  of  colored  handbill 435 

St.  Louis  handbill  of  1854 436 

Advertising-card  copy,   1873 437 

Handbill  copy  of  the  seventies 437 

Box-end  sticker,  1833 438 

Chase  &  Sanborn  advertisement,  1888 438 

A  Goldberg  cartoon,  1910 439 

Copy  used  by  Chase  &  Sanborn,  1900 439 

An  effective  cut-out 442 

How  coffee  is  advertised  to  the  trade 443 

Joint  Coffee  Trade  Publicity  Committee...  447 

Magazine  and  newspaper  copy,  1919 449 

Copy   that   stressed   helpfulness   of   coffee, 

1919-20   450 

Joint  Committee's  house  organ 451 

Introductory  medical-journal  copy 451 

Telling  the  doctors  the  truth,  1920 452 

Joint  Committee's  attractive  booklets 453 

More  medical  journal  copy,  1920 454 

Magazine  and  newspaper  copy,  1921 455 


Educating  the  doctor,  1922 456 

Magazine  and  newspaper  copy,  1922 457 

Specimen  of  early  Yuban  copy 459 

Historical  association  in  advertising 459 

Package  coffee  advertising  in  1922 460 

The  social  distinction  argument 461 

Drawing  upon  history  for  atmosphere 461 

An  impressive  electric  sign,  Chicago 462 

How  coffee  is  advertised  outdoors 463 

Attractive  car  cards,  spring  of  1922 464 

Effective  iced-coff ee  copy 465 

European  advertising  novelty,  New  York . .  465 

Coenties  Slip,  in  days  of  sailing  vessels 466 

First  U.  S.  coffee-grinder  patent 469 

Carter's  Pull-out  roaster  patent 469 

First  registered  trade  mark  for  coffee 470 

Original  Arbuckle  coffee  packages 471 

Merchants  coffee  house  tablet 473 

Departed   dominant   figures   in   New    York 

green  coffee  trade 476 

"Their  association  with   New   York   green 

coffee  trade  dates  back  nearly  fifty  years"  477 
Green  coffee  trade-builders  who  have  passed 

on    478 

"Their  race  is  run,  their  course  is  done"'..  479 

112  Front  Street,  New  York,  1879 480 

At  87  Wall  Street,  New  York,  years  ago 480 

Wall  and  Front  Streets,  New  York,  1922. . .  481 

Front  Street,  New  York,  1922 483 

In  the  New  Orleans  coffee  district 486 

Green  coffee  district.  New  Orleans 487 

California   Street,  San  Francisco 488 

San  Francisco's  coffee  district 489 

Pioneer  coffee  roasters.  New  York  City 493 

Oldtime  New  York  coffee  roasters 495 

Pioneer  coffee   roasters  of  the  North  and 

East,  U.   S 500 

Pioneer  coffee  roasters  of  the   South   and 

West,  U.  S 504 

Ground  coffee  price  list  of  1862 507 

Organization  convention,  N.  C.  R.  A.,  1911..  510 

Former  presidents,  N.  C.  R.  A 512 

Earliest  coffee  manuscript 540 

Song  from  "The  Coffee  House" 555 

Dr.  Johnson's  seat,  the  Cheshire  Cheese 567 

Original  coffee  room,  old  Cock  Tavern 568 

Morning  gossip  in  the  coffee  room 569 

"His  Warmest  Welcome  at  an  Inn" 571 

Alexander  Pope  at  Button's,  1730 577 

Dutch  coffee  house,  1650  (by  Van  Ostade) . .  586 
White's  coffee  house,  1733  (by  Hogarth).,.  588 

Tom  King's,  1738  (by  Hogarth) 589 

Petit  Dejeuner  (by  Boucher) 590 

Coffee  service  in  the  home  of  Madame  de 

Pompadour  (by  Van  Loo) 590 

Madame  Du  Barry  (by  Decreuse) 591 

Coffee  house  at  Cairo  (by  G6r6me) 592 




Kaffeebesuch  ( by  Philippi) 593 

Coffee  comes  to  the   aid  of  the  Muse    (by 

Ruffio)     593 

M«(l  dog  in  a  c-offee  house  (by  Rowlaiidson )   594 

Napoleon  and  the  cure   (by  Charlet) 595 

Coffee,  a  chanson  (music  by  Colet) 596 

Statue   of   Kolschitzlvy 597 

Betty's  Aria,  Bach's  coffee  cantata 598 

Caf6  Pedrocdii,   Padua 599 

Coffee  grinder  set  with  jewels. 600 

Italian  wrought-iron  coffee  roaster 6(X) 

Seventeenth-century  tea  and  coffee  pots...   601 

Lantern  coffee  pot,  1692 602 

Follvingham  pot,   1715-16. 602 

AVastell   ]K>t.   1720-21 603 

Dish  of  coffee-boy  design,  1692 603 

Cliinese  porcelain  coffee  pot 604 

Silver  coffee  pots,  early  18th  century 604 

Silver  coffee  pots,  18th  century 605 

Pottery  and  porcelain  pots 606 

Silver  coffee  pots,  late  18th  century 607 

Porcelain  pots,  Metropolitan  Museum 608 

Vienna  coffee  pot,  1830 609 

Spanish  coffee  pot,  18th  century 609 

Silver  coffee  pots  in  American  collections. .  610 
Coffee  pot  by  Wm.  Shaw  and  Win.  Priest. .  611 

Pot  of  Sheffield  plate,  18th  century 611 

Pot  by   Ephraim    Brasher 611 

French  silver  coffee  i)ot 612 

Green  Dragon  tavern  coffee  urn <j12 

Coffee  pots  by  American  silversmiths ()13 

Twentieth-century  American  coffee  service.   613 

Turkish  coffee  set,  Peter  collection 614 

Oldest  coffee  grinder •.   616 

Grain  mill  used  by  Greeks  and  Romans 616 

First  coffee  roaster 616 

First  cylinder  roaster,  1650 616 

Historical  relics,  U.  S.  National  Museum..  617 

Turkish   coffee  mill 618 

Early  French  wall  and  table  grinders 618 

Bronze  and  brass  mortars,  17th  century. . . .   619 

Early  American  coffee  roasters 619 

Roaster  with  three-sided  hood 620 

Roasitdng,  making,  and  serving  devices.  17th 

century    • 620 

Englisli  and  French  coffee  grinders 621 

Eighteenth-century  roaster   621 

Original   French  drip  pot 621 

Belgian.  Russian,  and  French  pewter  pots. .   622 

17th  and  18th  century  pewter  pots 623 

Count  Rumford's  percolator 623 

Drawings  of  early  French  coffee  makers...  624 

Early  Fi'ench  filtration  devices 624 

Early  American  coffee-maker  patents......  625 

French  coffee  makers.  19th  century 625 

First  ISnglish  commercial  roaster  patent...  626 
Early  French  coffee- roasting  machines 627 


Battery  of  Carter  pull-out  machines 628 

Early  Englisli  and  American  roasters 630 

Early  Englisli  and  American  coffee-making 

devices    632 

Dakin  roasting  machine  of  1848 633 

Globe  stove  roaster  of  1860 634 

Hyde's  combined  roa.ster  and  stove 634 

Original  Burns  roaster,  1864 635 

Burns  granulating  mill,  1872-74 636 

Napier's  vacuum  machine 637 

German  gas  and  coal  roasting  machines...  638 

Other  German  coffee  roasters 639 

Original   Enterprise  mill 640 

Max  Thiirmer's  quick  gas  roaster 640 

An  English  gas  coffee-roasting  plant 641 

Frencli  globular  roaster 642 

Sirocco  machine    (French) 642 

English  roasting  and  grinding  equipment..   643 

Magic  gas  machine  (French) 644 

Burns  Jubilee  gas  machine 644 

Double  gas  roasting  outfit  (French) 645 

Lambert's  Victory  gas  machine 646 

One  of  the  first  electric  mills 647 

English  electric-fuel  roaster 648 

Ben  Franklin  electric  coffee  roaster 648 

Enterprise  hand  store  mill 649 

Latest  types  electric  store  mills 650 

Italian  rapid  coffee-making  machines 651 

Working  of  Italian  rapid  machines 652 

La  Victoria  Arduino  Mignonne 652 

N.  C.  R.  A.  Home  coffee  mill 653 

Manthey-Zorn  rapid  infuser  and  dispenser. .   653 

Tricolette,  single-cup  filter  device 654 

Moorish  coffee  house  in  Algiers 656 

Coffee  house  in  Cairo 656 

Coffee  service  in  Cairo  barber  shop 657 

Coffee-laden  camels,  Arabia 658 

Arabian  coffee  liouse 658 

Mahommedan  brewing  coffee  for  guest 659 

Native  cafe,   Harar 661 

Early  coffee,  tea,  and  chocolate  service 661 

Nubian  slave  girl  with  coffee  service 662 

Persian  coffee  service,  1737 663 

In  a  Turkish  coffee  house 664 

Roasting  coffee  outside  a  Turkisli  caf6 (>64 

Turkish  caffinet,  early  19th  century 665 

Coffee-making  in  Turke.v 666 

Street  coffee  vender  in  the  Levant 666 

A  coffee  house  in  Syria 667 

Cafetan — garb  of  oriental  caf6-keeper 668 

Street  coffee  service  in  Constantinople 668 

Riverside  caf6  in  Damascus 669 

Coffee  al  fresco  in  Jerusalem 671 

Caf§  Schrangl,  Vienna 672 

Favorite  English  way  of  making  coffee 673 

A  caf§  of  Ye  Mecca  Company,  Loudon 673 

Groom's  coffee  liouse,  London 674 




Caf6  Monico,  Picadilly  Circus,  London 674 

Gatti's,  The  Strand.  London 675 

Tea  lounge,  Hotel  Savoy,  London 675 

Two  popular  places  for  coffee  in  London 676 

Temple  Bar  restaurant,  London 677 

Tea  balcony,  Hotel  Cecil,  London 677 

One  of  Slater's  chain-shops,  London 677 

St.  James's  restaurant,  Picadilly,  London...   678 

An  A.  B.  C.  shop.  London 678 

Halt  of  caravaners  at  a  serai,  Bulgaria. . . .  678 

Cafe  de  la  Paix,  Paris 679 

Sidewalk  annex,  Caf6  de  la  Paix 680 

Caf^  de  la  R4gence,  Paris 681 

Cafe  de  hi  Regence  in  1922 682 

One  of  the  Biard  cafgs,  Paris 683 

Restaurant  Proeope,  1922 683 

Morning  coffee  at  a  Boulevard  caf6 684 

Caf§  Bauer,  Unter  den  Linden,  Berlin 684 

Cafe   Bauer,   exterior 685 

Kranzler's  Unter  den  Linden,  Berlin 685 

Swedish  coffee  boilers ; 687 

Sidewalk  caf6,  Lisbon 687 


Coffee  rooms  replacing  hotel  bars,  U.  S 688 

Britannia  coffee  pot — a  Lincoln  relic 690 

Coffee  service.  Hotel  Astor,  New  York 691 

Early  coffee  making  in  Persia 694 

Napier  vacuum  coffee  maker 700 

Xapier-List  steam  coffee  machine 700 

Finley  Acker's  filter-paper  coffee  pot 700 

Kin-Hee  pot  in  operation 701 

Tricolator  in  operation 701 

King  percolator 701 

Three  American  coffee-making  machines  in 

operation 7(^ 

How  the  Tru-Bru  pot  operates 702 

Coffee-making  devices  used  in  U.  S 703 

English  hotel  coffee-making  machines 706 

Well-known  makes  of  large  coffee  urns 707 

Popular  German  drip  jtot 708 

Section  of  roasted  bean,  magnified 719 

Cross-section  of  roasted  bean,  magnified...  720 

Coarse  grind  under  the  microscope 720 

Medium  grind  under  the  microscope 721 

Fine-meal  grind  under  the  mici-oscope 721 



Ach,  F.  J 447,  512 

Akers,  Fred  495 

Ames,  Allan  P 447 

Arbuckle,  John   523 

Arnold,  Benjamin  Greene   476,  517 

Arnold,  F.  B 476 

Bayne,  William     479 

Bayne,  William,   Jr 447 

Beard,  Eli   493 

Beard,  Samuel  493 

Bennett,  William  H 479 

Bickford,  C.  E 478 

Boardman,  Thomas  J 500 

Board'man,  William    500 

Brand,  Carl  W 512 

Brandenstein,  M.  J 504 

Burns,  Jabez   527 

Cauby,  Edward  500 

Casanas,  Ben  C 512 

CaucOiois.  F.  A 493 

Chase,  Caleb   500 

Cheek,  J.  0 504.  515 

Clos-set,  Joseph   504 

Coste,  Felix  447 

Crossman,  Geo.  W 479 

Devers,  A.  H 504 

Dwinell,  James  F 500 

Eppens,  Fred. 495 

Eppens,  Julius  A 495, 497 

Eppens.  W.    H 493, 495 


Evans,  David  G. 504 

Fischer,  Benedickt 493 

Flint,  J.  G 500 

Folger,  J.  A.,  Jr 504 

Folger,  J.  A.,  Sr 504 

Forbes,  A.  E 504 

Forbes,  Jas.  H 504 

Geiger,  Frank  J 500 

Gillies,  Jas.  W 493 

Gillies,  Wright    493 

Grossman,   William    500 

Harrison,  D.  Y 500 

Harrison,  W.  H 500 

Haulenbeek,  Peter  493 

Hayward,  Martin  500 

Heekin,  James  500 

Jones,  W.  T 504 

Kimball.  O.  G 478 

Kinsella,  W.  J 504 

Kirkland,  Alexander  495 

Kolschitzky,  Franz  George   50 

McLaughlin,   W.  F 500 

Mahood,   Samuel  500 

Mayo,  Henry   495 

Meehan,  P.  C 477 

Menezes,  Th.  Langgaard  de 446 

Meyer,  Robert 511 

Peck,  Edwin  H 477 

Phyfe,  Jas.  W 478 

Pierce,  O.  W.,  Sr 500 




Pupke,  John  F 495 

Purcell,  Joseph   476 

Reid,  Fred  495 

Reid,  Thomas 493,  495 

Roome,  Ck)l.  William  P 499 

Russell,  James  C 478 

Sanborn,  James  S 500 

Schilling,  A 504 

Schotten,  Julius  J 504,  512 

Schotten,  William    504 

Seelye,  Frank  R 512 

Sielcken,  Hermann   476,  519 

Simmonds,  H 477 

^innott,  J.  B 504 

SiiBith,  L.  B 493 

Smith,  M.  E 504 

S'prague,  Albert  A 500 


Stephens,  Henry  A 500 

Stoffregen,  Charles   504 

Stoflfregen,  C.  H 447 

Taylor,  James  H 477 

Thomson,  A,  M 500 

Van  Loan,  Thomas  498 

Weir,  Ross  W 447,  512 

Westf eldt,  George   .' 479 

Widlar,  Francis   500 

Wilde,  Samuel       493 

Withington,   Elijah    493 

Woolson,  Alvin  M 500 

Wright,  George  C 500 

Wright,  George  S 447 

Young,   Samuel   500 

Zinsmeister,  J 504 

Maps,    Charts,    and    Diagrams 

Map  of  London  coffee-house  district,  1748 ...     76 

Formula  for  Caffein 160 

Commercial  coffee  chart 191 

Eiffel  and  Woolwortih  towers  in  coffee 272 

World's  coffee  cup  and  largest  ship 275 

Coffee  exi>orts,  1850-1920 277 

Coffee  exports,  1916-1920 277 

Brazil  coffee  exports,  1850-1920 278 

World's  coffee  consumption,  1850  - 1920 286 

Coffee  imports,  1916-1920 286 

World    trend    of   consumption    of    tea    and 

coffee,  1860-1920  288 

Coffee  map  of  World  (folded  insert)  facing  288 
Pre-war  annual  average  production  of  coffee 

by  continents  294 

Pre-war  annual  average  production  of  coffee 

by  countries  294 

Pre-war  average  annual   imports  of  coffee 

into  U.  S.  by  continents 295 

Pre-war   average  annual   imports  of  coffee 

into  U.  S.  by  countries 295 

Pre-war  coffee-imports  chart ,  297 

Pre-war  consumption  and  price  chart 297 

Coffee  map,  Brazil    342 

Coffee  map,  Sao  Paulo,  Minas,  and  Rio 344 

Mild-coffee  map,  1 346 

Coffee  map,  Africa  and  Arabia 352 

Mild-coffee  map,  2 354 

Complete  reference  table  (21  pp.) 358 

Plan  of  milling-machine  connections 381 

Plan  of  green-coffee-mixer  connections 383 

Layout  for  coffee  and  tea  department 418 

Chart,  advertising  of  coffee  and  coffee  sub- 
stitutes, 1911-20 440 

Charts,   per   capita   consumption   of  coffee, 

and  coffee  and  substitute  advertising 441 

Chart,  plan  of  advertising  campaign 448 

Chart,  private-brand  advertising,  1921 458 



Encomiums  and  descriptive  phrases  applied  to  the  plant,  the  berry, 
and  the  beverage 

The  Plant 
The  precious  plant 
This  friendly  plant 
Mocha's  happy  tree 
The  gift  of  Heaven 

The  plant  with  the  jessamine  -  like  flowers 
The  most  exquisite  perfume  of  Araby  the  blest 
Given  to  the  human  race  by  the  gift  of  the  Gods 

The  Berry 
The  magic  bean 
The  divine  fruit 
Fragrant  berries 
Rich,  royal  berry 
Voluptuous  berry 
The  precious  berry 
The  healthful  bean 
The  Heavenly  berry 
The  marvelous  berry 
This  all-healing  berry 
Yemen's  fragrant  berry 
The  little  aromatic  berry 
Little  brown  Arabian  berry 
Thought-inspiring  bean  of  Arabia 
The  smoking,  ardent  beans  Aleppo  sends 
That  wild  fruit  which  gives  so  beloved  a  drink 

The  Beverage 
Festive  cup 
Juice  divine 
Nectar  divine 
Ruddy  mocha 
A  man's  drink 
Lovable  liquor 
Delicious  mocha 
The  magic  drink 
This  rich  cordial 
Its  stream  divine 
The  family  drink 
The  festive  drink 
Coffee  is  our  gold 
Nectar  of  all  men 
The  golden  mocha 
This  sweet  nectar 
Celestial  ambrosia 
The  friendly  drink 
The  cheerful  drink 
The  essential  drink 
The  sweet  draught 
The  divine  draught — 
The  grateful  liquor 
The  universal  drink 
The  American  drink 
The  amber  beverage 

The  convivial  drink 
The  universal  thrill 
King  of  all  perfumes 
The  cup  of  happiness 
The  soothing  draught 
Ambrosia  of  the  Gods  — 
The  intellectual  drink 
The  aromatic  draught 
The  salutary  beverage 
The  good  -  fellow  drink 
The  drink  of  democracy  — 
The  drink  ever  glorious 
Wakeful  and  civil  drink 
The  beverage  of  sobriety — - 
A  psychological  necessity^ 
The  fighting  man's  drink -^' 
Loved  and  favored  drink 
The  symbol  of  hospitality  — 
This  rare  Arabian  cordial 
Inspirer  of  men  of  letters 
The  revolutionary  beverage 
Triumphant  stream  of  sable 
Grave  and  wholesome  liquor"'^ 
The  drink  of  the  intellectuals— 
A  restorative  of  sparkling  wit 
Its  color  is  the  seal  of  its  purity 
The  sober  and  wholesome  drink 
Lovelier  than  a  thousand  kisses — , 
This  honest  and  cheering  beverage 
A  wine  which  no  sorrow  can  resist 
The  symbol  of  human  brotherhood 
At  once  a  pleasure  and  a  medicine 
The  beverage  of  the  friends  of  God 
The  fire  which  consumes  our  griefs 
Gentle  panacea  of  domestic  troubles 
The  autocrat  of  the  breakfast  table- — 
The  beverage  of  the  children  of  God- 
King  of  the  American  breakfast  table 
Soothes  you  softly  out  of  dull  sobriety 
The  cup  that  cheers  but  not  inebriates* 
Coffee,  which  makes  the  politician  wise 
Its  aroma  is  the  pleasantest  in  all  nature 
The  sovereign  drink  of  pleasure  and  health* 
The  indispensable  beverage  of  strong  nations 
The  stream  in  which  we  wash  away  our  sorrows 
The  enchanting    perfume    that    a    zephyr    has 

Favored   liquid   which   fills   all   my    soul   with 

The  delicious  libation  we  pour  on  the  altar  of 

This  invigorating  drink  which  drives  sad  care 

from  the  heart 

•  First  written   about   tea ;    Improperly  claimed   to 
have  been  written  of  coffee. 



Showing  the  various  steps  through  which 
the  hean  passes  from  plantation  to  cup 

1  Planting  the  seed  in  nursery 

2  Transplanting  into  roAvs 

3  Cultivating  and  pruning 

4  Picking  the  cherries 

5  Pulping 

6  Fermenting 

7  Washing 

8  Drying  in  the  parchment 

9  Hulling 

10  Polishing 

11  Grading 

12  Transporting  to  the  seaport 

13  Buying  and  selling  for  export 

14  Transhipment  overseas 

15  Buying  and  selling  at  wholesale 

16  Shipment  to  the  point  of  manufacture 

17  Separating 

18  Milling 

19  Mixing  or  blending 

20  Roasting 

21  Cooling  and  stoning 

22  Buying  and  selling  at  retail 

23  Grinding 

24  ^Making  the  beverage 




■%;   ^^-^K^X 

-W    '^# 

Chapter  I 

Origin  and  translation  of  the  word  from  the  Arabian  into  various 
languages — Views  of  many  writers 

THE  history  of  the  word  coffee  involves 
several    phonetic    difficulties.      The 
11^.         European  languages  got  the  name  of 
^■e  beverage  about  1600  from  the  original 

Ai-abic     \^4^      qahwah,  not  directly,  but 

ihrough  its  Turkish  form,  kahveh.  This  was 
the  name,  not  of  the  plant,  but  the  beverage 
made  from  its  infusion,  being  originally  one 
of  the  names  employed  for  wine  in  Arabic. 
Sir  James  Murray,  in  the  New  English 
Dictionary,  says  that  some  have  conjectured 
that  the  wordjsAXoreign,  perhaps, A frica.n, 
word  disguised,  and  have  thought  it  con- 
nected with  the  name  Kaffa^  a^  tqwn^in^|hoaj 
southwest  Abyssinia,  reputed  native  place 
of  the  coffee  plant,  but  that  of  this  there  is 
no  evidence,  and  the  name  qahwah  is  not 
given  to  the  berry  or  plant,  which  is  called 

*  »    hunn,  the  native  name  in  Shoa  be- 

^*   ing  bun. 

Contributing  to  a  symposium  on  the 
etymology  of  the  word  coffee  in  Notes  and 
Queries,  1909,  James  Piatt,  Jr.,  said: 

The  Turkish  form  might  have  been  written 
kahv6,  as  its  final  h  was  never  sounded  at  any 
time.  Sir  James  Murray  draws  attention  to  the 
existence  of  two  European  types,  one  like  the 
French  caU,  Italian  caffd,  the  other  like  the 
English  coffee,  Dutch  Icoffie.  He  explains  the 
vowel  0  in  the  second  series  as  apparently  rep- 
resenting au,  from  Turkish  ahv.  This  seems 
unsupi>orted  by  evidence,  and  the  v  is  already 
represented  by  the  ff,  so  on  Sir  James's  assump- 
tion coffee  must  stand  for  kahv-ve,  which  is 
unlikely.  The  change  from  a  to  o,  in  my  opin- 
ion, is  better  accounted  for  as  an  imperfect 
appreciation.  The  exact  sound  of  a  in  Arabic 
and  other  Oriental  languages  is  that  of  the  Eng- 
lish short  u,  as  in  "cuff."  This  sound,  so  easy 
to  us,  is  a  great  stumbling-block  to  other  nations. 
I  judge  that  Dutch  koffie  and  kindred  forms  are 
iniperfect  attempts  at  the  notation  of  a  vowel 

which  the  writers  could  not  grasp.  It  is  clear 
that  the  French  type  is  more  correct.  The  Ger- 
mans have  corrected  their  koffee,  which  they 
may  have  got  from  the  Dutch,  into  kaffee.  The 
Scandinavian  languages  have  adopted  the 
French  form.  Many  must  wonder  how  the  hv 
of  the  original  so  persistently  becomes  ff  in  the 
European  equivalents.  Sir  James  Murray 
makes  no  attempt  to  solve  this  problem. 

Virendranath  Chattopadhyaya,  who  also 
contributed  to  the  Notes  and  Queries  sym- 
posium, argued  that  the  hw  of  the  Arabic 
qahwah  becomes  sometimes  ff  and  some- 
times only  /  or  I)  in  European  translations 
because  some  languages,  such  as  English, 
have  strong  syllabic  accents  (stresses), 
while  others,  as  French,  have  none.  Again, 
he  points  out  that  the  surd  aspirate  h  is 
heard  in  some  languages,  but  is  hardly  au- 
dible in  others.  Most  Europeans  tend  to 
leave  it  out  altogether. 

Col.  W.  F.  Prideaux,  another  contribu- 
tor, argued  that  the  European  languages 
got  one  form  of  the  w^ord  coffee  directly 
from  the  Arabic  qahwah,  and  quoted  from 
Hobson- Jobson  in  support  of  this : 

Chaoua  in  1598,  Cahoa  in  IGIO,  Cahue  in  1G15 ; 
while  Sir  Thomas  Herbert  (1638)  expressly 
states  that  "they  drink  (in  Persia)  ♦  *  *  above 
all  the  rest,  Coho  or  Gopha:  by  Turk  and  Arab 
called  Caphe  and  Cahua."  Here  the  Persian, 
Turkish,  and  Arabic  pronunciations  are  clearly 

Col.  Prideaux  then  calls,  as  a  witness  to 
the  Anglo-Arabic  pronunciation,  one  whose 
evidence  was  not  available  when  the  Neiv 
English  Dictionary  and  Hobson- Jobson 
articles  were  written.  This  is  John  Jour- 
dain,  a  Dorsetshire  seaman,  whose  Diary 
was  printed  by  the  Hakluyt  Society  in  1905. 
On  May  28,  1609,  he  records  that  "in  the 


afternoone  wee  departed  out  of  Hatch  (Al- 
Hauta,  the  capital  of  the  Lahej  district 
near  Aden),  and  travelled  untill  three  in 
the  morninge,  and  then  wee  rested  in  the 
plaine  fields  untill  three  the  next  dale, 
neere  unto  a  cohoo  howse  in  the  desert." 
On  June  5  the  party,  traveling  from  Hippa 
(Ibb),  "laye  in  the  mountaynes,  our 
camells  being  wearie,  and  our  selves  little 
better.  This  mountain  is  called  Nasmarde 
(Nakil  Sumara),  where  all  the  cohoo 
grows."  Farther  on  was  "a  little  village, 
where  there  is  sold  cohoo  and  fruite.  The 
seeds  of  this  cohoo  is  a  greate  marchandize, 
for  it  is  carried  to  grand  Cairo  and  all 
other  places  of  Turkey,  and  to  the  Indias." 
Prideaux,  however,  mentions  that  another 
sailor,  William  Revett,  in  his  journal 
(1609)  says,  referring  to  Mocha,  that  "Sha- 
omer  Shadli  (Shaikh  'Ali  bin  'Omar  esh- 
Shadil)  was  the  fyrst  inventour  for 
drynking  of  eoffe,  and  therefor  had  in  es- 
teemation."  This  rather  looks  to  Prideaux 
as  if  on  the  coast  of  Arabia,  and  in  the  mer- 
cantile towns,  the  Persian  pronunciation 
was  in  vogue ;  whilst  in  the  interior,  where 
Jourdain  traveled,  the  Englishman  repro- 
duced the  Arabic. 
\  Mr.  Chattopadhyaya,  discussing  Col.  Pri- 
^'  deaux's  views  as  expressed  above,  said: 

Col.  Prideaux  may  doubt  "if  the  worthy  mar- 
iner, in  entering  the  word  in  his  log,  was  influ- 
enced by  the  abstruse  principles  of  phonetics 
enunciated"  by  me,  but  he  will  admit  that  the 
change  from  kahvah  to  coifee  is  a  phonetic 
change,  and  must  be  due  to  the  operation  of  some 
phonetic  principle.  The  average  man,  when  he 
endeavours  to  write  a  foreign  word  in  his  own 
tongue,  is  handicapped  considerably  by  his  in- 
herited and  acquired  phonetic  capacity.  And, 
in  fact,  if  we  take  the  quotations  made  in 
"Hobson-Jobson,"  and  classify  the  various  forms 
of  the  word  coffee  according  tc  the  nationality 
of  the  writer,  we  obtain  very  interesting  results. 

Let  us  take  Englishmen  and  Dutchmen  first. 
In  Danvers's  Letters  (IGll)  we  have  both  "colio 
pots"  and  "coffao  pots";  Sir  T.  Roe  (1615)  and 
Terry  (161G)  have  cohu;  Sir  T.  Herbert  (1638) 
has  coho  and  copha;  Evelyn  (1637),  coffee; 
Fryer  (1673)  coUo;  Ovington  (1690),  coffee;  and 
Valentijn  (1726),  coffi.  And  from  the  two  ex- 
amples given  by  Col.  Prideaux,  we  see  that 
Jourdain  (1609)  has  cohoo,  and  Revett  (1609) 
has  coffe. 

To  the  above  should  be  added  the  follow- 
ing by  English  writers,  given  in  Foster's 
English  Factories  in  India  (1618-21, 
1622  -  23,  1624  -  29)  :  eowha  (1619),  cowhe, 
couha  (1621),coffa  (1628). 

Let  us  now  see  what  foreigners  (chiefly 
French  and  Italian)  write.  The  earliest 
European   mention    is   by    Rauwolf,    who 

knew  it  in  Aleppo  in  1573.  He  has  the 
form  clmube.  Prospero  Alpini  (1580)  has 
caova;  Paludanus  (1598)  chaoua;  Pyrard 
de  Laval  (1610)  cahoa;  P.  Delia  Valle 
(1615)  cahue;  Jac.  Bontius  (1631)  caveah; 
and  the  Journal  d'Antoine  Galland  (1673) 
cave.  That  is.  Englishmen  use  forms  of  a 
certain  distinct  type,  viz.,  cohu,  coho,  coffao, 
coffe,  copha,  coffee,  which  differ  from  the 
more  correct  transliteration  of  foreigners. 

In  1610  the  Portuguese  Jew,  Pedro 
Teixeira  (in  the  Hakluyt  Society's  edition 
of  his  Travels)  used  the  word  kavdh. 

The  inferences  from  these  transitional 
forms  seem  to  be:  1.  The  word  found  its 
way  into  the  languages  of  Europe  both 
from  the  Turkish  and  from  the  Arabic.  2. 
The  English  forms  (which  have  strong 
stress  on  the  first  syllable)  have  6  instead 
of  a,  and  /  instead  of  h.  3.  The  foreign 
forms  are  unstressed  and  have  no  h.  The 
original  v  or  w  (or  labialized  u)  is  re- 
tained or  changed  into  /. 

It  may  be  stated,  accordingly,  that  the 
chief  reason  for  the  existence  of  two  dis- 
tinct types  of  spelling  is  the  omission  of 
h  in  unstressed  languages,  and  the  conver- 
sion of  h  into  /  under  strong  stress  in 
stressed  languages.  Such  conversion  often 
takes  place  in  Turkish ;  for  example,  silah 
dar  in  Persian  (which  is  a  highly  stressed 
language)  becomes  zilif  dar  in  Turkish.  In 
the  languages  of  India,  on  the  other  hand, 
in  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  aspirate  is 
usually  very  clearly  sounded,  the  word 
qafivah  is  pronounced  kaiva  by  the  less 
educated  elasses,  owing  to  the  syllables  be- 
ing equally  stressed. 

Now  for  the  French  viewpoint.  Jardin  ' 
opines  that,  as  regards  the  etymology  of  the 
word  coffee,  scholars  are  not  agreed  and 
perhaps  never  will  be.  Dufour '  says  the 
word  is  derived  from  caouhe,  a  name  given 
by  the  Turks  to  the  beverage  prepared  from 
the  seed.  Chevalier  d'Arvieux,  French 
consul  at  Alet,  Savary,  and  Trevoux,  in  his  ' 
dictionary,  think  that  coffee  comes  from  the 
Arabic,  but  from  the  word  cahoueh  or  qua- 
weh,  meaning  to  give  vigor  or  strength,  be- 
cause, says  d'Arvieux,  its  most  general  ef- 
fect is  to  fortify  and  strengthen.  Ta ver- 
nier combats  this  opinion.  Moseley  attrib- 
utes the  origin  of  the  word  coffee  to  Kaffa. 
Sylvestre   de   Sacy,   in  his   Chrestomathie 

'.Tardin.  fidelestan.  Le  CafHer  et  le  Caf4.  Paris, 
1895   (p.  55). 

'Dufour,  Philippe  Sylvestre.  TraiUs  Nouveaux  et 
Gurieux   du    Cafi,   du    Th6,    et    du    Ohocolat.      Lyons^ 



Arabe,  published  in  1806,  thinks  that  the 
word  kahwa,  synonymous  with  makli, 
roasted  in  a  stove,  might  very  well  be  the 
etymology  of  the  word  coffee.  D'Alembert 
in  his  encyclopedic  dictionary,  writes  the 
word  caffe.  Jardin  concludes  that  what- 
ever there  may  be  in  these  various  etymolo- 
gies, it  remains  a  fact  that  the  word  coffee 
comes  from  an  Arabian  word,  whether  it  be 
kahua,  kahoueh,  kaffa  or  kahwa,  and  that 
the  peoples  who  have  adopted  the  drink 
have  all  modified  the  Arabian  word  to  suit 
their  pronunciation.  This  is  shown  by 
giving  the  word  as  written  in  various  mod- 
ern languages: 

French,  cafe;  Breton,  kafe;  German, 
kaffee  (coffee  tree,  kaffeehaum)  ;  Dutch, 
koffie  (coffee  tree,  koffiehoonen)  ;  Danish, 
kaffe;  Finnish,  kahvi;  Hungarian,  kave; 
Bohemian,  kava;  Polish,  kawa;  Roumanian, 
cafea;  Croatian,  kafa;  Servian,  kava;  Rus- 

sian, kophe;  Swedish,  kaffe;  Spanish,  cafe; 
Basque,  kaffia;  Italian,  caffe;  Portuguese, 
cafe;  Latin  (scientific),  coffea;  Turkisii, 
kahue;  Greek,  kafeo;  Arabic,  qahwah  (cof- 
fee berry,  hun)  ;  Persian,  qehve  (coffee  ber- 
ry, bun")  ;  Annamite,  ca-phe;  Cambodian, 
kafe;  Dukni*,  bunbund^ ;  Teluyan',  kapri- 
vittidu;  Tamil*,  kapi-kottai  or  kopi;  Can- 
areze\  kapi-bija;  Chinese,  kia-fey,  teoutse; 
Japanese,  kelii;  Malayan,  kawa,  koppi; 
Abyssinian,  bonn';  Foulak,  legal  cafe'; 
Sousou,  houri  caff';  Marquesan,  kapi; 
Chinook",  kaufee;  Volapuk,  kaf;  Esperanto, 

'Coffee  covered  with  the  skin  is  called  boun,  and 
the  eoftee-tree,  boun-tree   (aejar  et  boun). 

*These  four  dialects  are  spoken  in  Hindustan. 

''Notice  must  be  taken  of  the  similarity  in  the  names 
of  coffee  in  Hindustan  and  Abyssinia,  and  of  the  name 
of  the  coffee-tree  as  given  by  ancient  authors. 

"See  note  3  above. 

''Legal  and  Houri  mean  tree. 

"North-.^merican  Indian. 



Chapter  II 


A  brief  account  of  the  cultivation  of  the  coffee  plant  in  the  Old  World 
and  its  introduction  into  the  Neiv — A  romantic  coffee  adventure 

THE  history  of  the  propagation  of  the 
coffee  plant  is  closely  interwoven 
with  that  of  the  early  history  of 
coffee  drinking,  but  for  the  purposes  of  this 
chapter  we  shall  consider  only  the  story  of 
the  inception  and  growth  of  the  cultivation 
of  the  coffee  tree,  or  shrub,  bearing  the 
seeds,  or  berries,  from  which  the  drink,  cof- 
fee, is  made. 

Careful  research  discloses  that  most  au- 
thorities agree  that  the  coffee  plant  is  indig- 
enous to  Abyssinia,  and  probably  Arabia, 
whence  its  cultivation  spread  throughout 
the  tropics.  The  first  reliable  mention  of 
the  properties  and  uses  of  the  plant  is  by 
an  Arabian  physician  toward  the  close  of 
the  ninth  century  A.  I).,  and  it  is  reason- 
able to  suppose  that  before  that  time  the 
plant  was  found  growing  wild  in  Abyssinia 
and  perhaps  in  Arabia.  If  it  be  true,  as 
Ludolphus  writes,'  that  the  Abyssinians 
came  out  of  Arabia  into  Ethiopia  in  the 
early  ages,  it  is  possible  that  they  may  have 
brought  the  coffee  tree  with  them;  but  the 
Arabians  must  still  be  given  the  credit  for 
discovering  and  promoting  the  use  of  the 
beverage,  and  also  for  promoting  the  propa- 
gation of  the  plant,  even  if  they  found  it  in 
Abyssinia  and  brought  it  to  Yemen. 

Some  authorities  believe  that  the  first  cul- 
tivation of  coffee  in  Yemen  dates  back  to 
575  A.  D.,  M'hen  the  Persian  invasion  put 
an  end  to  the  P]thiopian  rule  of  the  negus 
Caleb,  who  conquered  the  country  in  525. 

Certainly  the  discovery  of  the  beverage 
resulted  in  the  cultivation  of  the  plant  in 
Abyssinia  and  in  Arabia;  but  its  progress 
Avas  slow  until  the  15th  and  16th  centuries, 
when  it  appears  as  intensively  carried  on 

'r<a    Uoquo,    Jean. 
I'arls,  17J(J. 

Voyage    de    I' Arabic    Heureuae. 

in  the  Yemen  district  of  Arabia.  The 
Arabians  were  jealous  of  their  new  found 
and  lucrative  industry,  and  for  a  time  suc- 
cessfully prevented  its  spread  to  other 
countries  by  not  permitting  any  of  the  pre- 
cious berries  to  leave  the  country  unless 
they  had  first  been  steeped  in  boiling  water 
or  parched,  so  as  to  destroy  their  powers  of 
germination.  It  may  be  that  many  of  the 
early  failures  successfully  to  introduce  the 
cultivation  of  the  coffee  plant  into  other 
lands  was  also  due  to  the  fact,  discovered 
later,  that  the  seeds  soon  lose  their  germi- 
nating power. 

However,  it  was  not  possible  to  watch 
every  avenue  of  transport,  with  thousand.^ 
of  pilgrims  journeying  to  and  from  Mecca 
every  year ;  and  so  there  would  appear  to  be 
some  reason  to  credit  the  Indian  tradition 
concerning  the  introduction  of  coffee  culti- 
vation into  southern  India  by  Baba  Budan, 
a  Moslem  pilgrim,  as  early  as  1600,  although 
a  better  authority  gives  the  date  as  1695. 
Indian  tradition  relates  that  Baba  Budan 
planted  his  seeds  near  the  hut  he  built  for 
himself  at  Chickmaglur  in  the  mountains 
of  Mysore,  where,  only  a  few  years  since, 
the  writer  found  the  descendants  of  these 
first  plants  growing  under  the  shade  of  the 
centuries-old  original  jungle  trees.  The 
greater  part  of  the  plants  cultivated  by  the 
natives  of  Kurg  and  Mysore  appear  to  have 
come  from  the  Baba  Budan  importation. 
It  was  not  until  1840  that  the  English  be- 
gan the  cultivation  of  coffee  in  India.  The 
plantations  extend  now  from  the  extreme 
north  of  Mysore  to  Tuticorin. 

Early  Cidtivation  by  the  Dutch 
In  the  latter  part  of  the  16th  century, 
German,  Italian,  and  Dutch  botanists  and 




travelers  brought  back  from  the  Levant 
considerable  information  regarding  the 
new  plant  and  the  beverage.  In  1614  en- 
terprising Dutch  traders  began  to  examine 
into  the  possibilities  of  coffee  cultivation 
and  coffee  trading.  In  1616  a  coffee  plant 
was  successfully  transported  from  Mocha 
to  Holland.  In  1658  the  Dutch  started  the 
cultivation  of  coffee  in  Ceylon,  although 
the  Arabs  are  said  to  have  brought  the 
plant  to  the  island  prior  to  1505.  In  1670 
an  attempt  was  made  to  cultivate  coffee  on 
European  soil  at  Dijon,  France,  but  the 
result  was  a  failure. 

In  1696,  at  the  instigation  of  Nicolaas 
Witsen,  then  burgomaster  of  Amsterdam, 
Adrian  Van  Ommen,  commander  at  Mala- 
bar, India,  caused  to  be  shipped  from  Kan- 
anur,  Malabar,  to  Java,  the  first  coffee 
plants  introduced  into  that  island.  They 
were  grown  from  seed  of  the  Goffea  arabica 
brought  to  Malabar  from  Arabia.  They 
were  planted  by  Governor-General  Willem 
Van  Outshoorn  on  the  Kedawoeng  estate 
near  Batavia,  but  were  subsequently  lost 
by  earthquake  and  flood.  In  1699  Henricus 
Zwaardecroon  imported  some  slips,  or  cut- 
tings, of  coffee  trees  from  Malabar  into 
Java.  These  were  more  successful,  and  be- 
came the  progenitors  of  all  the  coffees  of 
the  Dutch  East  Indies.  The  Dutch  were 
then  taking  the  lead  in  the  propagation  of 
the  coffee  plant. 

In  1706  the  first  samples  of  Java  coffee, 
and  a  coffee  plant  grown  in  Java,  were  re- 
ceived at  the  Amsterdam  botanical  gardens. 
Many  plants  were  afterward  propagated 
from  the  seeds  produced  in  the  Amsterdam 
gardens,  and  these  were  distributed  to 
some  of  the  best  known  botanical  gardens 
and  private  conservatories  in  Europe. 

While  the  Dutch  were  extending  the  cul- 
tivation of  the  plant  to  Sumatra,  the 
Celebes,  Timor,  Bali,  and  other  islands  of 
the  Netherlands  Indies,  the  French  were 
seeking  to  introduce  coffee  cultivation  into 
their  colonies.  Several  attempts  were  made 
to  transfer  young  plants  from  the  Amster- 
dam botanical  gardens  to  the  botanical  gar- 
dens at  Paris;  but  all  were  failures. 

In  1714,  however,  as  a  result  of  negotia- 
tions entered  into  between  the  French  gov- 
ernment and  the  municipality  of  Amster- 
dam, a  young  and  vigorous  plant  about  five 
feet  tall  was  sent  to  Louis  XIV  at  the* 
chateau  of  Marly  by  the  burgomaster  of 
Amsterdam.  The  day  following,  it  was 
transferred  to  the  Jardin  des  Plantes  at 
Paris,  where  it  was  received  with  appro- 

priate ceremonies  by  Antoine  de  Jussieu, 
professor  of  botany  in  charge.  This  tree 
was  destined  to  be  the  progenitor  of  most 
of  the  coffees  of  the  French  colonies,  as  well 
as  of  those  of  South  America,  Central 
America,  and  Mexico, 

The  Romance  of  Captain  Gabriel  de  Clieu 

Two  unsuccessful  attempts  were  made  to 
transport  to  the  Antilles  plants  grown  from 
the  seed  of  the  tree  presented  to  Louis  XIV ; 
but  the  honor  of  eventual  success  was  won 
by  a  young  Norman  gentleman,  Gabriel 
Mathieu  de  Clieu,  a  naval  officer,  serving  at 
the  time  as  captain  of  infantry  at  Martin- 
ique. The  story  of  de  Clieu 's  achievement 
is  the  most  romantic  chapter  in  the  history 
of  the  propagation  of  the  coffee  plant. 

His  personal  affairs  calling  him  to 
France,  de  Clieu  conceived  the  idea  of  util- 
izing the  return  voyage  to  introduce  coffee 
cultivation  into  Martinique.  His  first  diffi- 
culty lay  in  obtaining  several  of  the  plants 
then  being  cultivated  in  Paris,  a  difficulty 
at  last  overcome  through  the  instrumental- 
ity of  M.  de  Chirac,  royal  physician,  or,  ac- 
cording to  a  letter  written  by  de  Clieu 
himself,  through  the  kindly  offices  of  a  lady 
of  quality  to  whom  de  Chirac  could  give  no 
refusal.  The  plants  selected  were  kept  at 
Rochefort  by  M.  Begon,  commissary  of  the 
department,  until  the  departure  of  de  Clieu 
for  Martinique.  Concerning  the  exact  date 
of  de  Clieu 's  arrival  at  Martinique  with  the 
coffee  plant,  or  plants,  there  is  much  con- 
fiict  of  opinion.  Some  authorities  give  the 
date  as  1720,  others  1723.  Jardin  "  suggests 
that  the  discrepancy  in  dates  may  arise 
from  de  Clieu,  with  praiseworthy  persever- 
ance, having  made  the  voyage  twice.  The 
first  time,  according  to  Jardin,  the  plants 
perished ;  but  the  second  time  de  Clieu  had 
planted  the  seeds  when  leaving  France  and 
these  survived,  "due,  they  say,  to  his  hav- 
ing given  of  his  scanty  ration  of  water  to 
moisten  them. ' '  No  reference  to  a  preced- 
ing voyage,  however,  is  made  by  de  Clieu 
in  his  own  account,  given  in  a  letter  written 
to  the  Annee  Litteraire  ^  in  1774.  There  is 
also  a  difference  of  opinion  as  to  whether 
de  Clieu  arrived  with  one  or  three  plants. 
He  himself  says  "one"  in  the  letter  re- 
ferred to. 

According  to  the  most  trustworthy  data, 
de  Clieu  embarked  at  Nantes,  1723.  *     He 

''.Tardiii.  firlelestan. 
1895    (p.  102). 

■KAnni^e   fjitt^raire. 

*r''ranklin,  Alfred. 
Paris,  1833, 

Le  Caf^ier  et   le  GafS.     Paris, 

Paris,  1774   (vol.  vi :  p.  217). 
'Lia     Vie     Privic     d'4-tttrefoit. 


had  installed  his  precious  plant  in  a  box 
covered  with  a  glass  frame  in  order  to  ab- 
sorb the  rays  of  the  sun  and  thus  better  to 
retain  the  stored-up  heat  for  cloudy 
days.  Among  the  passengers  one  man,  en- 
vious of  the  young  officer,  did  all  in  his 
power  to  wrest  from  him  the  glory  of  suc- 
cess. Fortunately  his  dastardly  attempt 
failed  of  its  intended  effect. 

"It  is  useless,"  writes  de  Clieu  in  his 
letter  to  the  A?inee  lAtteraire,  "to  recount 


Captain  de  Clieu  Shares  His  Drinking  Water 

With  the  Cofj-ee  Plant  He  Is  Carrying 

TO  Martinique 

in  detail  the  infinite  care  that  I  was  obliged 
to  bestow  upon  this  delicate  plant  during  a 
long  voyage,  and  the  difficulties  I  had  in 
saving  it  from  the  hands  of  a  man  who, 
basely  jealous  of  the  joy  I  was  about  to 
taste  through  being  of  service  to  my  coun- 
try, and  being  unable  to  get  this  coffee 
plant  3,wq,y  frpm  me,  tprp  pff  a  brai^ch," 

The  vessel  carrying  de  Clieu  was  a  mer- 
chantman, and  many  were  the  trials  that 
beset  passengers  and  crew.  Narrowly 
escaping  capture  by  a  corsair  of  Tunis, 
menaced  by  a  violent  tempest  that  threat- 
ened to  annihilate  them,  they  finally  en- 
countered a  calm  that  proved  more  appall- 
ing than  either.  The  supply  of  drinking 
water  was  well  nigh  exhausted,  and  what 
was  left  was  rationed  for  the  remainder  of 
the  voyage. 

"Water  was  lacking  to  such  an  extent," 
•says  de  Clieu,  "that  for  more  than  a  month 
I  was  obliged  to  share  the  scanty  ration  of 
it  assigned  to  me  with  this  my  coffee  plant 
upon  which  my  happiest  hopes  were 
founded  and  which  was  the  source  of  my 
delight.  It  needed  such  succor  the  more  in 
that  it  was  extremely  backward,  being  no 
larger  than  the  slip  of  a  pink."  Many 
stories  have  been  written  and  verses  sung 
recording  and  glorifying  this  generous  sac- 
rifice that  has  given  luster  to  the  name  of 
de  Clieu. 

Arrived  in  Martinique,  de  Clieu  planted 
his  precious  slip  on  his  estate  in  Precheur, 
one  of  the  cantons  of  the  island;  where, 
says  Raynal,  "it  multiplied  with  extraordi- 
nary rapidity  and  success."  From  the 
seedlings  of  this  plant  came  most  of  the 
eoft'ee  trees  of  the  Antilles.  The  first  har- 
vest was  gathered  in  1726. 

De  Clieu  himself  describes  his  arrival  as 
follows : 

Arriving  at  home,  iny  first  cure  was  to  set  out 
my  plant  with  great  attention  in  the  part  of  my 
garden  most  favorahle  to  its  growth.  Although 
keeping  it  in  view,  I  feared  many  times  that  it 
would  be  taken  from  me ;  and  I  was  at  last 
obliged  to  surround  it  with  thorn  bushes  and  to 
establish  a  guard  .about  it  until  it  arrived  at 
maturity  .  .  .  this  precious  plant  which  had 
become  still  more  dear  to  nie  for  the  dangers  it 
had  run  and  the  cares  it  had  cost  me. 

Thus  the  little  stranger  thrived  in  a  dis- 
tant land,  guarded  day  and  night  by  faith- 
ful slaves.  So  tiny  a  plant  to  produce  in 
the  end  all  the  rich  estates  of  the  West 
India  islands  and  the  regions  bordering  on 
the  Gulf  of  Mexico !  What  luxuries,  what 
future  comforts  and  delights,  resulted  from 
this  one  small  talent  confided  to  the  care  of 
a  man  of  rare  vision  and  fine  intellectual 
sympathy,  fired  by  the  spirit  of  real  love 
for  his  fellows!  There  is  no  instance  in 
the  history  of  the  French  people  of  a  good 
deed  done  by  stealth  being  of  greater  serv- 
ice to  humanity. 

De  Clieu  thus  describes  the  events  that 
fpjlowed   last    upon    the   introduction    of 



coffee  into  Martinique,  with  particular  ref- 
erence to  the  earthquake  of  1727 : 

Success  exceeded  my  hopes.  I  gathered  alx>iit 
two  pounds  of  seed  which  I  distributed  among 
all  those  whom  I  thought  most  capable  of  giving 
the  plants  the  care  necessary  to  their  prosperity. 

The  first  harvest  was  very  abundant ;  with  the 
second  it  was  possible  to  extend  the  cultivation 
prodigiously,  but  what  favored  multiplication, 
most  singularly,  was  the  fact  that  two  years 
afterward  all  the  cocoa  trees  of  the  country, 
which  were  the  resource  and  occupation  of  the 
people,  were  uprooted  and  totally  destroyed  by 
horrible  tempests  accompanied  by  an  inundation 
which  submerged  all  the  land  where  these  trees 
were  planted,  land  which  was  at  once  made  into 
coffee  plantations  by  the  natives.  These  did 
marvelously  and  enabled  us  to  send  plants  to 
Santo  Domingo,  Guadeloupe,  and  other  adjacent 
islands,  where  since  that  time  they  have  been 
cultivated  with  the  greatest  success. 

By  1777  there  were  18,791,680  coffee 
trees  in  Martinique. 

De  Clieu  was  born  in  Anglequeville-sur- 
Saane,  Seine-Inferieure  (Normandy),  in 
1686  or  1688."  In  1705  he  was  a  ship's 
ensign;  in  1718  he  became  a  chevalier  of 
St.  Louis;  in  1720  he  was  made  a  captain 
of  infantry ;  in  1726,  a  major  of  infantry ; 
in  1733  he  was  a  ship's  lieutenant;  in  1737 
he  became  governor  of  Guadeloupe ;  in  1746 
he  was  a  ship'  captain ;  in  1750  he  was  made 
honorary  commander  of  the  order  of  St. 
Louis ;  in  1752  he  retired  with  a  pension  of 
6000  francs ;  in  1753  he  re-entered  the  naval 
service;  in  1760  he  again  retired  with  a 
pension  of  2000  francs. 

In  1746  de  Clieu,  having  returned  to 
France,  was  presented  to  Louis  XV  by  the 
minister  of  marine,  Rouille  de  Jour,  as  ''a 
distinguished  officer  to  whom  the  colonies, 
as  well  as  France  itself,  and  commerce 
generally,  are  indebted  for  the  cultivation 
of  coffee." 

Reports  to  the  king  in  1752  and  1759  re- 
call his  having  carried  the  first  coffee  plant 
to  Martinique,  and  that  he  had  ever  been 
distinguished  for  his  zeal  and  disinterested- 
ness. In  the  Mercure  de  France,  December, 
1774,  was  the  following  death  notice : 

Gabriel  d'Erchigny  de  Clieu,  former  Ship's 
Captain  and  Honorary  Commander  of  the  Royal 
and  Military  Order  of  Saint  Louis,  died  in  Paris 
on  the  30th  of  November  in  the  88th  year  of 
his  age. 

A  notice  of  his  death  appeared  also  in 
the  Gazette  de  France  for  December  5, 
1774,  a  rare  honor  in  both  cases ;  and  it  has 
been  said  that  at  this  time  his  praise  was 
again  on  every  lip. 

'Michaud,  I.  F.  and  L.  G.  Biographic  Universelle. 


One  French  historian,  Sidney  Daney,' ^ 
records  that  de  Clieu  died  in  poverty  at 
St.  Pierre  at  the  age  of  97 ;  but  this  must 
be  an  error,  although  it  does  not  anywhere 
appear  that  at  his  death  he  was  possessed 
of  much,  if  any,  means.    Daney  says : 

This  generous  man  received  as  his  sole  recom- 
pense for  a  noble  deed  the  satisfaction  of  seeing 
this  plant  for  whose  preservation  he  had  shown 
such  devotion,  prosper  throughout  the  Antilles. 
The  illustrious  de  Clieu  is  among  those  to  whom 
Martinique  owes  a  brilliant  reparation. 

Daney  tells  also  that  in  1804  there  was 
a  movement  in  Martinique  to  erect  a  monu- 
ment upon  the  spot  where  de  Clieu  planted 
his  first  coffee  plant,  but  that  the  under- 
taking came  to  naught. 

Pardon,  in  his  La  Martinique  says : 
Honor  to  this  brave  man!  He  has  deserved 
it  from  the  people  of  two  hemispheres.  His 
name  is  worthy  of  a  place  beside  that  of  Par- 
mentier  who  carried  to  France  the  potato  of 
Canada.  These  two  men  have  rendered  im- 
mense service  to  humanity,  and  their  memory 
should  never  be  forgotten  —  yet  alas !  Are  they 
even  remembered"? 

Tussac,  in  his  Flora  de  las  Antillas,  writ- 
ing of  de  Clieu,  says,  "Though  no  monu- 
ment be  erected  to  this  beneficent  traveler, 
yet  his  name  should  remain  engraved  in  the 
heart  of  every  colonist." 

In  1774  the  Annee  Litteraire  published 
a  long  poem  in  de  Clieu 's  honor.  In  the 
feuilleton  of  the  Gazette  de  France,  April 
12,  1816,  we  read  that  M.  Donns,  a  wealthy 
Hollander,  and  a  coffee  connoisseur,  sought 
to  honor  de  Clieu  by  having  painted  upon-  a 
porcelain  service  all  the  details  of  his  voy- 
age and  its  happy  results.  "I  have  seen 
the  cups,"  says  the  writer,  who  gives  many 
details  and  the  Latin  inscription. 

That  singer  of  navigation,  Esmenard,  has 
pictured  de  Clieu 's  devotion  in  the  follow- 
ing lines : 

Forget  not  how  de  Clieu  with  his  light  vessel's 

Brought  distant  Moka's  gift — that  timid  plant 

and  frail. 
The  waves  fell  suddenly,  young  zephyrs  breathed 

no  more. 
Beneath  fierce  Cancer's  fires  behold  the  fountain 

Exhausted,  fails  ;  while  now  inexoi'able  need 
Makes  her  unpitying  law  —  with  measured  dole 


Now  each  soul  fears  to  prove  Tantalus  torment 

De   Clieu    alone   defies:    While    still    that    fatal 

Fierce,  stifling,  day  by  day  his  noble  strength 


"Daney,  Sidney.  .Hiatoirc  de  la  Martinigue.  Fort 
Royal,  184G.  ^ 



And  still  a  heaven  of  brass  inflames  the  burning 

With  that  refreshing  draught  his  life  he  will  not 

cheer ; 
But  drop   by   drop   revives   the  plant  he  holds 

more  dear. 
Already  as  in  dreams,  he  sees  great  brandies 

One  look  at  his  dear  plant  assuages  all  his  woe. 

The  only  memorial  to  de  Clieu  in  Mar- 
tinique is  tlie  botanical  garden  at  Fort  de 
France,  which  was  opened  in  1918  and  dedi- 
cated to  de  Clieu,  ' '  whose  memory  has  been 
too  long  left  in  oblivion.'" 

In  1715  coffee  cultivation  was  first  intro- 
duced into  Haiti  and  Santo  Domingo. 
Later  came  hardier  plants  from  Martinique. 
In  1715  -  17  the  French  Company  of  the 
Indies  introduced  the  cultivation  of  the 
plant  into  the  Isle  of  Bourbon  (now  Re- 
union) by  a  ship  captain  named  Dufou- 
geret-Grenier  from  St.  Malo.  It  did  so 
well  that  nine  years  later  the  island  began 
to  export  coffee. 

The  Dutch  brought  the  cultivation  of  cof- 
fee to  Surinam  in  1718.  The  first  coffee 
plantation  in  BraziTwas  started  at  Para  in 
1723  with  plants  brought  from  French 
Guiana,  but  it  was  not  a  success.  The  Eng- 
lish brought  the  plant  to  Jamaica  in  1730. 
In  1740  Spanish  missionaries  introduced 
coffee  cultivation  into  the  Philippines  from 
Java.  In  1748  Don  Jose  Antonio  Gelabert 
introduced  coffee  into  Cuba,  bringing  the 
seed  from  Santo  Domingo.  In  1750  the 
Dutch  extended  the  cultivation  of  the  plant 
to  the  Celebes.  Coffee  was  introduced  into 
Guatemala  about  1750  -  60.  The  intensive 
cultivation  in  Brazil  dates  from  the  efforts 
begun  in  the  Portuguese  colonies  in  Para 
and  Amazonas  in  1752.  Porto  Rico  began 
the  cultivation  of  coffee  about  1755.  In 
1760  Joao  Alberto  Castello  Branco  brought 

''Innuguratiim  du  Jardin  Deaclieux.  Fort  de  France, 

to  Rio  de  Janeiro  a  coffee  tree  from  Goa, 
Portuguese  India.  The  news  spread  that 
the  soil  and  climate  of  Brazil  were  particu- 
larly adapted  to  the  cultivation  of  coffee. 
Molke,  a  Belgian  monk,  presented  some 
seeds  to  the  Capuchin  monastery  at  Rio  in 
1774.  Later,  the  bishop  of  Rio,  Joachim 
Bruno,  became  a  patron  of  the  plant  and 
encouraged  its  propagation  in  Rio,  Minas. 
Espirito  Santo,  and  Sao  Paulo.  The  Span- 
ish voyager,  Don  Francisco  Xavier  Na- 
varro, is  credited  with  the  introduction  of 
coffee  into  Costa  Rica  from  Cuba  in  1779. 
In  Venezuela  the  industry  was  started  near  ~ 
Caracas  by  a  priest,  Jose  Antonio  Mohe- 
dano,  with  seed  brought  from  Martinique 
in  1784. 

Coffee  cultivatinn  in  Mpyien  h^^n  in 
1790,  the  seed  being  brought  from  the  West 
Indies.  InJlSITLDon  fjuan  Antonio  (lomex 
mstitutel  intensive  cultivation  in  ihp  Statpi 
of  Vexa^ruz.  In  1825  the  cultivation  of 
THe^  plant  was  begun  in  the  Hawaiian 
Islands  with  seeds  from  Rio  de  Janeiro. 
As  previously  noted,  the  English  began  to 
cultivate  coffee  in  India  in  1840.  In  1852 
coffee  cultivation  was  begun  in  Salva- 
dor with  plants  brought  from  Cuba.  In 
1878  the  English  began  the  propagation  of 
coffee  in  British  Central  Africa,  but  it  was 
not  until  1901  that  coffee  cultivation  was 
introduced  into  British  East  Africa  from 
Reunion.  In  1887  the  French  introduced 
the  plant  into  Tonkin,  Indo-China.  Coffee 
growing  in  Queensland,  introduced  in  1896, 
has  been  successful  in  a  small  way. 

In  recent  years  several  attempts  have 
been  made  to  propagate  the  coffee  plant  in 
the  southern  United  States,  but  without 
success.  It  is  believed,  however,  that  the 
topographic  and  climatic  conditions  in 
southern  California  are  favorable  for  its 



Omar  and  the  Marvelous  Coffee  Bird 

Kaldi  and  His  Dancing  Goats 

From  drawings  by  a  modern  French  artist 

Chapter  III 

Coffee  in  the  Near  East  in  the  early  centuries  —  Stories  of  its  origin 

—  Discovery  by  physicians  and  adoption  by  the  Church  —  Its  spread 
through  Arabia,  Persia  and  Turkey  —  Persecutions  and  intolerances 

—  Early  coffee  manners  and  customs 

THE  coffee  drink  had  its  rise  in  the 
classical  period  of  Arabian  medicine, 
which  dates  from  Rhazes  (Abu  Bakr 
Muhammad  ibn  Zakariya  El  Razi)  who  fol- 
lowed the  doctrines  of  Galen  and  sat  at  the 
feet  of  Hippocrates.  Rhazes  (850  -  922) 
was  the  first  to  treat  medicine  in  an  ency- 
clopedic manner,  and,  according  to  some 
authorities,  the  first  writer  to  mention 
coffee.  He  assumed  the  poetical  name  of 
Razi  because  he  was  a  native  of  the  city  of 
Raj  in  Persian  Irak.  He  was  a  great 
philosopher  and  astronomer,  and  at  one 
time  was  superintendent  of  the  hospital  at 
Bagdad.  He  wrote  many  learned  books  on 
medicine  and  surgery,'  but  his  principal 
work  is  Al-IIaiwi,  or  The  Continent,  a  col- 
lection of  everything  relating  to  the  cure 
of  disease  from  Galen  to  his  own  time. 

Philippe  Sylvestre  Dufour  (1622 -87)\  a 
French  coffee  merchant,  philosopher,  and 
writer,  in  an  accurate  and  finished  treatise 
on  coffee,  tells  us  (see  the  early  edition  of 
the  work  translated  from  the  Latin)  that 
the  first  writer  to  mention  the  properties 
of  the  coffee  bean  under  the  name  of  hun- 
chum  was  this  same  Rhazes,  "in  the  ninth 
century  after  the  birth  of  our  Saviour"; 
from  which  (if  true)  it  would  appear  that 
coffee  has  been  known  for  upwards  of  1000 
^ars.  Robinson^,  however,  is  of  the  opinion 
that  hnnchum  meant  something  else  and 
had  nothing  to  do  with  coffee.  Dufour, 
himself,  in  a  later  edition  of  his  Traitez 

'Dufour.  Philippe  Sylvestro.  Trait^n  Nouveaux  et 
Curieux  du  Cajii,  du  Th6,  et  du  Ghocolat.  Lyons, 
1684.      (Titlo  pago   lias   Traitez:  elspwhore,   Traitia.) 

^'Robinson,  Edward  Forbos.  The  Early  History  of 
Coffee  Houses  in  England.     Loudon,  1893. 

Nouveaux  et  Curieux  du  Cafe  (the  Hague, 
1693)  is  inclined  to  admit  that  bunchum 
may  have  been  a  root  and  not  coffee,  after 
all ;  however,  he  is  careful  to  add  that  there 
is  no  doubt  that  the  Arabs  knew  coffee  as 
far  back  as  the  year  800,  Other,  more 
modern  authorities,  place  it  as  early  as  the 
sixth  century. 

Wiji  Kawih  is  mentioned  in  a  Kavi 
(Javan)  inscription  A.  D.  856;  and  it  is 
thought  that  the  "bean  broth"  in  David 
Tapperi's  list  of  Javanese  beverages  (1667  - 
82)  may  have  been  coffee'. 

While  the  true  origin  of  coffee  drinking 
may  be  forever  hidden  among  the  mysteries 
of  the  purple  East,  shrouded  as  it  is  in 
legend  and  fable,  scholars  have  marshaled 
sufficient  facts  to  prove  that  the  beverage 
was  known  in  Ethiopia  "from  time  imme- 
morial," and  there  is  much  to  add  verisi- 
militude to  Dufour 's  narrative.  This  first 
,  coffee  merchant-prince,  skilled  in  languages 
and  polite  learning,  considered  that  his 
character  as  a  merchant  was  not  incon- 
sistent with  that  of  an  author ;  and  he  even 
went  so  far  as  to  say  there  were  some  things 
(for  instance,  coffee)  on  which  a  merchant 
could  be  better  informed  than  a  philoso- 

Granting  that  by  hnnchum  Rhazes  meant 
coffee,  the  plant  and  the  drink  must  have 
been  known  to  his  immediate  followers ;  and 
this,  indeed,  seems  to  be  indicated  by  simi- 
lar references  in  the  writings  of  Avicenna 
(Ibn  Sina),  the  Mohammedan  physician 
and  philosopher,  who  lived  from  980  to 
1037  A.  D. 

^Encyclopedia  Britannica.    1910.     (vol.  xv :  p.  291.) 




Rhazes,  in  the  quaint  language  of  Du- 
four,  assures  us  that  "hunchum  (coffee) 
is  hot  and  dry  and  very  good  for  the  stom- 
ach." Avicenna  explains  the  medicinal 
properties  and  uses  of  the  coffee  bean  {hon 
or  hunn)^  which  he,  also,  calls  hunchum, 
after  this  fashion: 

As  to  the  choice  thereof,  that  of  a  lemon  color, 
light,  ami  of  a  good  smell,  Ls  the  best;  the  white 
and  the  heavy  is  naught.  It  is  hot  and  dry  lu 
the  first  degree,  and,  according  to  others,  cold 
in  the  tirst  degree.  It  fortifies  the  members,  it 
(•loans  the  skin,  and  dries  up  the  humidities  that 
are  under  it,  and  gives  an  excellent  smell  to  all 
the  body. 

The  early  Arabians  called  the  bean  and 
the  tree  that  bore  it,  himn;  the  drink, 
hunchnm.  A.  Galland'  (1646-1715),  the 
French  Orientalist  who  first  analyzed  and 
translated  from  the  Arabic  the  Abd-al- 
Kadir  manuscript",  the  oldest  document  ex- 
tant telling  of  the  origin  of  coffee,  observes 
that  Avicenna  speaks  of  the  hunn,  or  coffee ; 
as  do  also  Prospero  Alpini  and  Veslingius 
(Vesling).  Bengiazlah,  another  great 
physician,  contemporary  with  Avicenna, 
likewise  mentions  coffee;  by  which,  says 
Galland,  one  may  see  that  we  are  indebted 
to  physicians  for  the  discovery  of  coffee,  as 
well  as  of  sugar,  tea,  and  chocolate. 

Rauwolf  (d.  1596),  German  physician 
and  botanist,  and  the  first  European  to 
mention  coffee,  who  became  acquainted 
with  the  beverage  in  Aleppo  in  1573,  tell- 
ing how  the  drink  was  prepared  by  the 
Turks,  says: 

In  this  same  water  they  take  a  fruit  called 
Bunnu,  which  in  its  bigness,  shape,  and  color 
is  almost  like  unto  a  bayberry,  with  two  thin 
shells  surrounded,  whieh,  as  they  informed  me, 
are  brought  from  the  Indies;  but  as  these  in 
themselves  are,  and  have  within  them,  two  yel- 
lowish grains  in  two  distinct  cells,  and  besides, 
being  they  agree  in  their  virtue,  figure,  looks, 
and  name  with  the  Biinchum  of  Avicenna  and 
Bunca  of  Rasis  ad  Almans  exactly:  therefore 
I  take  them  to  be  the  same. 

In  Dr.  Edward  Pocoke's  translation  (Ox- 
ford, 1659)  of  The  Nature  of  the  Drink 
Kauhi,  or  Coffee,  and  the  Berry  of  which 
it  is  Made,  Described  hy  an  Arabian  Phisi- 
tian,  we  read : 

Btm  is  a  plant  in  Yaman  [Yemen],  which  is 
planted  in  Adar,  and  groweth  up  and  is  gathered 
in  Ah.  It  is  about  a  cubit  high,  on  a  stalk  about 
the  thickness  of  one's  thumb.  It  flowers  white, 
leaving  a  berry  like  a  small  nut,  but  that  some- 

■•Galland,  Antoino.  Lettrc  sur  I'Origine  et  le  Progres 
du  Cnf6.     Paris,  1690. 

'The  Ahd-al-Kadir  mnnuscript  is  described  and  illus- 
trated in  chapter  XXXII. 

'Rauwolf,  Leonhard.  Aigcntliche  beschreibung  der 
Raisis  so  er  vor  diser  zeit  gegen  auffgang  inn  die 
morgenlaender  volbracht.     Lauwingen,  1582-83, 

times  it  is  broad  like  a  bean;  and  when  it  is' 
peeled,  parteth  in  two.  The  best  of  It  is  that 
which  is  weighty  and  yellow;  the  worst,  that 
whieh  is  black.  It  is  hot  in  the  first  degree,  dry 
in  the  second :  it  is  usually  reported  to  be  cold 
and  dry,  but  it  is  not  so;  for  it  is  bitter,  and 
whatsoever  is  bitter  is  hot.  It  may  be  that  the 
scorce  is  hot,  and  the  Bun  it  selfe  either  of 
equal]  temperature,  or  cold  in  the  first  degree. 

That  which  makes  for  its  coldnesse  is  Its  stip- 
ticknesse.  In  summer  it  is  by  experience  found 
to  conduce  to  the  drying  of  rheumes,  and  fleg- 
matick  eoughes  and  distillations,  and  the  opening 
of  obstructions,  and  the  provocation  of  urin. 
It  is  now  known  by  the  name  of  Kohioah.  When 
it  is  dried  and  thoroughly  boyled,  it  allayes  the 
ebullition  of  the  blood,  is  good  against  the  small 
jK)xe  and  measles,  the  bloudy  pimples ;  yet 
causeth  vertiginous  headheach,  and  maketh  lean 
much,  occasioneth  waking,  and  the  Emrods,  and 
asswageth  lust,  and  sometimes  breeds  melan- 

He  that  would  drink  it  for  livelinesse  sake, 
and  to  discusse  slothfulnesse,  and  the  other 
properties  that  we  have  mentioned,  let  him  use 
nuich  sweat  meates  with  it,  and  oyle  of  pis- 
taccioes,  and  butter.  Some  drink  it  with  milk, 
but  it  is  an  error,  and  such  as  may  bring  in 
danger  of  the  leprosy. 

Dufour  concludes  that  the  coffee  beans  of 
commerce  are  the  same  as  the  bunchum 
(bunn)  described  by  Avicenna  and  the 
bunca  (bunchum)  of  Rhazes.  In  this  he 
agrees,  almost  word  for  word,  with  Rau- 
wolf, indicating  no  change  in  opinion 
among  the  learned  in  a  hundred  years. 

Christopher  Campen  thinks  Hippocrates, 
father  of  medicine,  knew  and  administered 

Robinson,  commenting  upon  the  early 
adoption  of  coffee  into  materia  medica, 
charges  that  it  was  a  mistake  on  the  part 
of  the  Arab  physicians,  and  that  it  origi- 
nated the  prejudice  that  caused  coffee  to  be 
regarded  as  a  powerful  drug  instead  of  as 
a  simple  and  refreshing  beverage. 

Homer,  the  Bible,  and  Coffee 

In  early  Grecian  and  Roman  writings  no 
mention  is  made  of  either  the  coffee  plant 
or  the  beverage  made  from  the  berries. 
Pierre  (Pietro)  Delia  Valle'  (1586-1652), 
however,  maintains  that  the  nepenthe, 
which  Homer  says  Helen  brought  with  her 
out  of  Egypt,  and  which  she  employed  as 
surcease  for  sorrow,  was  nothing  else  but 
coffee  mixed  with  wine.*  This  is  disputed 
by  M.  Petit,  a  well  known  physician  of 
Paris,  who  died  in  1687.  Several  later 
British  authors,  among  them,  Sandys,  the 

'Delia  Valle,  Pierre  (Pietro).  De  Constantinople  a 
Bombay,  Lettres.     1615.      (vol.  i  :  p.  90.) 

»"She  mingled  with  the  wine  the  wondrous  juice  of 
a  plant  which  banishes  sadness  and  wrath  from  the 
heart  and  brings  with  it  forgetfulness  of  every  woe," 



])oet;  Burton;  and  Sir  Henry  Blount,  have 
suggested  the  probability  of  coffee  being  the 
"black  broth"  of  the  Lacedaemonians. 

George  Paschius,  in  his  Latin  treatise  of 
tlie  New  Discoveries  Made  since  the  Time 
of  the  Ancients,  printed  at  Leipsic  in  1700, 

T  R  A  I  T  E  Z 

NouYcaux  &  curicujc 


D  U    THE' 

E  1     D  U 


Ouvrageegdement  necelTaire  aux 

Medecins ,  &  a  tous  ceux  qui 

aiment  leur  fante. 

PaiPHiLtPP  fiSytvESTRB  Dupour 

e^  quoy  on  a  adjoute  dans  cettc.  Edition  ,  la  meil- 
leure  de  toutes  les  metkodes  ,  qui  manquoit 
a  ce  Livre  j  pour  compojer    ' 


Par   Mi.   St.  D  i  s  d  i  £  r. 
Troifi^me  Edition. 



chand  Librairc  prez  laCour ,  a  la 

M,  DG.  XCHL 

Title  Page  of  Dufoub's  Book,  Edition  of  1693 

says  he  believes  that  coffee  was  meant  by 
the  five  measures  of  parched  corn  included 
among  the  presents  Abigail  made  to  David 
to  appease  his  wrath,  as  recorded  in  the 
Bible,  1  Samuel,  xxv,  18.  The  Vulgate 
translates  the  Hebrew  words  sein  kali  into 
sata  polentea,  which  signify  wheat,  roasted, 
or  dried  by  fire. 

Pierre  fitienne  Louis  Dumant,  the  Swiss 
Protestant  minister  and  author,  is  of  the 

opinion  that  coffee  (and  not  lentils,  as 
others  have  supposed)  was  the  red  pottage 
for  which  Esau  sold  his  birthright;  also 
that  the  parched  grain  that  Boaz  ordered 
to  be  given  Ruth  was  undoubtedly  roasted 
coffee  berries. 

Dufour  mentions  as  a  possible  objection 
against  coffee  that  "the  use  and  eating  of 
beans  were  heretofore  forbidden  by  Py- 
thagoras," but  intimates  that  the  coffee 
bean  of  Arabia  is  something  different. 

Scheuzer,"  in  his  Physique  Sacree,  says 
"the  Turks  and  the  Arabs  make  with  the 
coffee  bean  a  beverage  which  bears  the  same 
name,  and  many  persons  use  as  a  substitute 
the  flour  of  roasted  barley. ' '  From  this  we 
learn  that  the  coffee  substitute  is  almost  as 
old  as  coffee  itself. 

Some  Early  Legends 

After  medicine,  the  church.  There  are 
several  Mohammedan  traditions  that  have 
persisted  through  the  centuries,  claiming 
for  "the  faithful"  the  honor  and  glory  of 
the  first  use  of  coffee  as  a  beverage.  One  of 
these  relates  how,  about  1258  A.  D.,  Sheik 
Omar,  a  disciple  of  Sheik  Abou'l  hasan 
Schadheli,  patron  saint  and  legendary 
founder  of  Mocha,  by  chance  discovered  the 
coffee  drink  at  Ousab  in  Arabia,  whither 
he  had  been  exiled  for  a  certain  moral 

Facing  starvation,  he  and  his  followers 
were  forced  to  feed  upon  the  berries  grow- 
ing around  them.  And  then,  in  the  words 
of  the  faithful  Arab  chronicle  in  the  Biblio- 
theque  Nationale  at  Paris,  ' '  having  nothing 
to  eat  except  coffee,  they  took  of  it  and 
boiled  it  in  a  sauce-pan  and  drank  of  the 
decoction. ' '  Former  patients  in  Mocha  who 
sought  out  the  good  doctor-priest  in  his 
Ousab  retreat,  for  physiic  with  which  to 
cure  their  ills,  were  given  some  of  this  de- 
coction, with  beneficial  effect.  As  a  result 
of  the  stories  of  its  magical  properties,  car- 
ried back  to  the  city.  Sheik  Omar  was  in- 
vited to  return  in  triumph  to  Mocha  where 
tile  governor  caused  to  be  built  a  monastery 
for  him  and  his  companions. 

Another  version  of  this  Oriental  legend 
gives  it  as  follows : 

The  dervish  Hadji  Omar  was  driven  by  his 
enemies  out  of  Mocha  into  the  desert,  where  they 
expected  he  would  die  of  starvation.  This  un- 
doubtedly would  have  occurred  if  he  liad  not 
plucked  up  courage  to  taste  some  strange  berries 
which  he  found  growing  on  a  shrub.  While  they 
seemed  to  be  edible,  they  were  very  bitter ;  and 

*SchPuzer,     .T.     .T.     Physique     8acr6e,    ou    Hiatoire 
Naturelle  de  la  Bible.     Amsterdam,  1732,  1737. 



he  tried  to  improve  tlie  taste  by  roasting  tliein. 
He  found,  liowever,  tliut  tliey  liad  become  very 
hard,  so  he  attempted  to  soften  them  with  water. 
The  berries  seemed  to  remain  as  hard  as  before, 
but  the  iiquid  turned  brown,  and  Omar  dranli 
It  on  the  chance  that  it  contained  some  of  the 
nourishment  from  the  berries.  He  was  amazed 
at  how  it  refreshed  him,  enlivened  his  sluggish- 
ness, and  raised  his  drooping  spirits.  Later, 
when  he  returned  to  Mocha,  liis  salvation  was 
considered  a  miracle.  The  beverage  to  wliich  it 
was  due  sprang  into  high  favor,  and  Omar  him- 
self was  made  a  saint. 

A  popular  and  much-quoted  version  of 
Omar's  discovery  of  coffee,  also  based  upon 
the  Abd-al-Kadir  manuscript,  is  the  fol- 

In  the  year  of  the  Ilegira  C5(5,  the  moUah 
Schadheli  went  on  a  pilgrimage  to  Mecca.  Ar- 
riving at  the  mountain  of  the  Emeralds  (Ousab), 
he  turned  to  his  disciple  Omar  and  said :  "I  shall 
die  in  this  place.  When  my  soul  has  gone  forth, 
a  veiled  person  will  appear  to  you.  Do  not  fail 
to  execute  the  command  which  he  will  give  you." 

The  venerable  Schadheli  being  dead,  Omar  saw 
in  the  middle  of  the  night  a  gigantic  specter 
covered  by  a  white  veil. 

"Who  are  youV"  he  asked. 

The  phantom  drew  back  his  veil,  and  Omar 
saw  with  surprise  Schadheli  himself,  grown  ten 
cubits  since  his  death.  The  mollah  dug  in  the 
ground,  and  water  miraculously  appeared.  The 
spirit  of  his  teacher  bade  Omar  fill  a  bowl  with 
the  water  and  to  proceed  on  his  way  and  not  to 
stop  till  he  reached  the  spot  where  the  water 
would  stop  moving. 

"It  is  there,"  he  added,  "that  a  great  destiny 
awaits  you." 

Omar  started  his  journey.  Arriving  at  Mocha 
in  Yemen,  he  noticed  that  the  water  was  im- 
movable.   It  was  here  that  he  must  stop. 

The  beautiful  village  of  Mocha  was  then  rav- 
aged by  the  plague.  Omar  began  to  pray  for  the 
sick  and,  as  the  saintly  man  was  close  to 
Mahomet,  many  found  themselves  cured  by  his 

The  plague  meanwhile  progressing,  the  daugh- 
ter of  the  King  of  Mocha  fell  ill  and  her  father 
had  her  carried  to  the  home  of  the  dervish  who 
cured  her.  But  as  this  young  princess  was  of 
rare  beauty,  after  having  cured  her,  the  good 
dervish  tried  to  carry  her  off.  The  king  did  not 
fancy  this  new  kind  of  reward.  Omar  was 
driven  from  the  city  and  exiled  on  the  mountain 
of  Ousab,  with  herbs  for  food  and  a  cave  for 
a  home. 

"Oh,  Schadheli,  my  dear  master,"  cried  the 
unfortunate  dervish  one  day ;  "if  the  things 
which  happened  to  me  at  Mocha  were  destined, 
was  it  worth  the  trouble  to  give  me  a  bowl  to 
come  here?" 

To  these  just  complaints,  there  was  heard  im- 
mediately a  song  of  incomparable  harmony,  and 
a  bird  of  marvelous  plumage  came  to  rest  in  a 
tree.  Omar  sprang  forward  quickly  toward  the 
little  bird  which  sang  so  well,  but  then  he  saw 
on  the  branches  of  the  tree  only  flowers  and 
fruit.  Omar  laid  hands  on  the  fruit,  and  found 
it  delicious.  .  Then  he  filled  his  great  pockets 
with  it  and  went  back  to  his  cave.    As  he  was 

preparing  to  boil  a  few  herbs  for  his  dinner,  the 
idea  came  to  him  of  substituting  for  this  sad 
souj),  some  of  his  harvested  fruit.  From  it  he 
obtained  a  savory  and  perfumed  drink ;  it  was 

The  Italian  Journal  of  the  Savants  for 
the  year  1760  says  that  two  monks,  Scialdi 
and  Ayduis,  were  the  first  to  discover  the 
properties  of  coffee,  and  for  this  reason  be- 
came the  object  of  special  prayers.  "Was 
not  this  Scialdi  identical  with  the  Sheik  j| 
Schadheli  ? ' '  asks  Jardin."  1 

The  most  popular  legend  ascribes  the  dis- 
covery of  the  drink  to  an  Arabian  herdsman 
'in  upper  Egypt,  or  Abyssinia,  who  com- 
plained to  the  abbot  of  a  neighboring 
monastery  that  the  goats  confided  to  his 
care  became  unusually  frolicsome  after  eat- 
ing the  berries  of  certain  shrubs  found  near 
their  feeding  grounds.  The  abbot,  having 
observed  the  fact,  determined  to  try  the 
virtues  of  the  berries  on  himself.  He,  too, 
responded  with  a  new  exhilaration.  Ac- 
cordingly, he  directed  that  some  be  boiled, 
and  the  decoction  drunk  by  his  monks,  who 
thereafter  found  no  difficulty  in  keeping 
awake  during  the  religious  services  of  the 
night.  The  abbe  Massieu  in  his  poem. 
Carmen  Caffaeum,  thus  celebrates  the 
event : 

The  monks  each  in  turn,  as  the  evening  draws 

Drink   'round   the  great  cauldron  —  a   circle  of 

cheer ! 
And  the  dawn  in  amaze,  revisiting  that  shore. 
On  idle  l)eds  of  ease  surprised  them  nevermore! 

According  to  the  legend,  the  news  of  the 
"wakeful  monastery"  spread  rapidly,  and 
the  magical  berry  soon  "came  to  be  in  re- 
quest throughout  the  whole  kingdom;  and 
in  progress  of  time  other  nations  and 
provinces  of  the  East  fell  into  the  use 
of  it." 

The  French  have  preserved  the  following 
picturesque  version  of  this  legend : 

A  young  goatherd  named  Kaldi  noticed  one 
day  that  his  goats,  whose  deportment  up  to  that 
time  had  been  irreproachable,  were  abandoning 
themselves  to  the  most  extravagant  prancings. 
1'he  venerable  buck,  ordinarily  so  dignified  and 
solemn,  bounded  about  like  a  young  kid.  Kaldi 
attributed  this  foolish  gaiety  to  certain  fruits 
of  which  the  goats  had  been  eating  with  delight. 

The  story  goes  that  the  poor  fellow  had  a 
heavy  heart;  and  in  the  hope  of  cheering  him- 
self up  a  little,  he  thought  he  would  pick  and  eat 
of  the  fruit.  The  experiment  succeeded  mar- 
velously.  He  forgot  his  troubles  and  became  the 
happiest  herder  in  happy  Arabia.  When  the 
goats  danced,  he  gaily  made  himself  one  of  the 

J^ardin,  I5del,estan.     Le  Cafiier  et  le  Caf6.     Paris, 



party,  and  entered  into  their  fun  witli  admirable 

One  day,  a  monk  clianced  to  pass  by  and 
stopiied  in  surprise  to  find  a  ball  going  on.  A 
score  of  goats  were  executing  lively  pirouettes 
like  a  ladies'  chain,  wMle  the  buck  solenuily 
halan(('-fH\,  and  the  herder  went  through  the 
ttgures  of  an  eccentric  i)astoral  dance. 

The  astonished  monk  inquired  the  cause  of  this 
saltatorial  madness ;  and  Kaldi  told  him  of  his 
precious  discovery. 

Now,  this  poor  monk  had  a  great  sorrow ;  he 
always  went  to  sleep  in  the  middle  of  his 
prayers;  and  he  reasoned  that  Mohannned  with- 

Cats,  JO  v  Tsi,    *  r  2J  v  CkJc  o  itA.  i!^.. 

Arai!   DiiiNKiNo   ('okike;    Chinaman,   Tea;   and 

Indian,  Cuocolatb 

Frontispiece   from   Dufour's    work 

out  doubt  was  revealing  this  marvelous  fruit  to 
him  to  overcome  his  sleepiness. 

Piety  does  not  exclude  gastronomic  instincts. 
Those  of  our  good  monk  were  more  than  ordi- 
nary ;  because  he  thought  of  drying  and  boiling 
the  fruit  of  the  herder.  This  ingenious  concoc- 
tion gave  us  coffee.  Immediately  all  the  monks 
of  the  realm  made  use  of  the  drink,  because  It 
encouraged  them  to  pray  and,  perhaps,  also  be- 
cause it  was  not  disagreeable. 

In  those  early  days  it  appears  that  the 
drink  was  prepared  in  two  ways;  one  in 
which  the  decoction  was  made  from  the 
hull  and  the  pulp  surrounding  the  bean, 
and  the  other  from  the  bean  itself.  The 
roasting  process  came  later  and  is  an  im- 
provement generally  credited  to  the  Per- 
sians. There  is  evidence  that  the  early 
Mohammedan  churchmen  were  seeking  a 
.substitute  for  the  wine  forbidden  to  them 
by  the  Koran,  when  they  discovered  coffee. 
The  word  for  coffee  in  Arabic,*  ga/ii^a/i,  is 
the  same  as  one  of  those  used  for  wine ;  and 
later  on,  when  coffee  drinking  grew  so  pop- 
ular as  to  threaten  the  very  life  of  the 
church  itself,  this  similarity  was  seized 
upon  by  the  church-leaders  to  support  their 
contention  that  the  prohibition  against 
wine  applied  also  to  cott'ee. 

La  Roque,"  writing  in  1715,  says  that  the 
Arabian  word  cakouah  signified  at  first 
only  wine;  but  later  was  turned  into  a 
generic  term  applied  to  all  kinds  of  drink. 
' '  So  there  were  really  three  sorts  of  coffee ; 
namely,  wine,  including  all  intoxicating 
liquors ;  the  drink  made  with  the  shells,  or 
cods,  of  the  coffee  bean;  and  that  made 
from  the  bean  itself." 

Originally,  then,  the  coffee  drink  may 
have  been  a  kind  of  wine  made  from  the 
coffee  fruit.  In  the  coffee  countries  even 
today  the  natives  are  very  fond,  and  eat 
freely,  of  the  ripe  coffee  cherries,  voiding 
the  seeds.  The  pulp  surrounding  the  cof- 
fee seeds  (beans)  is  pleasant  to  taste,  has 
a  sweetish,  aromatic  flavor,  and  quickly 
ferments  when  allowed  to  stand. 

Still  another  tradition  (was  the  wish 
father  to  the  thought?)  tells  how  the  coffee 
drink  was  revealed  to  Mohammed  himseif 
by  the  Angel  Gabriel.  Coffee's  partisans 
found  satisfaction  in  a  passage  in  the 
Koran  which,  they  said,  foretold  its  adop- 
tion by  the  followers  of  the  Prophet: 

'i'hey  shall  be  given  to  drink  an  excellent  wine, 
sealed ;  its  seal  is  that  of  the  musk. 

The  most  diligent  research  does  not  carry 
a  knowledge  of  coffee  back  beyond  the  time 
of  Rhazes,  two  hundred  years  after  Mo- 
hammed ;  so  there  is  little  more  than  specu- 
lation or  conjecture  to  support  the  theory 
that  it  was  known  to  the  ancients,  in  Bible 
times  or  in  the  days  of  The  Praised  One. 
Our  knowledge  of  tea,  on  the  other  hand, 
antedates    the    Christian    era.      We   know 

also    that    tea   was   intensively    cultivated 


"La  Roque,  Jean.  Voyage  dans  I'Arabie  Heureuae, 
de  1708  d  nis,  et  TraiU  HistoHque  du  Ca}6.  Paris, 
1715.      (pp.  247,  251.) 



and  taxed  under  the  Tang  dynasty  in 
China,  A.  D.  lU'.i,  and  that  Arab  traders 
knew  of  it  in  tlie  following  century. 

The  First  Reliable  Coffee  Date 

About  1454  Sheik  Gemaleddiii  Abou  Mu- 
hammad Bensaid,  mufti  of  Aden,  sur- 
named  Aldhabhani,  from  Dhabhan,  a  small 
town  where  he  was  born,  became  acquainted 
with  the  virtues  of  coffee  on  a  journey  into 
Abyssinia.''  Upon  his  return  to  Aden,  his 
health  became  impaired;  and  remembering 
the  coffee  he  had  seen  his  countrymen 
drinking  in  Abyssinia,  he  sent  for  some  in 
the  hope  of  finding  relief.  He  not  only 
recovered  from  his  illness;  but,  because  of 
its  sleep-dispelling  qualities,  he  sanctioned 
the  use  of  the  drink  among  the  dervishes 
"tliat  they  might  spend  the  night  in 
prayers  or  other  religious  exercises  with 
tnore  attention  and  presence  of  mind."" 

It  is  altogether  probable  that  the  coffee 
drink  was  known  in  Aden  before  the  time 
of  Sheik  Gemaleddin ;  but  the  endorsement 
of  the  very  learned  imam,  whom  science 
and  religion  had  already  made  famous,  was 
sufficient  to  start  a  vogue  for  the  beverage 
that  spread  throughout  Yemen,  and  thence 
to  the  far  corners  of  the  world.  We  read 
in  the  Arabian  manuscript  at  the  Biblio- 
theque  Nationale  that  lawyers,  students, 
as  well  as  travelers  who  journeyed  at  night, 
artisans,  and  others,  who  worked  at  night, 
to  escape  the  heat  of  the  day,  took  to  drink- 
ing coffee ;  and  even  left  off  another  drink, 
then  becoming  popular,  rhade  from  the 
leaves  of  a  plant  called  khat  or  cat  {catha 

Sheik  Gemaleddin  was  assisted  in  his 
work  of  spreading  the  gospel  of  this  the 
first  propaganda  for  coffee  by  one  Mu- 
haramed  Alhadrami,  a  physician  of  great 
reputation,  born  in  Hadramaut,  Arabia 

A  recently  unearthed  and  little  known 
version  of  coffee's  origin  shows  how  fea- 
tures of  both  the  Omar  tradition  and  the 
Gemaleddin  story  may  be  combined  by  a 
professional  Occidental  tale- writer" : 

Toward  the  middle  of  the  fifteenth  century, 
a  poor  Arab  was  traveling  in  Abyssinia.  Find- 
ing himself  weak  and  weary,  he  stopped  near  a 
grove.  For  fuel  wlierewith  to  cook  his  rice,  he 
cut  down  a  tree  that  happened  to  be  covered 
with  dried  berries.  His  meal  being  cooked  and 
eaten,  the  traveler  discovered  that  these  half- 
burnt   berries   were   fragrant.     He   collected   a 

^^Adjam,  by  many  writers  wrongly  rendered  Persia. 
"Scheuzer,  ,T.  J.     Physique  Sacrie,  ou  Histoire  Nat- 
urelle  de  la  Bible.     AmBterdam,  1732,  1737. 

^*Harper'a  Weekly.     New  Yorlc,  1911.     (Jan.  21.) 

number  of  them  and,  on  crushing  them  with  a 
stone,  found  that  the  aroma  was  increased  to  a 
great  extent.  While  wondering  at  this,  he  acci- 
dentally let  tlie  substance  fall  into  an  earthen 
vessel  that  contained  his  scanty  supply  of  water. 
.V  miracle  !  The  almost  putrid  water  was  puri- 
Hctl.  He  brought  it  to  his  lips;  it  was  fresh  and 
agreeable;  and  after  a  short  rest  the  traveler  so 
far  recovered  his  strength  and  energy  as  to  be 
able  to  resume  his  journey.  The  lucky  Arab 
gathered  as  many  berries  as  he  could,  and  hav- 
ing arrived  at  Aden,  informed  the  mufti  of  his 
(lisc-overy.  That  worthy  was  an  inveterate 
opium-smoker,  who  had  been  slifliering  for  years 
from  the  influence  of  the  poisonous  drug.  He 
tried  an  infusion  of  the  roasted  berries,  and  was 
so  delighted  at  the  recovery  of  his  former  vigor 
that  in  gratitude  to  the  tree  he  called  it  cahuha 
which  in  Arabic  signifies  "force". 

Galland,  in  his  analysis  of  the  Arabian 
manuscript,  already  referred  to,  that  has 
furnished  us  with  the  most  trustworthy  ac- 
count of  the  origin  of  coffee,  criticizes  An- 
toine  Faustus  Nairon,  Maronite  professor 
of  Oriental  languages  at  Rome,  who  was  the 
author  of  the  first  printed  treatise  on  coffee 
only,""  for  accepting  the  legends  relating  to 
Omar  and  the  Abyssinian  goatherd.  He 
says  they  are  unworthy  of  belief  as  facts  of 
history,  although  he  is  careful  to  add  that 
there  is  some  truth  in  the  story  of  the  dis- 
covery of  coffee  by  the  Abyssinian  goats 
and  the  abbot  who  prescribed  the  use  of 
the  berries  for  his  monks,  "the  Eastern 
Christians  being  willing  to  have  the  honor 
of  the  invention  of  coffee,  for  the  abbot,  or 
prior,  of  the  convent  and  his  companions 
are  only  the  mufti  Gemaleddin  and  Mu- 
hammid  Alhadrami,  and  the  monks  are  the 
dervishes. ' '  ^ 

Amid  all  these  details,  Jardin  reaches 
the  conclusion  that  it  is  to  chance  we  must 
attribute  the  knowledge  of  the  properties 
of  coffee,  and  that  the  coffee  tree  was  trans- 
ported from  its  native  land  to  Yemen,  as 
far  as  Mecca,  and  possibly  into  Persia, 
before  being  carried  into  Egypt. 

Coffee,  being  thus  favorably  introduced 
into  Aden,  it  has  continued  there  ever 
since,  without  interruption.  By  degrees 
the  cultivation  of  the  plant  and  the  use  of 
the  beverage  passed  into  many  neighbor- 
ing places.  Toward  the  close  of  the  fif- 
teenth century  (1470  - 1500)  it  reached 
Mecca  and  Medina,  where  it  was  intro- 
duced, as  at  Aden,  by  the  dervishes,  and 
for  the  same  religious  purpose.  About 
1510  it  reached  Grand  Cairo  in  Egypt, 
where  the  dervishes  from  Yemen,  living  in 
a  district  by  themselves,  drank  coffee  on  the 

"*Nairon,  Antoine  Faustus.  De  Saluberrimd  Cahue 
seu  Caf6  nuncupata  Diacuraus.     Rome,  1671. 

A  L  L    A  H  ()  i;  T    C  O  F  F  1^:  h 









^■fhts  they  intended  to  spend  in  religious 
Trevotion.  They  kept  it  in  a  large  red 
earthen  vessel  —  eacli  in  turn  receiving 
it,  respectfully,  from  their  superior,  in  a 
small  bowl,  which  he  dipped  into  the  jar  — 
in  the  meantime  chanting  their  prayers, 
the  burden  of  which  was  always:  "There 
is  no  God  but  one  God,  the  true  King, 
whose  power  is  not  to  be  disputed." 

After  the  dervishes,  the  bowl  was  passed 
to  lay  members  of  the  congregation.  In  this 
way  coffee  came  to  be  so  associated  with 
tiie  act  of  worship  that  "they  never  per- 
formed a  religious  ceremony  in  public  and 
never  observed  any  solemn  festival  with- 
out taking  coffee." 

Meanwhile,  the  inhabitants  of  Mecca  be- 
came so  fond  of  the  beverage  that,  disre- 
garding its  religious  associations,  they 
made  of  it  a  secular  drink  to  be  sipped 
publicly  in  Icaveh  kanes,  the  first  coffee 
houses.  Here  the  idle  congregated  to  drink 
coffee,  to  play  chess  and  other  games,  to 
discuss  the  news  of  the  day,  and  to  amuse 
themselves  with  singing,  dancing,  and 
music,  contrary  to  the  manners  of  the  rigid 
Mahommedans,  who  were  very  properly 
scanchilized  by  such  performances.  In  Me- 
dina and  in  Cairo,  too,  coffee  became  as 
common  a  drink  as  in  Mecca  and  Aden. 

The  First  Coffee  Persecution 

At  length  the  pious  Mahommedans  began 
to  disapprove  of  the  use  of  coffee  among 
the  people.  For  one  thing,  it  made  com- 
mon one  of  the  best  psychology  -  adjuncts 
of  their  religion ;  also,  the  joy  of  life,  that 
it  helped  to  liberate  among  those  who  fre- 
quented the  coffee  houses,  precipitated 
.social,  political,  and  religious  arguments ; 
and  these  frequently  developed  into  dis- 
turbances. Dissensions  arose  even  among 
the  churchmen  themselves.  They  divided 
into  camps  for  and  against  coffee.  The 
hiw  of  the  Prophet  on  the  subject  of  wine 
was  variously  construed  as  applying  to 

About  this  time  (1511)  Kair  Bey  was 
governor  of  Mecca  for  the  sultan  of  Egypt, 
lie  appears  to  have  been  a  strict  disci- 
plinarian, but  lamentably  ignorant  of  the 
actual  conditions  obtaining  among  his 
people.  As  he  was  leaving  the  mosque  one 
evening  after  prayers,  he  was  offended  by 
seeing  in  a  corner  a  company  of  coffee 
drinkers  who  were  preparing  to  pass  the 
night  in  prayer.  His  first  thought  was 
that  they  were  drinking  wine ;  and  great 
was  his  astonishment  when  he  learned  what 


the  liquor  really  was  and  how  common  was 
its  use  throughout  the  city.  Further  in- 
vestigation convinced  him  that  indulgence 
in  this  exhilarating  drink  must  incline  men 
and  women  to  extravagances  prohibited  by 
law,  and  so  he  determined  to  suppress  it. 
First  he  drove  the  coffee  drinkers  out  of 
the   mosque. 

The  next  day,  he  called  a  council  of 
officers  of  justice,  lawyers,  physicians, 
priests,  and  leading  citizens,  to  whom  he 
declared  what  he  had  seen  the  evening  be- 
fore at  the  mosque;  and,  "being  resolved 
to  put  a  stop  to  the  coffee-house  abuses,  he 
sought  their  advice  upon  the  subject." 
The  chief  count  in  the  indictment  was  that 
"in  these  places  men  and  women  met  and 
played  tambourines,  violins,  and  other 
musical  instruments.  There  were  also 
people  who  played  chess,  mankala,  and 
other  similar  games,  for  money ;  and  there 
were  many  other  things  done  contrary  to 
our  sacred  law  —  may  God  keep  it  from 
all  corruption  until  the  day  when  we  shall 
all  appear  before  him!"" 

The  lawyers  agreed  that  the  coffee 
houses  needed  reforming;  but  as  to  the 
drink  itself,  inquiry  should  be  made  as  to 
whether  it  was  in  any  way  harmful  to 
mind  or  body;  for  if  not,  it  might  not  be 
sufficient  to  close  the  places  that  sold  it. 
It  was  suggested  that  the  opinion  of  the 
physicians  be  sought. 

Two  brothers,  Persian  physicians  named 
Ilakimani,  and  reputed  the  best  in  Mecca, 
were  summoned,  although  we  are  told  they 
knew  more  about  logic  than  they  did 
about  physic.  One  of  them  came  into  the 
council  fully  prejudiced,  as  he  had  already 
written  a  book  against  coffee,  and  filled 
with  concern  for  his  profession,  being  fear- 
ful lest  the  common  use  of  the  new  drink 
would  make  serious  inroads  on  the  prac- 
tise of  medicine.  His  brother  joined  with 
him  in  assuring  the  assembly  that  the 
plant  hunn,  from  which  coffee  was  made, 
was  "cold  and  dry"  and  so  unwholesome. 
When  another  physician  present  reminded 
them  that  Bengiazlah,  the  ancient  and  re- 
spected contemporary  of  Avicenna,  taught 
that  it  was  "hot  and  dry,"  they  made 
arbitrary  answer  that  Bengiazlah  had  in 
mind  another  plant  of  the  same  name,  and 
that  anyhow,  it  was  not  material;  for,  if 
the  coffee  drink  disposed  people  to  things 
forbidden  by  religion,  the  safest  course  for 

^^de  Sacy,  Bnron  Antolne  Isaac  Silvestre.     Chreato- 
nathie  Arahc.     Paris,  1806.      (vol.  il :  p.  224.) 



Mahommedans  was  to  look  upon  it  as  un- 

The  friends  of  coffee  were  covered  with 
confusion.  Only  the  mufti  S'poke  out  in 
the  meeting  in  its  favor.  Others,  carried 
away  by  prejudice  or  misguided  zeal,  af- 
firmed that  coffee  clouded  their  senses.  One 
man  arose  and  said  it  intoxicated  like  wine ; 
which  made  every  one  laugh,  since  he  could 
hardly  have  been  a  judge  of  this  if  he  had 
not  drunk  wine,  which  is  forbidden  by  the 
Mohammedan  religion.  Upon  being  asked 
whether  he  had  ever  drunk  any,  he  was  so 
imprudent  as  to  admit  that  he  had,  thereby 
condemning  himself  out  of  his  own  mouth 
to  the  bastinado. 

The  mufti  of  Aden,  being  both  an  officer 
of  the  court  and  a  divine,  undertook,  with 
some  heat,  a  defense  of  coffee;  but  he  was 
clearly  in  an  unpopular  minority.  He 
was  rewarded  with  the  reproaches  and  af- 
fronts of  the  religious  zealots. 

So  the  governor  had  his  way,  and  coffee 
was  solemnly  condemned  as  thing  forbid- 
den by  the  law ;  and  a  presentment 
was  drawn  up,  signed  by  a  majority  of 
those  present,  and  dispatched  post-haste  by 
the  governor  to  his  royal  master,  the  sultan, 
at  Cairo.  At  the  same  time,  the  governor 
published  an  edict  forbidding  the  sale  of 
coffee  in  public  or  private.  The  officers 
of  justice  caused  all  the  coffee  houses  in 
Mecca  to  be  shut,  and  ordered  all  the  coffee 
found  there,  or  in  the  merchants'  ware- 
houses, to  be  burned. 

Naturally  enough,  being  an  unpopular 
edict,  there  were  many  evasions,  and  much 
coffee  drinking  took  place  behind  closed 
doors.  Some  of  the  friends  of  coffee  were 
outspoken  in  their  opposition  to  the  order, 
being  convinced  that  the  assembly  had  ren- 
dered a  judgment  not  in  accordance  with 
the  facts,  and  above  all,  contrary  to  the 
opinion  of  the  mufti  who,  in  every  Arab 
community,  is  looked  up  to  as  the  inter- 
preter, or  expounder,  of  the  law.  One  man, 
caught  in  the  act  of  disobedience,  besides 
being  severely  punished,  was  also  led 
through  the  most  public  streets  of  the  city 
seated  on  an  ass. 

However,  the  triumph  of  the  enemies  of 
coffee  was  short-lived;  for  not  only  did 
the  sultan  of  Cairo  disapprove  the  "indis- 
creet zeal"  of  the  governor  of  Mecca,  and 
order  the  edict  revoked;  but  he  read  him 
a  severe  lesson  on  the  subject.  How  dared 
he  condemn  a  thing  approved  at  Cairo, 
the  capital  of  his  kingdom,  where  there 
were    physicians    whose    opinions    carried 

more  weight  than  those  of  Mecca,  and  who 
had  found  nothing  against  the  law  in  the 
use  of  coffee?  The  best  things  might  be 
abused,  added  the  sultan,  even  the  sacred 
waters  of  Zamzam,  but  this  was  no  reason 
for  an  absolute  prohibition.  The  fountain, 
or  well,  of  Zamzam,  according  to  the  Mo- 
hammedan teaching,  is  the  same  which 
God  caused  to  spring  up  in  the  desert  to 
comfort  Hagar  and  Ishmael  when  Abraham 
banished  them.  It  is  in  the  enclosure  of 
the  temple  at  Mecca;  and  the  Mohamme- 
dans drink  of  it  with  much  show  of  devo- 
tion, ascribing  great  virtues  to  it. 

It  is  not  recorded  whether  the  misguided 
governor  was  shocked  at  this  seeming  pro- 
fanity; but  it  is  known  that  he  hastened 
to  obey  the  orders  of  his  lord  and  master. 
The  prohibition  was  recalled,  and  there- 
after he  employed  his  authority  only  to 
preserve  order  in  the  coffee  houses.  The 
friends  of  coffee,  and  the  lovers  of  poetic 
justice,  found  satisfaction  in  the  governor's 
subsequent  fate.  He  was  exposed  as  "an 
extortioner  and  a  public  robber,"  and  "tor- 
tured to  death,"  his  brother  killing  him- 
self to  avoid  the  same  fate.  The  two 
Persian  physicians  who  had  played  so  mean 
a  part  in  the  first  coffee  persecution,  like- 
wise came  to  an  unhappy  end.  Being  dis- 
credited in  Mecca  they  fled  to  Cairo, 
where,  in  an  unguarded  moment,  having 
cursed  the  person  of  Selim  I,  emperor  of 
the  Turks,  who  had  conquered  Egypt,  they 
were  executed  by  his  order. 

Coffee,  being  thus  re-established  at 
Mecca,  met  with  no  opposition  until  1524, 
when,  because  of  renewed  disorders,  the 
kadi  of  the  town  closed  the  coffee  houses, 
but  did  not  seek  to  interfere  with  coffee 
drinking  at  home  and  in  private.  His 
successor,  however,  re-licensed  them;  and, 
continuing  on  their  good  behavior  since 
then,  they  have  not  been  disturbed. 

In  1542  a  ripple  was  caused  by  an  order 
issued  by  Soliman  the  Great,  forbidding 
the  use  of  coffee;  but  no  one  took  it  seri- 
ously, especially  as  it  soon  became  known 
that  the  order  had  been  obtained  "by 
surprise"  and  at  the  desire  of  only  one 
of  the  court  ladies  "a  little  too  nice  in  this 

One  of  the  most  interesting  facts  in  the 
history  of  the  coffee  drink  is  that  wher- 
ever it  has  been  introduced  it  has  spelled 
je volution.  It  has  been  the  world's  most 
radical  dfink  in  that  its  function  has  al- 
ways been  to  make  people  think.  And 
when  the  people  began  to  think,  they  be- 



came  dangerous  to  tyrants  and  to  foes  of 
liberty  of  thought  and  action.  Sometimes 
the  people  became  intoxicated  with  their 
new  found  ideas;  and,  mistaking  liberty 
for  license,  they  ran  amok,  and  called 
down  upon  their  heads  persecutions  and 
many  petty  intolerances.  So  history  re- 
peated itself  in  Cairo,  twenty-three  years 
after  the  first  Mecca  persecution. 

Coffee's  Second  Religious  Persecution 

Selim  I,  after  conquering  Egypt,  had 
brought-  coffee  to  Constantinople  in  1517. 
The  drink  continued  its  progress  through 
Syria,  and  was  received  in  Damascus 
(about  1530),  and  in  Aleppo  (about  1532), 
without  opposition.  Several  coffee  houses 
of  Damascus  attained  wide  fame,  among 
them  the  Cafe  of  the  Roses,  and  the  Cafe 
of  the  Gate  of  Salvation. 

Its  increasing  popularity  and,  perhaps, 
the  realization  that  the  continued  spread  of 
the  beverage  might  lessen  the  demand  for 
his  services,  caused  a  physician  of  Cairo 
to  propound  (about  1523)  to  his  fellows 
this  question : 

What  is  your  opinion  concerning  the  liquor 
called  coffee  which  is  drank  in  company,  as  heing 
reckoned  in  the  number  of  those  we  have  free 
leave  to  make  use  of,  notwithstanding  it  is  the 
cause  of  no  small  disorders,  that  it  flies  up  into 
the  head  and  is  very  pernicious  to  health?  Is 
it  permitted  or  forbidden? 

At  the  end  he  was  careful  to  add,  as 
his  own  opinion  (and  without  prejudice?), 
that  coffee  was  unlawful.  To  the  credit  of 
the  physicians  of  Cairo  as  a  class,  it  should 
be  recorded  that  they  looked  with  unsympa- 
thetic eyes  upon  this  attempt  on  the  part 
of  one  of  their  number  to  stir  up  trouble 
for  a  valuable  adjunct  to  their  materia 
medica,  and  so  the  effort  died  a-borning. 

If  the  physicians  were  disposed  to  do 
nothing  to  stop  coffee's  progress,  not  so 
the  preachers.  As  places  of  resort,  the 
coffee  houses  exercised  an  appeal  that 
proved  stronger  to  the  popular  mind  than 
that  of  the  temples  of  worship.  This  to 
men  of  sound  religious  training  was  in- 
tolerable. The  feeling  against  coffee 
smouldered  for  a  time;  but  in  1534  it 
broke  out  afresh.  In  that  year  a  fiery 
preacher  in  one  of  Cairo's  mosques  so 
played  upon  the  emotions  of  his  congrega- 
tion with  a  preachment  against  coffee, 
claiming  that  it  was  against  the  law  and 
that  those  who  drank  it  were  not  true  Mo- 
hammedans, that  upon  leaving  the  build- 
ing a  large  number  of  his  hearers,  enraged, 

threw  themselves  into  the  first  coffee  house 
they  found  in  their  way,  burned  the  coffee 
pots  and  dishes,  and  maltreated  all  the 
])ersons  they  found  there. 

Public  opinion  was  immediately  aroused ; 
and  the  city  was  divided  into  two  parties; 
one  maintaining  that  coffee  was  against 
the  law  of  Mohammed,  and  the  other  tak- 
ing the  contrary  view.  And  then  arose 
a  Solomon  in  the  person  of  the  chief  jus- 
tice, who  summoned  into  his  presence  the 
learned  physicians  for  consultation.  Again 
the  medical  profession  stood  by  its  guns. 
The  medical  men  pointed  out  to  the  chief 
justice  that  the  question  had  already  been 
decided  by  their  predecessors  on  the  side 
of  coffee,  and  that  the  time  had  come  to 
put  some  check  "on  the  furious  zeal  of 
the  bigots"  and  the  "indiscretions  of 
ignorant  preachers."  Wihereupon,  the 
wise  judge  caused  coffee  to  be  served  to  the 
whole  company  and  drank  some  himself. 
By  this  act  he  "re-united  the  contending 
parties,  and  brought  coffee  into  greater 
esteem  than  ever." 

Coffee  in  Constantinople 

The  story  of  the  introduction  of  coffee 
into  Constantinople  shows  that  it  experi- 
enced much  the  same  vicissitudes  that 
marked  its  advent  at  Mecca  and  Cairo. 
There  were  the  same  disturbances,  the  same 
unreasoning  religious  superstition,  the  same 
political  hatreds,  the  same  stupid  inter- 
ference by  the  civil  authorities ;  and  yet,  in 
spite  of  it  all,  coffee  attained  new  honors 
and  new  fame.  The  Oriental  coffee  house 
reached  its  supreme  development  in  Con- 

Although  coffee  had  been  known  in  Con- 
stantinople since  1517,  it  was  not  until  1554 
that  the  inhabitants  became  acquainted 
with  that  great  institution  of  early  eastern 
democracy  —  the  coffee  house.  In  that  year, 
under  the  reign  of  Soliman  the  Great,  son 
of  Selim  I,  one  Scherasi  of  Damascus  and 
one  Hekem  of  Aleppo  opened  the  first  two 
coffee  houses  in  the  quarter  called  Taktaca- 
lah.  They  were  wonderful  institutions  for 
those  days,  remarkable  alike  for  their  fur- 
nishings and  their  comforts,  as  well  as  for 
the  opportunity  they  afforded  for  social 
intercourse  and  free  discussion.  Schemsi 
and  Hekem  received  their  guests  on  "very 
neat  coiiches  or  sofas,"  and  the  admission 
was  the  price  of  a  dish  of  coffee  —  about 
one  cent. 

Turks,  high  and  low,  took  up  the  idea 
with  avidity.     Coffee  houses  increased  in 



number.  The  deinaiid  outstripped  the 
supply.  In  the  seraglio  itself  special  offi- 
cers {kafivedjibachi)  were  commissioned  to 
prepare  the  coffee  drink  for  the  sultan. 
Coffee  was  in  favor  witli  all  classes. 

The  Turks  gave  to  the  coffee  houses  the 
name  kahveh  kancs  {diver soria,  Cotovicus 
called  them)  ;  and  as  they  grew  in  popu- 
larity, they  became  more  and  more  luxu- 
rious. There  were  lounges,  richly  carpeted; 
and  in  addition  to  coffee,  many  other  means 
of  entertainment.  To  these  ' '  schools  of  the 
wise"  came  the  ''young  men  ready  to  enter 
upon  offices  of  judicature ;  kadis  from  the 
provinces,  seeking  re-instatement  or  new 
appointments ;  muderys,  or  professors ;  of- 
ficers of  the  seraglio;  bashaws;  and  the 
principal  lords  of  the  port,"  not  to  men- 
tion merchants  and  travelers  from  all  parts 
of  the  then  known  world. 

Coffee  House  Persecutions 

About  1570,  just  when  coffee  seemed 
settled  for  all  time  in  the  social  scheme, 
the  imams  and  dervishes  raised  a  loud  wail 
against  it,  saying  the  mosques  were  almost 
empty,  while  the  coffee  houses  were  always 
full.  Then  the  preachers  joined  in  the 
clamor,  affirming  it  to  be  a  greater  sin  to 
go  to  a  coffee  house  than  to  enter  a  tavern. 
The  authorities  began  an  examination ;  and 
the  same  old  debate  was  on.  This  time, 
however,  appeared  a  mufti  who  was  un- 
friendly to  coffee.  The  religious  fanatics 
argued  that  Mohammed  had  not  even 
known  of  coffee,  and  so  could  not  have 
used  the  drink,  and,  therefore,  it  must  be 
an  abomination  for  his  followers  to  do  so. 
Further,  coffee  was  burned  and  ground  to 
charcoal  before  making  a  drink  of  it ;  and 
the  Koran  distinctly  forbade  the  use  of 
charcoal,  including  it  among  the  unsani- 
tary foods.  The  mufti  decided  the  ques- 
tion in  favor  of  the  zealots,  and  coffee  was 
forbidden  by  law. 

The  prohibition  proved  to  be  more  hon- 
ored in  the  breach  than  in  the  observance. 
Coffee  drinking  continued  in  secret,  instead 
of  in  the  open.  And  when,  about  1580, 
Amurath  III,  at  the  further  solicitation  of 
the  churchmen,  declared  in  an  edict  that 
coffee  should  be  classed  with  wine,  and  so 
prohibited  in  accordance  with  the  law  of 
the  Prophet,  the  people  only  smiled,  and 
persisted  in  their  secret  disobedience.  Al- 
ready they  were  beginning  to  think  for 
themselves  on  religious  as  well  as  political 
matters.  The  civil  officers,  finding  it  use- 
less to  try  to  suppress  the  custom,  winked 

at  violations  of  the  law;  and,  for  a  con- 
sideration, permitted  the  sale  of  coffee  pri- 
vately, so  that  many  Ottoman  "speak- 
easies" sprung  up  —  places  where  coffee 
might  be  had  behind  shut  doors;  shops 
where  it  was  sold  in  back-rooms. 

This  was  enough  to  re-establish  the  cof- 
fee houses  by  degrees.  Then  came  a  mufti 
less  scrupulous  or  more  knowing  than  his 
predecessor,  who  declared  that  coffee  was 
not  to  be  looked  upon  as  coal,  and  that  the 
drink  made  from  it  was  not  forbidden  by 
the  law.  There  was  a  general  renewal  of 
coffee  drinking;  religious  devotees,  preach- 
ers, lawyers,  and  the  mufti  himself  indulg- 
ing in  it,  their  example  being  followed  by 
the  whole  court  and  the  city. 

After  this,  the  coffee  houses  provided  a 
handsome  source  of  revenue  to  each  suc- 
ceeding grand  vizier ;  and  there  was  no  fur- 
ther interference  with  the  beverage  until 
the  reign  of  Amurath  IV,  when  Grand 
Vizier  Kuprili,  during  the  war  with  Can- 
dia,  decided  that  for  political  reasons,  the 
coffee  houses  should  be  closed.  His  argu- 
ment was  much  the  same  as  that  advanced 
more  than  a  hundred  years  later  by  Charles 
II  of  England,  namely,  that  they  were  hot- 
beds of  sedition.  Kuprili  was  a  military 
dictator,  with  nothing  of  Charles's  vacillat- 
ing nature;  and  although,  like  Charles,  he 
later  rescinded  his  edict,  he  enforced  it, 
while  it  was  effective,  in  no  uncertain 
fashion.  Kuprili  was  no  petty  tyrant.  For 
a  first  violation  of  the  order,  cudgeling  was 
the  punishment;  for  a  second  offense,  the 
victim  was  sewn  in  a  leather  bag  and  thrown 
into  the  Bosporus.  Strangely  enough, 
while  he  suppressed  the  coffee  houses,  he 
permitted  the  taverns,  that  sold  wine  for- 
bidden by  the  Koran,  to  remain  open. 
Perhaps  he  found  the  latter  produced  a 
less  dangerous  kind  of  mental  stimulation 
than  that  produced  by  coffee.  Coffee,  says 
Virey,  was  too  intellectual  a  drink  for  the 
fierce  and  senseless  administration  of  the 

Even  in  those  days  it  was  not  possible 
to  make  people  good  by  law.  Paraphrasing 
the  copy-book,  suppressed  desires  will 
arise,  though  all  the  world  o'erwhelm  thera, 
to  men's  eyes.  An  unjust  law  was  no  more 
enforceable  in  those  centuries  than  it  is  in 
the  twentieth  century.  Men  are  humans 
first,  although  they  may  become  brutish 
when  bereft  of  reason.  But  coffee  does  not 
steal  away  their  reason ;  rather,  it  sharpens 
their  reasoning  faculties.  As  Galland  has 
truly  said:     "Coffee  joins  men,  born  for 



Characteristic   Scene  in  a  Turkish  Coffee    House    of    the    Seventeenth    Century 

society,  in  a  more  perfect  union ;  protesta- 
tions are  more  sincere  in  being  made  at  a 
time  when  the  mind  is  not  clouded  with 
fumes  and  vapors,  and  therefore  not  easily 
forgotten,  which  too  frequently  happens 
when  made  over  a  bottle." 

Despite  the  severe  penalties  staring  them 
in  the  face,  violations  of  the  law  were  plen- 
tiful among  the  people  of  Constantinople. 
Venders  of  the  beverage  appeared  in  the 
market-'places  with  "large  copper  vessels 
with  fire  under  them ;  and  those  who  had 
a  mind  to  drink  were  invited  to  step  into 
any  neighboring  shop  where  every  one  was 
welcome  on  such  an  account." 

Later,  Kuprili,  having  assured  himself 
that  the  coffee  houses  were  no  longer  a 
menace  to  his  policies,  permitted  the  free 
use  of  the  beverage  that  he  had  previously 

Coffee  and  Coffee  Houses  in  Persia 

Some  writers  claim  for  Persia  the  dis- 
covery of  the  coffee  drink;  but  there  is  no 
evidence  to  support  the  claim.  There  are, 
however,  sufficient  facts  to  justify  a  belief 
that  here,  as  in  Ethiopia,  coffee  has  been 
known  from  time  immemorial  —  which  is 
a  very  convenient  phrase.  At  an  early  date 
the  coffee  house  became  an  established  insti- 
tution in  the  chief  towns.  The  Persians 
appear  to  have  used  far  more  intelligence 
than  the  Turks  in  liandling  the  political 
phase  of  the  coffee-house  question,  and  so 
it  never  became  necessary  to  order  them 
suppressed  in  Persia. 

The  wife  of  Shah  Abbas,  observing  that 
great  numbers  of  people  were  wont  to 
gather  and  to  talk  politics  in  the  leading 
coffee  house  of  Ispahan,  appointed  a.  mol- 



lah  —  an  eeclesiastix-'al  teacher  and  ex- 
pounder of  the  law  —  to  sit  there  daily 
to  entertain  the  frequenters  of  the  place 
with  nicely  turned  points  of  history,  law, 
and  poetry.  Heing  a  man  of  wisdom  and 
great  tact,  he  avoided  controversial  ques- 
tions of  state ;  and  so  politics  were  kept  in 
the  background,  lie  proved  a  welcome  visi- 
tor, and  was  made  much  of  by  the  guests. 
This  example  was  generally  followed,  and 
as  a  result  disturbances  were  rare  in  the 
coffee  houses  of  Ispahan. 

Adam  Olearius"  (1599-1671),  who  was 
secretary  to  the  German  Embassy  that 
traveled  in  Turkey  in  1633  -  36,  tells  of 
the  great  diversions  made  in  Persian  coffee 
houses  "by  their  poets  and  historians,  who 
are  seated  in  a  high  chair  from  whence 
they  make  speeches  and  tell  satirical  stories, 
playing  in  the  meantime  with  a  little  stick 
and  using  the  same  gestures  as  our  jug- 
glers and  legerdemain  men  do  in  England." 

At  court  conferences  conspicuous  among 
the  shah's  retinue  were  always  to  be  seen 
the  "kahvedjibachi,"  or  "  coffee-pourers. " 

Early  Coffee  Manners  and  Customs 

Karstens  Niebuhr"  (1733-1815),  the 
Hanoverian  traveler,  furnishes  the  follow- 
ing description  of  the  early  Arabian, 
Syrian,  and  Egyptian  coffee  houses: 

They  are  commonly  large  halls,  having  their 
floors  spread  with  mats,  and  illuminated  at  night 
by  a  multitude  of  lamps.  Being  the  only 
theaters  for  the  exercise  of  profane  eloquence, 
poor  scholars  attend  here  to  amuse  the  people. 
Select  portions  are  read,  e.  g.  the  adventures  of 
Rustan  Sal,  a  Persian  hero.  Some  aspire  to  the 
praise  of  invention,  and  compose  tales  and 
fables.  They  walk  up  and  down  as  they  recite, 
or  assuming  oratorial  consequence,  harangue 
upon  subjects  chosen  by  themselves. 

In  one  coffee  house  at  Damascus  an  orator 
was  regularly  hired  to  tell  his  stories  at  a  fixed 
hour;  in  other  cases  he  was  more  directly  de- 
pendent upon  the  taste  of  his  hearers,  as  at  the 
conclusion  of  his  discourse,  whether  it  had  con- 
sisted of  literary  topics  or  of  loose  and  idle  tales, 
he  looked  to  the  audience  for  a  voluntary  con- 

At  Aleppo,  again,  there  was  a  man  with  a  soul 
above  the  common,  who,  being  a  per.son  of  dis- 
tinction, and  one  that  studied  merely  for  his  own 
pleasure,  had  yet  gone  the  round  of'all  the  coffee 
houses  in  the  city  to  pronounce  moral  harangues. 

In  some  coffee  houses  there  were  singers 
and  dancers,  as  before,  and  many  came  to 
listen  to  the  marvelous  tales  of  the  Thou- 
sand and  One  Nights. 

"Olearius.  Adam.  An  Account  of  His  Journeys. 
London,  1669. 

"Niebuhr,  Karstens.  Description  of  Arabia.  Amster- 
dam, 1774.     (Heron  trans.,  London,  1792;  p.  266.) 

In  Oriental  countrieii  it  was  once  the  cus- 
tom to  offer  a  cup  of  "bad  coffee,"  i.e., 
coffee  containing  poison,  to  those  function- 
aries or  other  persohs  who  had  proven 
themselves  embarrassing  to  the  authorities. 
While  coffee  drinking  started  as  a  pri- 
vate religious  function,  it  was  not  long 
after  its  introduction  by  the  coffee  houses 
that  it  became  secularized  still  more  in  the 
homes  of  the  people,  although  for  centuries 
it  retained  a  certain  religious  significance. 
Galland  says  that  in  Constantinople,  at  the 
time  of  his  visit  to  the  city,  there  was  no 
house,  rich  or  poor,  Turk  or  Jew,  Greek 
or  Armenian,  where  it  was  not  drunk  at 
least  twice  a  day,  and  many  drank  it 
oftener,  for  it  became  a  custom  in  every 
house  to  offer  it  to  all  visitors;  and  it  was 
considered  an  incivility  to  refuse  it. 
Twenty  dishes  a  day,  per  person,  was  not 
an  uncommon  average. 

Galland  observes  that  "as  much  money 
must  be  spent  in  the  private  families  of 
Constantinople  for  coffee  as  for  wine  at 
Paris,"  and  relates  that  it  is  as  common 
for  beggars  to  ask  for  money  to  buy  cof- 
fee, as  it  is  in  Europe  to  ask  for  money  to 
buy  wine  or  beer. 

At  this  time  to  refuse  or  to  neglect  to 
give  coffee  to  their  wives  was  a  legitimate 
cause  for  divorce  among  the  Turks.  The 
men  made  promise  when  marrying  never 
to  let  their  wives  be  without  coffee.  "That," 
says  Fulbert  de  Monteith,  "is  perhaps  more 
prudent  than  to  swear  fidelity." 

Another  Arabic  manuscript  by  Bichivili 
in  the  Bibliotheque  Nationale  at  Paris  fur- 
nishes us  with  this  pen  picture  of  the  cof- 
fee ceremony  as  practised  in  Constanti- 
nople in  the  sixteenth  century: 

In  all  the  great  men's  houses,  there  are  ser- 
vants whose  business  it  ds  only  to  take  care  of 
the  coffee ;  and  the  head  officer  among  them,  or 
he  who  has  the  inspection  over  all  the  rest,  has 
an  apartment  allowed  him  near  the  hall  which 
is  destined  for  the  reception  of  visitor-s.  The 
Turks  call  this  officer  Kavveghi,  that  is.  Over- 
seer or  Steward  of  the  Coffee.  In  the  harem  or 
ladies'  apartment  in  the  seraglio,  there  are  a 
great  many  such  officers,  each  having  forty  or 
fifty  Baltafiix  under  them,  who,  after  they  have 
served  a  certain  time  in  these  coffee-houses,  are 
sure  to  be  well  provided  for,  either  by  an  ad- 
vantageous post,  or  a  sufficient  quantity  of  land. 
In  the  houses  of  persons  of  quality  likewise, 
there  are  pages,  called  Itchogluns,  who  receive 
the  coffee  from  the  stewards,  and  present  it  to 
the  company  with  surprising  dexteritv  and  ad- 
dress, as  soon  as  the  master  of  the  faniily  makes 
a  sign  for  that  purpose,  which  is  all  the  language 
they  ever  speak  to  them.  ...  The  coffee  is 
served  on  salvers  without  feet,  made  commonly 



Serving  Cofiee  to  a  Guest. — After  a  Drawing  in  an  Early  Edition  of  "Arabian  Nights" 

of  painted  or  varnished  wood,  and  sometimes 
of  silver.  They  hold  from  15  to  20  china  dishes 
each ;  and  such  as  can  afford  it  have  these 
dishes  half  set  in  silver  .  .  .  the  dish  may  be 
easily  held  with  the  thumb  below  and  two  fingers 
on  the  upper  edge. 

In  his  Relation  of  a  Journey  to  Constan- 
tinople in  1657,  Nicholas  Rolamb,  the  Swe- 
dish traveler  and  envoy  to  the  Ottoman 
Porte,  gives  us  this  early  glimpse  of  cof- 
fee in  the  home  life  of  the  Turks:" 

This  [coffee]  is  a  kind  of  pea  that  grows  in 
l^fiupt,  which  the  Turks  pound  and  boil  in  water, 
and  take  it  for  pleasure  instead  of  brandy,  sip- 
ping it  through  the  lips  boiling  hot,  persuading 
themselves  that  it  consumes  catarrhs,  and  pre- 
vents the  rising  of  vapours  out  of  the  stomach 
into  the  head.  The  drinking  of  this  coffee  and 
smoking  tobacco  (for  tho'  the  use  of  tobacco 
is  forbidden  on  pain  of  death,  yet  it  is  used  in 
Constantinople  more   than   any   where   by  men 

'"A  Collection  of  Voyages  and  Travels.  London, 
1745.     (vol.  Iv:  p.  690.) 

as  well  as  women,  tho'  secretly)  makes  up  all 
the  pastime  among  the  Turks,  and  is  the  only 
thing  they  treat  one  another  with;  for  which 
reason  all  people  of  distinction  have  a  particular 
room  next  their  own,  built  on  purpose  for  it, 
where  there  stands  a  jar  of  coffee  continually 

It  is  curious  to  note  that  among  several 
misconceptions  that  were  held  by  some  of 
the  peoples  of  the  Levant  was  one  that 
coffee  was  a  promoter  of  impotence,  al- 
though a  Persian  version  of  the  Angel 
Gabriel  legend  says  that  Gabriel  invented 
it  to  restore  the  Prophet's  failing  metabo- 
lism. Often  in  Turkish  and  Arabian  litera- 
ture, however,  we  meet  with  the  sugges- 
tion that  coffee  drinking  makes  for  sterility 
and  barrenness,  a  notion  that  modern  medi- 
cine has  exploded;  for  now  we  know  that 
coffee  stimulates  the  racial  instinct,  for 
which  tobacco  is  a  sedative. 




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Chapter    IV 

When  the  three  great  temperance  beverages,  cocoa,  tea,  and  coffee, 
came  to  Europe  —  Coffee  first  mentioned  by  Rauivolf  in  1582  — 
Early  days  of  coff'ee  in  Italy  —  How  Pope.  Clement  VIILJbaptised  it 
and  made  it  a  truly  Qhrisiicm  beverage  —  The  first  European  coffee 
house,  in  Venice,  1645  —  The  famous  Caffe  Florian  —  Other  cele- 
brated Venetian  coffee  houses  of  the  eighteenth  century  —  The 
romantic  story  of  Pedrocchi,  the  poor  lemonade-vender,  who  built  the 
most  beautiful  coffee  house  in  the  world 

OF  the  Avorld's  three  great  temperance 
beverages,  cocoa,  tea,  and  coffee, 
cocoa  was  the  first  to  be  introduced 
into  Europe,  in  lh28^hy  the  Spanish.  It 
was  nearly  a  century  later^ift-1 61^,  that 
the  Dutch  brought  tea  to  Europe.  Vene- 
tian traders  introduced  coffee  into  Europe 
in  1615. 

Europe's  first  knowledge  of  coffee  was 
brought  by  travelers  returning  from  the 
Far  East  and  the  Levant.  Leonhard  Rau- 
wolf  started  on  his  famous  journey  into  the 
Eastern  countries  from  Marseilles  in  Sep- 
tember, 1573,  having  left  his  home  in 
Augsburg,  the  18th  of  the  preceding  May. 
He  reached  Aleppo  in  November,  1573 ;  and 
returned  to  Augsburg,  February  12,  1576. 
He  was  the  first  European  to  mention  cof- 
fee; and  to  him  also  belongs  the  honor  of 
being  the  first  to  refer  to  the  beverage  in 

Rauwolf  was  not  only  a  doctor  of  medi- 
cine and  a  botanist  of  great  renown,  but 
also  official  physician  to  the  town  of  Augs- 
burg. When  he  spoke,  it  was  as  one  having 
authority.  The  first  printed  reference  to 
coffee  appears  as  chauhe  in  chapter  viii  of 
Rauwolf 's  Travels,  which  deals  with  the 
manners  and  customs  of  the  city  of  Aleppo, 
The  exact  passage  is  reproduced  herewith 
as  it  appears  in  the  original  German  edi- 
tion of  Rauwolf  published  at  Frankfort 

and  Lauingen  in  1582-83. 
tion  is  as  follows: 

The  transla- 

If  you  have  a  mind  to  eat  something  or  to 
drinii  other  liquors,  there  is  commonly  an  open 
shop  near  it,  where  you  sit  down  upon  the 
ground  or  carpets  and  drink  together.  Among 
the  rest  they  have  a  very  good  drink,  by  them 
called  Chauhe  [coffee]  that  is  almost  as  black 
as  ink,  and  very  good  in  illness,  chieti.v  that  of 
the  stomach ;  of  this  they  drink  in  the  morning 
early  in  open  places  before  everybody,  without 
any  fear  or  regard,  out  of  China  cups,  as  hot  as 
they  can :  they  put  it  often  to  their  lips  but 
drink  but  little  at  a  time,  and  let  it  go  round 
as  they  sit. 

In  this  same  water  they  take  a  fruit  called 
Bunnu  which  In  its  bigness,  shape  and  color  is 
almost  like  unto  a  bayberry,  with  two  thin  shells 
surrounded,  which,  as  they  informed  me,  are 
brought  from  the  Indies;  but  as  these  in  them- 
selves are,  and  have  within  them,  two  yellowish 
grains  in  two  distinct  cells,  and  besides,  being 
they  agree  in  their  virtue,  figure,  looks,  and 
name  with  the  Bunchum  of  Avicenna,  and  Bunca 
of  Rasis  ad  Almans  exactly;  therefore  I  take 
them  to  be  the  same,  until  I  am  better  informed 
by  the  learned.  This  liquor  is  very  common 
among  them,  wherefore  there  are  a  great  many 
of  them  that  sell  it.  and  others  that  sell  the 
berries,  everywhere  in  their  Batzars. 

The  Early  Days  of  Coffee  in  Italy 

It  is  not  easy  to  determine  just  whvm  the 
use  of  coffee  spread  from  Constantinople  to 
the  western  parts  of  Europe ;  but  it  is  more 
than  likely  that  the  Venetians,  because  of 
their  close  proximity  to,  and  their  great 




trade    with,    the    Levant,    were    the    first 
acquainted  with  it. 

Prospero  Alpini  (Alpinus;  1553-1617), 
a  learned  physician  and  botanist  of  Padua, 
journeyed  to  P^^ypt  in  1580,  and  brought 
back  news  of  coffee.  He  was  the  first  to 
print  a  description  of  the  coffee  plant  and 
drink  in  his  trcatisi'  The  Vlanis  of  Kgypl, 
written  in  Tjatin,  and  published  in  Venice, 
1592.     lie  says: 

I  have  seen  this  tree  at  Cairo,  it  being  tlio 
same  tree  that  prodnces  the  frnit,  so  common  in 
Egypt,  to  which  they  giro  tlie  name  hnn  or  hnn. 
The  Arabians  and  the  Egyptians  malie  a  sort 
of  decoction  of  it,  which  they  drink  instead  of 
wine;  and  it  is  sokl  in  all  their  public  houses, 
as  wine  Is  with  us.  They  call  this  drink  caova. 
The  fruit  of  which  they  make  it  comes  from 
"Arabia  the  Happy,"  and  the  tree  that  I  saw 
looks  like  a  spindle  tree,  but  the  leaves  are 
thicker,  tougher,  and  greener.  The  tree  is  never 
without  leaves. 

Alpini  makes  note  of  the  medicinal  quali- 
ties attributed  to  the  drink  by  dwellers  in 
the  Orient,  and  many  of  these  were  soon 
incorporated  into  Europe's  materia  medica. 

Johann  Vesling  (Veslingius;  1598- 
1649),  a  German  botanist  and  traveler, 
settled  in  Venice,  where  he  became  known 
as  a  learned  Italian  physician.  He  edited 
(1640)  a  new  edition  of  Alpini 's  work;  but 
earlier  (1638)  published  some  comments  on 
Alpini 's  findings,  in  the  course  of  which 
he  distinguished  certain  qualities  found  in 
a  drink  made  from  the  husks  (skins)  of 
the  coffee  berries  from  those  found  in  the 
liquor  made  from  the  beans  themselves, 
which  he  calls  the  stones  of  the  coffee  fruit. 
He  says : 

Not  only  in  Egypt  is  coffee  in  much  request, 
but  in  almost  all  the  other  provinces  of  the 
Turkish  Empire.  Whence  it  comes  to  pass  that 
it  is  dear  even  in  the  Levant  and  scarce  among 
the  Europeans,  who  by  that  means  are  deprived 
of  a  very  wholesome  liquor. 

From  this  we  may  conclude  that  coffee 
was  not  wholly  unknown  in  Europe  at  that 
time.  Vesling  adds  that  when  he  visited 
Cairo,  he  found  there  two  or  three  thousand 
coffee  houses,  and  that  "some  did  begin  to 
put  sugar  in  their  coffee  to  correct  the  bit- 
terness of  it,  and  others  made  sugar-plums 
of  the  berries." 

Coffee,  Baptized  hy  the  Pope 

Shortly  after  coffee  reached  Rome,  ac- 
cording to  a  much  quoted  legend,  it  was 
again  threatened  with  religious  fanaticism, 
which  almost  caused  its  excommunication 
from  Christendom.    It  ig  rel$.te4  that  eer- 

Ax  EuniTEENTii  Centuuy  Italian  Coffee  House 
After  Goldoni,  by  Zatta 

tain  priests  appealed  to  Pope  Clement  VIII 
(1535-1605)  to  have  its  use  forbidden 
among  Christians,  denouncing  it  as  an  in- 
vention of  Satan.  They  claimed  that  the 
Evil  One,  having  forbidden  his  followers, 
the  infidel  Moslems,  the  use  of  wine  —  no 
doubt  because  it  was  sanctified  by  Christ 
and  used  in  the  Holy  Communion  —  had 
given  them  as  a  substitute  this  hellish  black 
brew  of  his  which  they  called  coffee.  For 
Christians  to  drink  it  was  to  risk  falling 
into  a  trap  set  by  Satan  for  their  souls. 

It  is  further  related  that  the  pope,  made 
curious,  desired  to  inspect  this  Devil's 
drink,  and  had  some  brought  to  him.  The 
aroma  of  it  was  so  pleasant  and  inviting 
that  the  pope  was  tempted  to  try  a  cupful. 
After  drinking  it,  he  exclaimed,  "Why,  this 
Satan's  drink  is  so  delicious  that  it  would 
be  a  pity  to  let  the  infidels  have  exclusive 
use  of  it.  We  shall  fool  Satan  by  baptizing 
it,  and  making  it  a  truly  Christian  bev- 
erage. ' ' 

Thus,  whatever  harmfulness  its  oppo- 
nents try  to  attribute  to  coffee,  the  fact 
remains  (if  we  are  to  credit  the  story)  that 
it  has  been  baptized  and  proclaimed  un- 
harmful,  and  a  "truly  Christian  beverage," 
by  his  holiness  the  pope. 

The  Venetians  had  further  knowledge  of 
coffee  in  1585,  when  Cianfrancesco  Moro- 
sini,  city  magistrate  at  Constantinople,  re- 
ported to  the  Senate  that  the  Turks  ' '  drink 
a  black  water  as  hot  as  they  can  suffer  it, 
which  is  the  infusion  of  a  bean  called  cavee, 
which  is  said  to  possess  the  virtue  of  stimu- 
lating mankind." 

Dr.  A.  Couguet,  in  an  Italian  review, 
asserts  that  Europe's  first  cup  of  coffee 
was  sipped  in  Venice,  toward  the  close  of 



the  sixti'oiith  eontury.  He  is  of  the  opin- 
ion that  the  first  berries  were  imported  by 
Mocenjrio,  who  was  called  the  pevcre,  be- 
cause he  made  a  huge  fortune  trading-  in 
spices  and  others  specialties  of  the  Orient. 
In  Kilf)  Pierre  (Pietro)  Delia  Valle 
(ir)8()  - 1652),  the  well  known  Italian  trav- 
eler and  author  of  Travels  in  India  and 
Persia,  wrote  a  letter  from  Constantinople 
to  his  friend  Mario  Schipano  at  Venice: 

The  Turks  have  a  drink  of  black  color,  which 
dnrinj?  tho  suinnier  is  very  cooliii}?.  whereas  in 
the  winter  it  heats  and  warms  the  Itody,  re- 
maiiiiiiK  always  the  same  boverajje  and  not 
changinj;  its  sui»stance.  They  swallow  it  hot 
as  it  comes  from  the  fire  and  they  drink  it  in 
lonj;  draughts,  not  at  dinner  time,  but  as  a 
kind  of  dainty  and  sipped  slowly  while  talking 
with  one's  friends.  One  cannot  find  any  meet- 
ings among  them  where  they  drink  it  not.  .  .  . 
With  this  drink,  whicli  they  call  cahue,  they 
divert  themselves  in  their  conversations.  .  .  . 
It  is  made  with  the  grain  or  fruit  of  a  certain 
tree  called  cahuc.  .  .  .  When  I  return  I  will 
bring  some  with  me  and  1  will  impart  the  knowl- 
edge to  the  Italians. 

Nobility  in  an  Early  Vknetian  CAFFfe 

From    the    Grevembroch    collection    in    the   Museo 

Delia  Valle 's  countrymen,  however,  were 
in  a  fair  way  to  become  well  acquainted 
with  the  beverage,  for  already  (1615)  it 
had  been  introduced  into  Venice.  At  first 
it  was  used  largely  for  medicinal  purposes; 
and  high  prices  were  charged  for  it.  Ves- 
ling  says  of  its  use  in  Europe  as  a  medicine, 
''the  first  step  it  made  from  the  cabinets 
of  the  curious,  as  an  exotic  seed,  being  into 
the  apothecaries'  shops  as  a  drug." 

The  first  coffee  house  in  Italy  is  said  to 
have  been  opened  in  1645,  but  convincing 
confirmation  is  lacking.  In  the  beginning, 
the  beverage  was  sold  with  other  drinks  by 
lemonade-venders.  The  Italian  word  aqua- 
cedratajo  means  one  who  sells  lemonade  and 
similar  refreshments;  also  one  who  sells 
coffee,  chocolate,  liquor,  etc.  Jardin  says 
the  beverage  was  in  general  use  throughout 
Italy  in  1645.  It  is  certain,  however,  that 
a  coffee  shop  was  opened  in  Venice  in  1683 
under  the  Procuratie  Nuove.  The  famous 
Gaffe  Florian  was  opened  in  Venice  by 
Floriono  Francesconi  in  1720. 

The  first  authoritative  treatise  devoted  to 
coffee  only  appeared  in  1671.  It  was  writ- 
ten in  Latin  by  Antoine  Faustus  Nairon 
(1635-1707),  Maronite  professor  of  the 
Chaldean  and  Syrian  languages  in  the  Col- 
lege of  Rome. 

During  the  latter  part  of  the  seventeenth 
century  and  the  first  half  of  the  eighteenth, 
the  coffee  house  made  great  progress  in 
Italy.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  this 
first  European  adaptation  of  the  Oriental 
coffee  house  was  known  as  a  caffe.  The 
double  f  is  retained  by  the  Italians  to  this 
day,  and  by  some  writers  is  thought  to 
have  been  taken  from  coffea,  without  the 
double  f  being  lost,  as  in  the  case  of  the 
French  and  some  other  Continental  forms. 

To  Italy,  then,  belongs  the  honor  of  hav- 
ing given  to  the  Western  world  the  real 
coffee  house,  although  the  French  and 
Austrians  greatly  improved  upon  it.  It  was 
not  long  after  its  beginning  that  nearly 
every  shop  on  the  Piazza  di  San  Marco  in 
Venice  was  a  caffe  \  Near  the  Piazza  was 
the  Caffe  della  Ponte  dell'  Angelo,  where 
in  1792  died  the  dog  Tabacchio,  celebrated 
by  Vincenzo  Formaleoni  in  a  satirical  eu- 
logy that  is  a  parody  of  the  oration  of 
Ubaldo  Bregolini  upon  the  death  of  Angelo 

In  the  Caffe  della  Spaderia,  kept  by 
Marco  Ancilloto,  some  radicals  proposed  to 

1  Molnipnti,  Pompeo.  La  Btoria  di  Venezia  nella 
Vita  Privata.     Bergamo,  1908.     (pt  3 :  p.  245.) 



open  a  rcadiiifr-room  to  encourage  the 
spread  of  liberal  ideas.  The  inquisitors 
sent  a  foot-soldier  to  notify  the  proprietor 
that  he  should  inform  the  first  person  en- 
tering the  room  that  he  was  to  present  him- 
self before  their  tribunal.  The  idea  was 
thereupon  abandoned. 

Among  other  celebrated  coffee  houses 
was  the  one  called  Menegazzo,  from  the 
name  of  the  rotund  proprietor,  Menico. 
This  place  was  much  frequented  by  men 
of  letters ;  and  heated  discussions  were  com- 

GoLDONi  IN  A  Venetian  Caffe 
From  a  painting  by  P.   Longhi 

mon  there  between  Angelo  Maria  Barbaro, 
Lorenzo  da  Ponte,  and  others  of  their  time. 

The  coffee  house  gradually  became  the 
common  resort  of  all  classes.  In  the  morn- 
ings came  the  merchants,  lawyers,  physi- 
cians, brokers,  workers,  and  wandering  ven- 
ders; in  the  afternoons,  and  until  the  late 
hours  of  the  nights,  the  leisure  classes,  in- 
cluding the  ladies. 

For  the  most  part,  the  rooms  of  the  first 
Italian  caffe  were  low,  simple,  unadorned, 
without  windows,  and  only  poorly  illumi- 
nated by  tremulous  and  uncertain  lights. 
Within  them,  however,  joyous  throngs 
passed  to  and  fro,  clad  in  varicolored  gar- 
ments, men  and  women  chatting  in  groups 
here  and  there,  and  always  above  the  buzz 
there  were  to  be  heard  such  choice  bits  of 

scandal  as  made  worthwhile  a  visit  to  the 
coffee  house.  Smaller  rooms  were  devoted 
to  gaming. 

In  the  "little  square"  described  by  Gol- 
doni  ^  in  his  comedy  The  Coffee  House, 
where  the  combined  barber-shop  and  gam- 
bling house  was  located,  Don  Marzio,  that 
marvelous  type  of  slanderous  old  romancer, 
is  shown  as  one  typical  of  the  period,  for 
Goldoni  was  a  satirist.  The  other  charac- 
ters of  the  play  were  also  drawn  from  the 
types  then  to  be  seen  every  day  in  the 
coffee  houses  on  the  Piazza. 

In  the  square  of  St.  Mark's,  in  the  eigh- 
teenth century,  under  the  Procuratie  Vec- 
chie,  were  the  caffe  Re  di  Francia,  Abbon- 
danza,  Pitt.  I'eroe,  Regina  d'Uiigheria, 
Orfeo,  Redentore.  Coraggio  -  Speranza, 
Arco  Celeste,  and  Quadri.  The  last-named 
was  opened  in  1775  by  Giorgio  Quadri  of 
Corfu,  who  served  genuine  Turkish  coffee 
for  the  first  time  in  Venice. 

Under  the  Procuratie  Nuove  were  to  be 
found  the  caffe  Angelo  Custode,  Duca  di 
Toscana,  Buon  genio  -  Doge,  Imperatore 
Imperatrice  della  Russia,  Tamerlano,  Fon- 
tane  di  Diana,  Dame  Venete,  Aurora  Piante 
d'oro,  Arabo  -  Piastrelle,  Pace,  Venezia 
trionfante,  and  Florian. 

Probably  no  coffee  house  in  Europe  ha.s 
acquired  so  world-wide  a  celebrity  as  that 
kept  by  Florian,  the  friend  of  Canova  the 
sculptor,  and  the  trusted  agent  and  ac- 
quaintance of  hundreds  of  persons  in  and 
out  of  the  city,  who  found  him  a  mine  of 
social  information  and  a  convenient  city 
directory.  Persons  leaving  Venice  left 
their  cards  and  itineraries  with  him ;  and 
new-comers  inquired  at  Florian 's  for  tid- 
ings of  those  whom  they  wished  to  see, 
"He  long  concentrated  in  himself  a  knowl- 
edge more  varied  and  multifarious  than 
that  possessed  by  any  individual  before  or 
since,"  says  Hazlitt^  who  has  given  us 
this  delightful  pen  picture  of  caffe  life  in 
Venice  in  the  eighteenth  century: 

Venetian  coffee  was  said  to  surpass  all  others, 
and  the  article  placed  before  his  visitors  by 
Florian  was  the  best  in  Venice.  Of  some  of  the 
establishments  as  they  then  existed,  Molmenti 
lias  supplied  us  with  illustrations,  in  one  of 
which  Goldoni  the  dramatist  is  represented  as 
a  visitor,  and  a  female  mendicant  is  soliciting 

So  cordiftl  -was  the  esteem  of  the  great  sculp- 
tor  Canova   for   him,   that   when   Florian   was 

=  Goldoni,  Carlo.     La  Bottegn  di  Caffe.     IToO. 
=•  Hazlitt,  W.  Carew.     The  Venetian  Republic.     Lon- 
don, 1905.      (vol.  2:  pp.  1012-15.) 




Flokian's  Famous  Cafkk  in  the  Piazza  di  San  Marco,  Venice,  Nineteenth  Century 

overtaken  by  gout,  he  made  a  model  of  his 
leg.  that  the  poor  fellow  might  be  spared  the 
anguish  of  fitting  himself  with  boots.  The 
friendsliip  had  begun  when  Canova  was  enter- 
ing on  liis  career,  and  he  never  forgot  the 
.substantial  services  which  had  been  rendered 
to  him  in  the  hour  of  need. 

In  later  days,  the  Cafife  Florian  was  under 
the  superintendence  of  a  female  chef,  and  the 
waitresses  used,  in  the  case  of  certain  visitors, 
to  fasten  a  liower  in  the  button-hole,  perhaps 
allusively  to  the  name.  In  the  Piazza  Itself 
girls  would  do  the  same  thing.  A  good  deal  of 
hospitality  is,  and  has  ever  been,  dispensed  at 
Venice  in  the  caf6s  and  restaurants,  which  do 
service   for   the   domestic   hearth. 

There  were  many  other  establishments  de- 
voted, more  especially  in  the  latest  period  of 
Venetian  independence,  to  the  requirements  of 
those  wlio  desired  such  resorts  for  purposes  of 
conversation  and  gossip.  These  houses  were 
frequented  by  various  classes  of  patrons  —  the 
patrician,  the  politician,  the  soldier,  the  artist, 
the  old  and  the  young  —  all  had  their  special 
haunts  where  the  company  and  the  tariff  were 
in  accordance  with  the  guests.  The  upper  cir- 
cles of  male  society  —  all  above  the  actually 
poor  —  gravitated  hither  to  a  man. 

For  the  Venetian  of  all  ranks  the  coffee  house 
was  almost  the  last  place  visited  on  departure 
from  the  city,  and  the  first  visited  on  his  re- 
turn. His  domicile  was  the  residence  of  his 
wife  and  the  repository  of  his  possessions;  but 
only  on  exceptional  occasions  was  it  the  scene 
of  domestic  hospitality,  and  rare  were  the  in- 
stances when  the  husband  and  wife  might  be 
seen    abroad    together,    and    when    the    former 

would  invite  the  lady  to  enter  a  cafe  or  a  con- 
fectioner's shop  to  partake  of  an  ice. 

The  Caffe  Florian  has  undergone  man^^ 
changes,  but  it  still  survives  as  one  of  the 
favorite  caffe  in  the  Piazza  San  Marco. 

By  1775  coffee-house  history  had  begun 
to  repeat  itself  in  Venice.  Charges  of  im- 
morality, vice,  and  corruption,  were  pre- 
ferred against  the  caffe;  and  the  Council 
of  Ten  in  1775,  and  again  in  1776,  directed 
the  Inquisitors  of  State  to  eradicate  these 
' '  social  cankers. ' '  However,  they  survived 
all  attempts  of  the  reformers  to  suppress 

The  Caffe  Pedrocchi  in  Padua  was  an- 
other of  the  early  Italian  coffee  houses  that 
became  famous.  Antonio  Pedrocchi  (1776- 
1852)  was  a  lemonade- vender  who,  in  the 
hope  of  attracting  the  gay  youth,  the  stu- 
dents of  his  time,  bought  an  old  house  with 
the  idea  of  converting  the  ground  floor 
into  a  series  of  attractive  rooms.  He  put 
all  his  ready  money  and  all  he  could  borrow 
into  the  venture,  only  to  find  there  were 
no  cellars,  indispensable  for  making  ices 
and  beverages  on  the  premises,  and  that  the 
walls  and  floors  were  so  old  that  they 
crumbled  when  repairs  were  started. 

He  was  in  despair ;  but,  nothing  daunted, 
he  decided  to  have  a  cellar  dug.    What  was 



his  surprise  to  find  the  house  was  built 
over  the  vault  of  an  old  church,  and  that 
the  vault  contained  considerable  treasure. 
The  lucky  proprietor  found  himself  free  to 
continue  his  trade  of  lemonade-vender  and 
coffee-seller,  or  to  live  a  life  of  ease.  Being 
a  wise  man,  he  adhered  to  his  original  plan ; 
and  soon  his  luxurious  rooms  became  the 
favorite  rendezvous  for  the  smart  set  of 
his  day.  In  this  period  lemonade  and  cof- 
fee frequently  went  together.  The  Gaffe 
Pedrocchi  is  considered  one  of  the  finest 
pieces  of  architecture  erected  in  Italy  in 
the  nineteenth  century.  It  was  begun  in 
1816,  opened  in  1831,  and  completed  in 

Coffee  houses  were  early  established  in 
other  Italian  cities,  particularly  in  Rome, 
Florence,  and  Genoa. 

In  1764,  11  Cajfe,  a  purely  philosophical 
and  literary  periodical,  made  its  appear- 
ance in  Milan,  being  founded  by  Gount 
Pietro  Verri  (1728-97).  Its  chief  editor 
was  Gesare  Beccaria.  Its  object  was  to 
counteract  the  influence  and  superficiality 
of  the  Arcadians.  It  acquired  its  title  from 
the  fact  that  Gount  Verri  and  his  friends 
were  wont  to  meet  at  a  coffee  house  in 
Milan  kept  by  a  Greek  named  Demetrio.  It 
lived  only  two  years. 

Other  periodicals  of  the  same  name  ap- 
peared at  later  periods. 


Chapter   V 


What  French  travelers  did  for  coffee  —  The  introduction  of  coffee 
hy  P.  de  la  Roque  into  Marseilles  in  1644  —  The  first  commercial 
importation  of  coffee  from  Egypt  —  The  first  French  coffee  house  — 
Failure  of  the  attempt  hy  physicians  of  Marseilles  to  discredit 
coffee  —  Soliman  Aga  introduces  coff'ee  into  Paris  —  Cabarets  a 
caffe  —  Celebrated  works  on  coffee  hy  French  writers 

WE  are  indebted  to  three  great  French 
travelers  for  much  valuable  knowl- 
edge about  coffee;  and  these  gal- 
lant gentlemen  first  fired  the  imagination 
of  the  French  people  in  regard  to  the  bev- 
erage that  was  destined  to  play  so  impor- 
tant a  part  in  the  French  revolution.  They 
are  Tavernier  (1605  -  89),  Thevenot  (1633  - 
67),  and  Bernier  (1625-88). 

Then  there  is  Jean  La  Roque  (1661- 
1745),  who  made  a  famous  "Voyage  to 
Arabia  the  Happy"  {Voyage  de  rArabie 
Heureuse)  in  1708  - 13  and  to  whose  father, 
P.  de  la  Roque,  is  due  the  honor  of  having 
brought  the  first  coffee  into  France  in  1644. 
Also,  there  is  Antoine  Galland  (1646  - 
1715),  the  French  Orientalist,  first  trans- 
lator of  the  Arabian  Nights  and  antiquary 
to  the  king,  who,  in  1699,  published  an  an- 
alysis and  translation  from  the  Arabic  of 
the  Abd-al-Kadir  manuscript  (1587),  giv- 
ing the  first  authentic  account  of  the  origin 
of  coffee. 

Probably  the  earliest  reference  to  coffee 
in  France  is  to  be  found  in  the  simple 
statement  that  Onorio  Belli  (Bellus),  the 
Italian  botanist  and  author,  in  1596  sent  to 
Charles  de  I'ficluse  (1526  - 1609),  a  French 
physician,  botanist  and  traveler,  "seeds 
used  by  the  Egyptians  to  make  a  liquid 
they  call  cave.^" 

P.  de  la  Roque  accompanied  M.  de  la 
Haye,  the  French  ambassador,  to  Constan- 

•  Jardin,  fidelestan.  Le  Caf&icr  vt  le  Caji.  I'aris, 
1895.      (p.  16  ) 

tinople;  and  afterward  traveled  into  the 
Levant.  Upon  his  return  to  Marseilles  in 
1644,  he  brought  with  him  not  only  some 
coffee,  but  "all  the  little  implements  used 
about  it  in  Turkey,  which  were  then  looked 
upon  as  great  curiosities  in  France. ' '  There 
were  included  in  the  coffee  service  some 
findjans,  or  china  dishes,  and  small  pieces 
of  muslin  embroidered  with  gold,  silver, 
and  silk,  which  the  Turks  used  as  napkins. 

Jean  La  Roque  gives  credit  to  Jean  de 
Thevenot  for  introducing  coffee  privately 
into  Paris  in  1657,  and  for  teaching  the 
French  how  to  use  coffee. 

De  Thevenot  writes  in  this  entertaining 
fashion  concerning  the  use  of  the  drink  :u 
Turkey  in  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth 
century : 

They  have  another  drink  in  ordinary  use. 
Tliey  call  it  cahve  and  take  it  all  hours  of  the 
day.  This  drink  is  made  from  a  berry  roasted 
in  a  pan  or  other  utensil  over  the  fire.  They 
pound  it  into  a  very  fine  powder. 

When  they  wish  to  drink  it,  they  take  a  boiler 
made  expressly  for  the  purpose,  which  they  call 
an  ibrik;  and  having  filled  it  with  water,  they 
let  it  boil.  When  it  boils,  they  add  to  about 
three  cups  of  water  a  heaping  spoonful  of  the 
powder ;  and  when  it  boils,  they  remove  it 
quickly  from  the  fire,  or  sometimes  they  stir  it, 
otherwise  it  would  boil  over,  as  it  rises  very 
quickly.  When  it  has  boiled  up  thus  ten  or 
twelve  times,  they  pour  it  into  porcelain  cups, 
which  they  place  upon  a  platter  of  painted  wood 
and  bring  it  to  you  thus  boiling. 

One  must  drink  it  hot,  but  in  several  instal- 
ments, otherwise  it  is  not  good.    One  takes  it  in 




little  swallows '  for  fear  of  burning  one's  self  — 
in  such  fashion  that  in  a  cavekane  (so  they  call 
the  places  where  it  is  sold  ready  prepared),  one 
hears  a  plea.saiit  little  musical  sucking  sound. 
.  .  .  There  are  some  who  mix  with  it  a  small 
quantity  of  cloves  and  cardamom  seeds ;  others 
add  sugar. 

It  was  really  out  of  curiosity  that  the 
[)e()ple  of  France  took  to  coffee,  says  Jar- 


D  E 


5£  Ic  Dctioit  dc  la  Mcr  Rouge.  Fau  par 
Ics  Fran^oji  pout  U  premiere fbis,  dans 
les  anncci  1708,170^^6^1710. 

d'un  Voyage  fait  du  Pott  de  Mcka  a  laCour  du 
Roy  d'Yemcn  ,  dans  la  feconde  Expedition  dc$ 
annees  1711,  1711  &  1713. 

Sc  le  Fruit  du  Cafe ,  dfc  (Te  fur  ks  Obfervations 
de  ceux  qui  ont  fait  cc  dernier  Voyage.  Et  un 
Traitc  hiftonque  de  Toi  igine  &  du  progfcs  du 
Cafe,  tant  dans  lAfie  que  dans  'Europe  ;  de  Con 
introduftion  en  France,  &  de  rctiblmemcnt dc 
fon  ufagc  a  Paris. 

A     PARIS, 

Chez  A  N  D  R  E^  C  A  1  L  L  F.  A  u,  fur  Ic  Quay  dcj 
Auguftins,  p;es  la  rue  Pavec  ,  a  Saint  Andre. 

M   D  C  C   X  V  L 
^vtc  jipprobmon ,  ^&  Privilege  du  R»y, 

Title  Page  of  La  Roque's  Work,  1716 

din;  "they  wanted  to  know  this  Oriental 
beverage,  so  much  vaunted,  although  its 
blackness  at  first  sight  was  far  from  attrac- 

About  the  year  1660  several  merchants 
of  Marseilles,  who  had  lived  for  a  time  in 
the  Levant  and  felt  they  were  not  able  to 
do  without  coffee,  brought  some  coffee  beans 
home  with  them;  and  later,  a  group  of 
apothecaries  and  other  merchants  brought 
in  the  first  commercial  importation  of  eof- 

^  "Drop  by  drop  they  take  it  in,"  said  Cotoviciis. 

fee  in  bales  from  Egypt.  The  Lyons  mer- 
chants soon  followed  suit,  and  the  use  of 
coffee  became  general  in  those  parts.  In 
1671  certain  private  persons  opened  a  cof- 
fee house  in  Marseilles,  near  the  Exchange, 
which  at  once  became  popular  with  mer- 
chants and  travelers.  Others  started  up, 
and  all  were  crowded.  The  people  did  not, 
however,  drink  any  the  less  at  home.  "In 
fine,"  says  La  Roque,  "the  use  of  the  bev- 
erage increased  so  amazingly  that,  as  was 
inevitable,  the  physicians  became  alarmed, 
"thinking  it  would  not  agree  with  the  in- 
habitants of  a  country  hot  and  extremely 

The  age-old  controversy  was  on.  Some 
sided  with  the  physicians,  others  opposed 
them,  as  at  Mecca,  Cairo,  and  Constanti- 
nople; only  here  the  argument  turned 
mainly  on  the  medicinal  question,  the 
Church  this  time  having  no  part  in  the 
dispute.  "The  lovers  of  coffee  used  the 
physicians  very  ill  when  they  met  together, 


^^' Ail  Cn/c   dcj'sniii  en. 

.'ir/xhit  j->ir  h  }7an%rcf. 

'  TA.-n^^U  J-c, 

The  Coffee  Tree  as  Pictured  by  La  Roque  in 
His  "Voyage  de  l'Arabie  Heureuse" 

and  the  physicians  on  their  side  threatened 
the  coft'ee  drinkers  with  all  sorts  of  dis- 
eases. ' ' 

Matters  came  to  a  head  in  1679,  when 
an  ingenious  attempt  by  the  physicians  of 






Marseilles  to  discredit  coffee  took  the  form 
of  having  a  young  student,  about  to  be  ad- 
mitted to  the  College  of  Physicians,  dis- 
pute before  the  magistrate  in  the  town  hall, 
a  question  proposed  by  two  physicians  of 
the  Faculty  of  Aix,  as  to  whether  coffee  was 
or  was  not  prejudicial  to  the  inhabitants  of 

The  thesis  recited  that  coffee  had  won 
the  approval  of  all  nations,  had  almost 
wholly  put  down  the  use  of  wine,  although 
it  was  not  to  be  compared  even  with  the 
lees  of  that  excellent  beverage;  that  it  was 
a  vile  and  worthless  foreign  novelty ;  that 
its  claim  to  be  a  remedy  against  distempers 
was  ridiculous,  because  it  was  not  a  bean 
but  the  fruit  of  a  tree  discovered  by  goats 
and  camels;  that  it  was  hot  and  not  cold, 
as  alleged;  that  it  burned  up  the  blood, 
and  so  induced  palsies,  impotence,  and 
leanness ;  ' '  from  all  of  which  we  must  nec- 
essarily conclude  that  coffee  is  hurtful  to 
the  greater  part  of  the  inhabitants  of  Mar- 
seilles. ' ' 

Thus  did  the  good  doctors  of  the  Faculty 
of  Aix  set  forth  their  prejudices,  and  this 
was  their  final  decision  upon  coffee.  Many 
thought  they  overreached  themselves  in 
their  misguided  zeal.  They  were  handled 
somewhat  roughly  in  the  disputation,  which 
disclosed  many  false  reasonings,  to  say 
nothing  of  blunders  as  to  matters  of  fact. 
The  world  had  already  advanced  too  far  to 
have  another  decision  against  coffee  count 
for  much,  and  this  latest  effort  to  stop  its 
onward  march  was  of  even  less  force  than 
the  diatribes  of  the  Mohammedan  priests. 
The  coffee  houses  continued  to  be  as  much 
frequented  as  before,  and  the  people  drank 
no  less  coffee  in  their  homes.  Indeed,  the 
indictment  proved  a  boomerang,  for  con- 
sumption received  such  an  impetus  that  the 
merchants  of  Lyons  and  Marseilles,  for  the 
first  time  in  history,  began  to  import  green 
coffee  from  the  Levant  by  the  ship-load  in 
order  to  meet  the  increased  demand. 

Meanwhile,  in  1669,  Soliman  Aga,  the 
Turkish  ambassador  from  Mohammed  IV  to 
the  court  of  Louis  XIV,  had  arrived  in 
Paris.  He  brought  with  him  a  considerable 
quantity  of  coffee,  and  introduced  the  cof- 
fee drink,  made  in  Turkish  style,  to  the 
French  capital. 

The  ambassador  remained  in  Paris  only 
from  July,  1669,  to  May,  1670,  but  long 
enough  firmly  to  establish  the  custom  he 
had  introduced.     Two  years  later,  Pascal, 

4 .  AtyoM.  tfp^s/U 

A   Coffee  Branch   With   Flowers   and   Fruit 

AS    iLLUSTItATED    IN    La    ROQUE'S    "VoYAGE 

an  Armenian,  opened  his  coffee-drinking 
booth  at  the  fair  of  St.-Germain,  and  this 
event  marked  the  beginning  of  the  Parisian 
coffee  houses.  The  story  is  told  in  detail 
in  chapter  XI. 

The  custom  of  drinking  coffee  having 
become  general  in  the  capital,  as  well  as 
in  Marseilles  and  Lyons,  the  example  was 
followed  in  all  the  provinces.  Every  city 
soon  had  its  coffee  houses,  and  the  beverage 
was  largely  consumed  in  private  homes.  La 
Roque  writes:  "None,  from  the  meanest 
citizen  to  the  persons  of  the  highest  quality, 
failed  to  use  it  every  morning  or  at  least 
soon  after  dinner,  it  being  the  custom  like- 
wise to  offer  it  in  all  visits." 

"The  persons  of  highest  quality"  en- 
couraged the  fashion  of  having  cabarets  a 
caffe;  and  soon  it  was  said  that  there  could 
be  seen  in  France  all  that  the  East  could 
furnish  of  magnificence  in  coffee  houses, 
"the  china  jars  and  other  Indian  furniture 



being  richer  and  more  valuable  than  the 
gold  and  silver  with  which  they  were  lav- 
ishly adorned." 

In  1671  there  appeared  in  Lyons  a  book 
entitled  The  Most  Excellent  Virtues  of  the 
Mulberry,  Called  Coffee,  showing  the  need 
for  an  authoritative  work  on  the  subject  — 
a  need  that  was  ably  filled  that  same  year 
and  in  Lyons  by  the  publication  of  Philippe 
Sylvestre  Dufour's  admirable  treatise, 
Concerning  the  Use  of  Coffee,  Tea,  and 
Chocolate.  Again  at  Lyons,  Dufour  pub- 
lished (1684)  his  more  complete  work  on 
The  Manner  of  Making  Coffee,  Tea,  and 
Chocolate.  This  was  followed  (1715)  by 
the  publication  in  Paris  of  Jean  La  Roque  's 
Voyage  de  I' Arabic  Heureuse,  containing 
the  story  of  the  author's  journey  to  the 
court  of  the  king  of  Yemen  in  1711,  a  de- 
scription of  the  coffee  tree  and  its  fruit, 
and  a  critical  and  historical  treatise  on  its 
first  use  and  introduction  to  France. 

La  Roque 's  description  of  his  visit  to  the 
king's  gardens  is  interesting  because  it 
shows  the  Arabs  still  held  to  the  belief  that 
coffee  grew  only  in  Arabia.    Here  it  is : 

There  was  nothing  remarkable  in  the  King's 
Gardens,  except  the  great  pains  taken-to  furnish 
it  with  all  the  kinds  of  trees  that  are  common 
in  the  country ;  amongst  which  there  were  the 
cofifee  trees,  the  finest  that  could  be  had.  When 
the  deputies  represented  to  the  King  how  much 
that  was  contrary  to  the  custom  of  the  Princes 
of  Europe  (who  endeavor  to  stock  their  gardens 

chiefly  with  the  rarest  and  most  uncommon 
plants  that  can  be  found)  the  King  returned 
them  this  answer:  That  he  valued  himself  as 
much  upon  his  good  taste  and  generosity  as  any 
Prince  in  Europe ;  the  coffee  tree,  he  told  them, 
was  indeed  common  in  his  country,  but  it  was 
not  tlie  less  dear  to  him  upon  that  account ;  the 
perpetual  verdure  of  it  pleased  him  extremely; 
and  also  the  thoughts  of  its  producing  a  fruit 
which  was  nowhere  else  to  be  met  with ;  and 
when  he  made  a  present  of  that  that  came  from 
his  own  Gardens,  it  was  a  great  satisfaction  to 
him  to  be  able  to  say  that  he  had  planted  the 
trees  that  produced  it  with  his  own  hands. 

The  first  merchant  licensed  to  sell  coffee 
in  France  was  one  Damame  Frangois,  a 
bourgeois  of  Paris,  who  secured  the  privi- 
lege through  an  edict  of  1692.  He  was 
given  the  sole  right  for  ten  years  to  sell 
coffees  and  teas  in  all  the  provinces  and 
towns  of  the  kingdom,  and  in  all  territories 
under  the  sovereignty  of  the  king,  and  re- 
ceived also  authority  to  maintain  a  ware- 

To  Santo  Domingo  (1738)  and  other 
French  colonies  the  caf6  was  soon  trans- 
ported from  the  homeland,  and  thrived  un- 
der special  license  from  the  king. 

In  1858  there  appeared  in  France  a  leaf- 
let-periodical, entitled  The  Cafe,  Literary, 
Artistic,  and  Commercial.  Ch.  Woinez,  the 
editor,  said  in  announcing  it:  "The  Salon 
stood  for  privilege,  the  Caf6  stands  for 
equality."  Its  publication  was  of  short 

Chapter    VI 

The  first  printed  reference  to  coffee  in  English  —  Early  mention  of 
coffee  by  noted  English  travelers  and  writers  —  The  Lacedaemonian 
''black  broth''  controversy —  How  Conopios  introduced  coffee  drink- 
ing at  Oxford  — The  first  English  coffee  house  in  Oxford  — Two 
English  botanists  on  coffee 

ENGLISH  travelers  and  writers  of  the 
sixteenth  and  seventeenth  centuries 
were  quite  as  enterprising  as  their 
Continental  contemporaries  in  telling  about 
the  coffee  bean  and  the  coffee  drink.  The 
first  printed  reference  to  coffee  in  English, 
however,  appears  as  chaoua  in  a  note  by 
a  Dutchman,  Paludanus,  in  Linschoten's 
Travels,  the  title  of  an  English  translation 
from  the  Latin  of  a  work  first  published  in 
Holland  in  1595  or  1596,  the  English  edi- 
tion appearing  in  London  in  1598.  A  re- 
production made  from  a  photograph  of  the 
original  work,  with  the  quaint  black-letter 
German  text  and  the  Paludanus  notation  in 
roman,  is  shown  herewith. 

Hans  Hugo  (or  John  Huygen)  Van  Lin- 
sehooten  (1563  - 1611)  was  one  of  the  most 
intrepid  of  Dutch  travelers.  In  his  de- 
scription of  Japanese  manners  and  cus- 
toms we  find  one  of  the  earliest  tea  refer- 
ences. He  says: 

Their  manner  of  eating  and  drinking  is :  everie 
man  hatli  a  table  alone,  without  table-clothes 
or  napkins,  and  eateth  with  two  pieces  of  wood 
like  the  men  of  Chino :  they  drinke  wine  of  Rice, 
wherewith  they  drink  themselves  drunke,  and 
after  their  meat  they  use  a  certain  drinke,  which 
4s  a  pot  with  bote  water,  which  they  drinke 
as  bote  as  ever  they  may  indure,  whether  it  be 
Winter  or  Summer. 

Just  here  Bernard  Ten  Broeke  Paludanus 
(1550-1633),  Dutch  savant  and  author, 
professor  of  philosophy  at  the  University 
of  Leyden,  himself  a  traveler  over  the  four 
quarters  of  the  globe,  inserts  his  note  con- 
taining the  coffee  reference.    He  says: 

The  Turks  holde  almost  the  same  manner  of 
drinking  of  their  Chaona  \  which  they  make  of 
certalne  fruit,  which  is  like  unto  the  Bakelaer  ^ 
and  by  the  Egyptians  called  Bon  or  Ban:' :  they 
take  of  this  fruite  one  pound  and  a  half,  and 
roast  them  a  little  in  the  fire  and  then  sieth 
them  in  twenty  .pounds  of  water,  till  the  half 
be  consumed  away :  this  drinke  they  take  every 
morning  fasting  in  their  chambers,  out  of  an 
earthen  pot,  being  verie  bote,  as  we  doe  here 
drinke  aqiKwmnposita*  in  the  morning :  and  they 
say  that  it  strengtheneth  and  maketh  them 
warme,  breaketh  wind,  and  openeth  any  stop- 

Van  Linsohooten  then  completes  his  tea 
reference  by  saying: 

Tlie  manner  of  dressing  their  meat  is  alto- 
gether contrarie  unto  other  nations:  the  afore- 
said warme  water  is  made  with  the  powder  of 
a  certaine  hearbe  called  Chaa,  which  is  much 
esteemed,  and  is  well  accounted  among  them. 

The  chaa  is,  of  course,  tea,  dialect  t'eh. 

In  1599,  *'Sir"  Antony  (or  Anthony) 
Sherley  (1565  - 1630),  a  picturesque  gentle- 
man-adventurer, the  first  Englishman  to 
mention  coffee  drinking  in  the  Orient,  sailed 
from  Venice  on  a  kind  of  self-appointed, 
informal  Persian  mission,  to  invite  the  shah 
to  ally  himself  with  the  Christian  princes 
against  the  Turks,  and  incidentally,  to  pro- 
mote English  trade  interests  in  the  East. 
The  English  government  knew  nothing  of 
the  arrangement,  disavowed  him,  and  for- 
bade his  return  to  England.    However,  the 

1  Misprinted  thus  in  the  original  Dutch  and  here 
Read  Chaoua,  i.  e.,  Arabic  qahwah. 

*  Laurel  berry,  of  which  the  taste  is  bitter  and 
disagreeable.     From  Latin   bacca  lauri. 

'  Arabic,   iunn ;  coffee  berries. 

*  Brandewijn  in  original  Dutch. 




expedition  got  t()  Persia;  and  the  account 
of  the  voyage  thither  was  written  by  Will- 
iam Parry,  one  of  the  Sherley  party,  and 
was  published  in  London  in  1601.  It  is 
interesting  because  it  contains  the  first 
printed  reference  to  coffee  in  English  em- 
ploying the  more  modem  form  of  the  word. 
The  original  reference  was  photographed 
for  this  work  in  the  Worth  Library  of  the 
British  Museum,  and  is  reproduced  here- 
with on  page  39. 

The  passage  is  part  of  an  account  of  the 
manners  and  customs  of  the  Turks  (who. 
Parry  says,  are  "damned  infidells")  in 
Aleppo.    It  reads: 

Tliey  sit  at  tlieir  meat  (which  is  served  to 
them  upon  the  ground)  as  Tailers  sit  upon  their 
stalls,  crosse-legd ;  for  the  most  part,  passing 
the  day  in  banqueting  and  carowsing,  untill  they 
surfet,  drinking  a  eertaine  lifpior,  which  they 
do  call  Coffc,  which  is  made  of  seede  nuich  like 
mustard  seede,  which  will  soone  intoxicate  the 
braine  like  our  Metheglin." 

Another  early  English  reference  to  coffee, 
wherein  the  word  is  spelled  "coffa",  is  in 
Captain  John  Smith's  book  of  Travels  and 
Adventure,  published  in  1603.  He  says  of 
the  Turks :  ' '  Their  best  drink  is  coff'a  of  a 
graine  they  call  coava.'^ 

This  is  the  same  Captain  John  Smith  who 
in  1607  became  the  founder  of  the  Colony 
of  Virginia  and  brought  with  him  to  Amer- 
ica probably  the  earliest  knowledge  of  the 
beverage  given  to  the  new  Western  world. 

Samuel  Purchas  (1527-1626),  an  early 
English  collector  of  travels,  in  Purchas  His 
Pilgrimes,  under  the  head  of  ' '  Observations 
of  William  Finch,  merchant,  at  Socotra" 
(Sokotra  —  an  island  in  the  Indian  Ocean) 
in  1607,  says  of  the  Arab  inhabitants : 

Tlieir  best  entertainment  is  a  china  dish  of 
Coho,  a  blacke  bitterisli  drinke,  made  of  a  berry 
like  a  baybei'ry,  brought  from  Mecca,  supped 
off  hot,  good  for  the  head  and  stomache." 

Still  other  early  and  favorite  English 
references  to  coffee  are  those  to  be  found  in 
the  Travels  of  William  Biddulph.  -  This 
work  was,  published  in  1609.  It  is  entitled 
The  Travels  of  Certayne  Englishmen  in 
Africa,  Asia,  etc.  .  .  Begunne  in  1600 
and  by  some  of  them  finished  —  this  yeere 
1608.  These  references  are  also  reproduced 
herewith  from  the  black-letter  originals 
in  the  British  Museum  (see  page  40). 

Biddulph 's  description  of  the  drink,  and 
of  the  coffee-house  customs  of  the  Turks, 

was  the  first  detailed  account  to  be  written 
by  an  Englishman.  It  also  appears  in 
Purchas  His  Pilgrimes  (1625).  But,  to 
quote : 

Tlieir  most  common  drinke  is  Coffa,  which  is 
a  blacke  kinde  of  drinke,  made  of  a  kind  of 
I'ulse  like  Pease,  called  Coaua;  which  being 
grownd  in  the  Mill,  and  boiled  in  water,  they 
drinke  it  as  hot  as  they  can  suffer  it ;  which  they 
tinde  to  agree  very  well  with  them  against  their 
crudities,  and  feeding  on  hearbs  and  rawe 
meates.  Other  compounded  drinkes  they  have, 
called  Sherbet,  made  of  Water  and  Sugar,  or 
Hony,  with  Snow  therein  to  make  it  coole;  for 
although  the  Countrey  bee  hot,  yet  they  keepe 
Snow  all  the  yeere  long  to  coole  their  drinke. 
It  is  accounted  a  great  curtesie  amongst  them 
to  give  unto  their  frends  when  they  come  to 
visit  them,  a  Fin-ion  or  Scudella  of  Coffa,  which 
is  more  holesome  than  toothsome,  for  it  causeth 
good  concoction,  and  driveth  away  drovvsinesse. 

Some  of  them  will  also  drinke  Bersh  or 
Opium,  which  maketh  them  forget  themselves, 
and  talk  idely  of  Castles  in  the  Ayre,  as  though 
they  saw  Visions,  and  heard  Revelations.  Tlieir 
Coffa  liouses  are  more  common  than  Ale-houses 
in  England ;  but  they  use  not  so  much  to  sit 
in  the  houses,  as  on  benches  on  both  sides  the 
streets,  neere  unto  a  Coffa  house,  every  man 
with  his  Fin-ionful ;  which  being  smoking 
hot,  they  use  to  put  it  to  their  Noses  &  Eares, 
and  then  sup  it  off  by  leasure,  being  full  of 
idle  and  Ale-house  talke  vk^hiles  they  are  amongst 
themselves  drinking  it ;  if  there  be  any  news, 
it  is  talked  of  there. 

Among  other  early  English  references  to 
coffee  we  find  an  interesting  one  by  Sir 
George  Sandys  (1577  - 1644),  the  poet,  who 
gave  a  start  to  classical  scholarship  in  Amer- 
ica by  translating  Ovid's  Metamorphoses 
during  his  pioneer  days  in  Virginia.  In 
1610  he  spent  a  year  in  Turkey,  Egypt,  and 
Palestine,  and  records  of  the  Turks : ' 

Although  they  be  destitute  of  Taverns,  yet 
have  they  their  Coffa-houses,  which  something 
resemble  them.  There  sit  they  chatting  most 
of  the  day;  and  sippe  of  a  drinke  called  Coffa 
(of  the  berry  that  it  is  made  of)  in  little  China 
dishes  as  hot  as  they  can  suffer  it:  blacke  as 
soote,  and  tasting  not  much  unlike  it  (why  not 
that  Wacke  broth  which  was  in  use  amongst 
the  Lacedemonians^)  which  helpeth,  as  they 
say,  digestion,  and  procureth  alacrity :  many  of 
the  Cofta-men  keeping  beautiful!  boyes,  who 
serve  as  stales  to  procure  them  customers. 

Edward  Terry  (1590-1660),  an  English 
traveler,  writes,  under  date  of  1616,  that 
many  of  the  best  people  in  India  who  are 
strict  in  their  religion  and  drink  no  wine 
at  all,  "use  a  liquor  more  wholesome  than 
pleasant,  they  call  coffee ;  made  by  a  black 
Seed  boyld  in  water,  which  turnes  it  almost 

"  Mead. 

•  Purchas  His  Pilgrimes. 

London,  1625. 

'  Sandys,    Sir    George. 
1673.   (p.  66.) 

Sandys'   Travels.     London, 






rr.rclohrs  tuijctt  \0c  mcanc  to  goe  ab;o<iD 

tuto  t1)c  totunc  0;  countnc,  tbcp  put  tbcin  off 

Ui7]rn  tbrp  goc  fo:tb,  putting  oti  great  IvpDc 

l):ffrbc0,aijo  r  cinmg  borne  tbep  put  tbem  off 

aijiim,  miD  cnft  tl)circloUc0\)pon  tbctr  fljotU* 

set  saiiQ  as  among  ottiernatioiw  it  ui  a  gso 

figl)t  to  fa  men  iwtb  Uibitc  nno  pcaloU)  bap;c 

aiiD  luliitc  tiTtb,ta)itb  tbem  it  to  eaocmco  the 

6ltbufttbm;intbe  U)0:[8,  anD  fixKe  biNiU 

inrancothci'uiaplo  nwhe  t5)cir  bapjc  aiiD 

trtrtbblathc,  fc:  tb.u  tbc  tobite  caufetb  tbctr 

(tricf,anotbc  bUchc  mahctb  tbcm  glafi.  Ebc 

ItUc  cuSomc  IS  among  tbe  Uionir n,  fo}  n0 

tbc>>gocab:eaDtbcpbduc  tbfir  Daugbterst 

inapDca  brfojc  tbcni,  ano  tbcir  men  feruants 

tome  bebmfi,vu'.ncb  m  Spjignc  ie  cleanecon- 

traric,  raiD  UJben  tbcp  arc  great  luitb  rtjitec, 

tbci'  tr e  tbctr  girblcs  fo  bare  about  tbctti,tbat 

men  icculD  tbtn^e  tbcp  Qjulu  burlt ,  an& 

U)bcn  tbcp  arc  not  luttb   CbilDc ,  tijcp 

locate  tbcir  gtrDIcs  fo  fl,ichc,  tbat  pou  U)oulo 

tbmhc  tbcp  luonlD  fall  from  tbe ir  boOicc,fap; 

tngtbstL'i'ri-pincncc  tbcp  Co  finCc,  iftbcp 

UoulD  not  Cce  fo,tbcp  fljoulo  bauc  eutll  lucKe 

iuitb  tbfJr  fruicr,  ano  pjcfcntip  as  fcone  as 

tbcp  arc  DeUttcreD  of  tbeirebilorn,  inftfrD  tf 

.     tbi.n(l>;n5  botb  tU  motber  ana  tbe  cbilo  iwtb 

fomc  f  omfo:tablc  meat,  tbcp  p;cfentlp  UJaCb 

tbeclwlDcmcoU)  toater,  aniifo;ntime  giue 

tbe  mctbrr  ^rp  Utile  to  eate,  anu  tbat  of  no 

great  fubQance.SLbeir  manner  of  eating  an» 

c:mhiiis  10:  Cuetiem«t  batb  a  table  ^alonc, 

iDittjout  tablc-clotbcsoj  naphtns,anOcatetb 

iDitbtUJo  ports  of  lDQji3,liUetbcmenofClii' 

11.V,  tbep  D;mkc  iuinc  of  Hice,  tobcreimtb 

tbep  Dimh  tbemfclurs  D;unhe,an6  after  tbcir 

tncattbcp  tfea  rertatne  Ojmkc,  lubirbisa 

pot  tuitb  bote  toater ,  lublcb  tbep  ti:mKe  as 

botcaseuerttjepmapmourc,  laijctberitbe 

©amtcro}  Summer. 

^nnotjt  .'^'''^  Turkcs  holdc  -alinoll  the  f.inic 
D.I'ilJ. '  i^'^ncofdrinkinq; of  their  ^i;4*«/»,wlucli 
•  .'  tlicy  make  of  ccrtainc  fruit,  which  is  like 
xntothc'SAli^/Aer ^ iiid  by  the  Egyptians 
called  5«fl  or  S4«;  they  takcof this  huuc 
one  pound  and  a  half,  androall  thcnia 
little  ill  the  fire,  and  then  ficth  theiu  in 
twentic  poundcs  of  water,  till  the  half 
beconfuuiedatvay.-  this  dnnketliey  take 
ciierie  uiorning/a'rtin^  in  their  chambers , 
out  ofan  earthen  pot,  being  vcric  liote, 
as  we  doe  here  dr  i  nkc  aqHacemftfitm  i  n  the 
morning:  and  tlicy  fay  that  it  flrcngthcn. 
ethandmakcth  tliem  warmc,  breakcth 
\vind,sndopencfh  aiiv  ffoppinsj. 

Ebc  mannrt  of  Djeamg  tbefr  imat  i&  al« 
togptljcr  coittrartc  twto  otticr  nation»:tl)t  «u 
ft^efiitt)  tDonm  tuater  tsmafee  tmtl  Vtn  po\» 
tarofaccrtalne  ftcacbcealkt>  Chaa,  tobicti 
temutfjeOfftneft,  anhts  toll  WMonte^of 
Tht  i^ookt. 

among  tbcm,anDal  fittb  ns  a»t?  of  an?  ccwt' 
trnance  oj  babflitic  bauc  tbe  faio  toater  Itcpt 
foj  tbcm  m  a  ferret  plire,  aiio  tbe  gentlemen 
make  It  tbemfelues,  aiiD  toben  tbr?  totU  en- 
tcrtamcanp  of  tbcir  fnencs.  tbrp  giue  bun 
fome  of  tbat  toamte  luater  to  ojmkc:  fo;  tbe 
pots  toliercm  tbep  fietbit,  ano  uibcrcmlbc 
bcarbc  is  kept,  tuittj  tbe  eartben  cups  tobieb 
tbcp  D?uihc  It  «i .  tbcp  cttocmc  as  mucb  of 
tbem.os  lucooeof  Diamants.Uubies  ano  O' 
tber  precious  Hones,  ano  tbep  are  not  el!a> 
mcOfo;tbe(r  nciunes,  but  fo:  tbctr  oltmes, 
ano  fo;  tbat  tbcp  tocre  maoc  bp  a  geD  too;k- 
man:  anotoknotoanDlicepcfucbbptbem' 
fclucs,  tbep tahc great anO  fpeciall care,  as 
alfo  of  fucb  as  arc  tbe  \xilctocrs  of  tbcm, 
ano  are  fhilfiill  in  tbcm  ,  as  luitb  t)s  tbe 
golofmttb  p:ifetb  ano  tialuetb  Glurr  ano  goto, 
ano  tbe  ieVueltcrs  all  kinoes  of  pjccious 
ttonrs:  foiftbnrpotsicbppesbc  ol^an  olO 
i  eicellet  U)o:hmasmahing,tbcparc  tooitii 
4  0;  5  tboufaO  Cutats  0:  mo;e  ttjepcccc.SSIjt 
iiing  oiB\.wz,n  oto  giue  fs:fucb  a  pot,bautn9 
tb;(cfttt,  14  tboufano  Ducats,  ano  a  lapan 
beuig  a  Cb;itliun  in  tbe  tolon  of  Sacay^gaue 
fo;  fiub  a  pot  1 400  &ucats ,  anti  pet  It  bao  ? 
pfcceo  \jpon  it .  "Cbcp  Doe  liftetoifc  eOcettv 
mucb  of  onp  picture  0;  table,  tobrrem  ispain^ 
teoablachetrtr,  o;ablncKebtrO.  attOto^ 
ti]ep  tooloeittsmaoc  ofU]a3D,nnlbpanMi< 
tlent  %  cuntng  matttcr,tbep  guie  tobatfoctKt 
pou  iDill  afUe  fo:  it.  3t  bappenctb  fome  tunes 
tt}at  fucb  a  piitiire  10  folD  fo;  3  st  4  tbetifano 
Ducats  ant)  mo:e.   Ebepalfoelttemcmucti 
of  a  gooo  rapier,  mafic  bp  an  olo  anD  cunnmg 
inaifter.fwb  a  one  manp  times  coftetb  %  oj  * 
4  tboufano  Crotons  tbe  pcrce.  Ebefe  tbmgs 
Doe  tbcp  hff  epe  anD  cftcrmc  fo;  tbcir  Jclods, 
as  W  cftamc  our  Jetof  Is  t  p;eaous  flones* 
llnDtobcntoc  aftetijem  \xA)v  tbepcttarme 
tl)emfo  mucb  .tbcp  afKcbsagamc,  Uibptoe 
efttcmcfo  UicU  of  our  p;c£iaiis  ftoncs  f  ietD« 
els,  U)t)trtbp  tbcrc  is  not  unv  p;oftte  to  be 
baD  anD  ferue  to  no  ottjcr  ufr,  tbcit  oirtp  fo;  a 
fl)tU)c,  5  tbat  tbcir  tbliigs  ferue  to  fome  cnb. 
Cbeir  JufhceanDgoucnimcnt  \i  asfoU 
Iotoctb:€bcir  kings  arc  callcDlacuay,  anD 
'are  abfolutclv  Li^os  of  tbe  lanD ,  nottott^' 
ftanoingtbcp  kocpcfo;  tbemfelues  asmn^ 
as  IS  neccifarp  fo:  tftcm  anD  tbctr  ettate,  ana 
tbe  rctt  of  tbcir  lanD  tbep  ocupDc  among  9' 
tbers,  tobtcb  arc  callcD  Cunixus,  ipbicb  arc 
like  our  Carles  anD  Duhe0:tbcfe  are  appoln* 
teffbPtbeUmg,  aitDbc  taufctb  tbcm  to go' 
ucnur  t  rule  ttje  lanD  as  it  plctife tb  blm:  tbep 
arc  bouno  to  feme  tijt  iitng  iis  mcU  in  peace, 
as  (n  toarres,  at  tbeir  otonr  c ott  j  c barges, 
acc8;tKn3to  tbcu:^  nnotfic  aunnent 
laUits  of  Upan.^befc  c^imuviis  bane  otbem 
tjnDcrtlxwtsUcD  lums,  UJbubarcliUf  our 



It  appears  as  Chaona  (chaoua)  Ju  the  second  line  of  tbe  roman  text  notation  by  Paludanus 



into  the  same  colour,  but  doth  very  little 
alter  the  taste  of  the  water  [!],  notwith- 
standing it  is  very  good  to  help  Digestion, 
to  quicken  the  Spirits  and  to  cleanse  the 

In  1623,  Francis  Bacon  (1561  - 1626),  in 
his  Historia  Vitae  et  Mortis  says:  "The 
Turkes  use  a  kind  of  herb  which  they  cali 
caphe";  and,  in  1624,  in  his  Sylva  Syl- 
varum '  (published  in  1627,  after  his  death) , 
he  writes : 

They  have  in  Turkey  a  drink  called  coffa 
made  of  a  berry  of  the  same  name,  as  black  as 
soot,  and  of  a  strong  scent,  but  not  aromatical ; 
which  they  take,  beaten  into  powder,  in  water, 
as  hot  as  they  can  drink  it:  and  they  take  it, 
and  sit  at  it  in  their  coffa-houses,  which  are  like 
our  taverns.  This  drink  comforteth  the  brain 
and  heart,  and  helpeth  digestion.  Certainly  this 
berry  coffa,  the  root  and  leaf  betel,  the  leaf 
tobacco,  and  the  tear  of  poppy  (opium)  of  which 
the  Turks  are  great  takers  (supposing  it  ex- 
pelleth  all  fear),  do  all  condense  the  spirits,' 
and  make  them  strong  and  aleger.  But  it  seerofi-^ 
eth  tli^y  wei-e  taken  after  several  manners;  for^ 
coffa  and  opium  are  taken  down,  tobacco  but 
in  smoke,  and  betel  is  but  champed  in  the  mouth 
with  a  little  lime. 

Robert  Burton  (1577-1640),  English 
philosopher  and  humorist,  in  his  Anatomy 
of  Melancholy*' writes  it  1632: 

The  Turkes  have  a  drinke  called  coffa  (for 
they  use  no  wine),  so  named  of  a  bei*ry  as  blacke 
as  soot  and  as  bitter  (like  that  blacke  drinke 
which  was  in  use  amongst  the  Lacedemonians 
and  perhaps  the  same),  which  they  sip  still  of, 
and  sup  as  warme  as  they  can  suffer ;  they  spend 
much  time  in  those  coffa-houses,  which  are 
somewhat  like  our  Ale-houses  or  Taverns,  and 
there  they  sit,  chatting  and  drinking,  to  drive 
away  the  time,  and  to  be  merry  together,  be- 
cause they  find,  by  experience,  that  kinde  of 
drinke  so  used,  helpeth  digestion  and  procureth 

Later  English  scholars,  however,  found 
sufficient  evidence  in  the  works  of  Arabian 
authors  to  assure  their  readers  that  coffee 
sometimes  breeds  melancholy,  causes  head- 
ache, and  "maketh  lean  much."  One  of 
these,  Dr.  Pocoke,  (1659:  see  chapter  TIT) 
stated  that,  "he  that  would  drink  it  for 
livelinesse  sake,  and  to  discusse  slothful- 
nesse  ...  let  him  use  much  sweet 
meates  with  it,  and  oyle  of  pistaceioes,  and 
butter.  Some  drink  it  with  milk,  but  it  is 
an  error,  and  such  as  may  bring  in  danger 
of  the  leprosy."  Another  writer  observed 
that  any  ill  effects  caused  by  coffee,  unlike 

•  Bacon,  Francis.  Sylva  Sylvarum.  London,  1627. 
(vol.  v:  p.  26.) 

»  Burton.  Robert.  The  Anatomy  o1  Melancholy. 
Oxford,  1632.  (pt.  2  :  sec.  5  :  p.  397.)  This  reference 
does  not  appear  m  the  earlier  editions  of  1621,  24,  28. 

those  of  tea,  etc.,  ceased  when  its  use  was 
discontinued.  In  this  connection  it  is  in- 
teresting to  note  that  in  1785  Dr.  Benjamin 
Mosely,  physician  to  the  Chelsea  Hospital, 
member  of  the  College  of  Physicians,  etc., 
probably  having  in  mind  the  popular  idea 
that  the  Arabic  original  of  the  word  coffee 
meant  force,  or  vigor,  once  expressed  the 
hope  that  the  coffee  drink  might  return  to 
popular  favor  in  England  as  "a  cheap 
substitute  for  those  enervating  teas  and 
beverages  which  produce  the  pernicious 
habit  of  dram-drinking." 

About  1628,  Sir  Thomas  Herbert  (1606  - 
1681),  En^ish  traveler  and  writer,  records 
among  his  observations  on  the  Persians 

"They  drink  above  all  the  rest  Coho  or  Copha : 

by  Turk  and  Arab  called  Caphe  and  Cahua:  a 

'  drink  imitating  that  in  the  Stigian  lake,  black, 

thick,    and    bitter:    destrain'd    from    Bunchi/, 

liunnu,  or  Bay  berries;   wholesome,   they   say, 

if  hot,  for  it  expels  melancholy  .  .  .  but  not  so 

Jimuch   regarded    for   those   good   properties,   as 

•■■tfrom    a    Romance    that    it    was    invented    and 

brew'd  by  Gabriel  .  .  .  to'  restore  the  decayed 

radical  'Moysfcure  of  kind  hearted  Mahomet." 

In  1634,  Sir  Henry  Blount  (1602-82), 
sometimes  referred  to  as  "the  father  of  the 
English  coffee  house, ' '  made  a  journey  on  a 
Venetian  galley  into  the  Levant.  He  was 
invited  to  drink  cauphe  in  the  presence  of 
Amurath  IV;  and  later,  in  Egypt,  he  tells 
of  being  served  the  beverage  again  "in  a 
porcelaine  dish".  This  is  how  he  describes 
the  drink  in  Turkey :  " 

They  have  another  drink  not  good  at  meat, 
called  Cauphe,  made  of  a  Berry  as  big  as  a 
small  Bean,  dried  in  a  Furnace,  and  beat  to 
Ponder,  of  a  Soot-colour,  in  taste  a  little  bit- 
terish, that  they  seeth  and  drink  as  hot  as  may 
be  endured :  It  is  good  all  hours  of  the  day, 
but  especially  morning  and  evening,  when  to 
that  purpose,  they  entertain  themselves  two  or 
three  hours  in  Cauphe-houses,  which  in  all  Tur- 
key abound  more  than  Inns  and  Ale-houses  with 
us ;  it  is  thought  to  be  the  old  black  broth  used 
so  much  by  the  Lacedemonians,  and  dryeth  ill 
Humours  in  the  stomach,  comforteth  the  Brain, 
never  causeth  Drunkenness  or  any  other  Sur- 
feit, and  is  a  harmless  entertainment  of  good 
Fellowship;  for  there  upon  Scaffolds  half  a 
yard  high,  and  covered  with  Mats,  they  sit 
Cross-leg'd  after  the  Turkish  manner,  many 
times  two  or  three  hundred  together,  talking, 
and  likely  with  some  poor  musick  passing  up 
and  down. 

This  reference  to  the  Lacedaemonian  black 
broth,   first  by   Sandys,   then   by   Burton, 

"  Herbert.  Sir  T.  Travels.  London,  ed.  1638. 
(p.   241.) 

"  Blount.  Sir  Henry.  A  Voyage  Into  the  Levant, 
London.  1671.-   (pp.  20,  21,  54,  55,  138,  1.39.) 



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40  ALL     ABOUT     COFFEE 

again  by  Blount,  and  concurred  in  by  James  Although  it  seems  likely  that  coffee  must 
Howell  (1595-1666),  the  first  historio-  have  been  introduced  into  England  some- 
grapher  royal,  gave  rise  to  considerable  time  during  the  first  quarter  of  the  seven- 
controversy  among  Englishmen  of  letters  in  teenth  century,  with  so  many  writers  and 
later  years.  It  is,  of  course,  a  gratuitous  travelers  describing  it,  and  with  so  much 
speculation.  The  black  broth  of  the  Lace-  trading  going  on  between  the  merchants 
dsemonians  was  "pork,  cooked  in  blood  and  of  the  British  Isles  and  the  Orient,  yet  the 
seasoned  with  salt  and  vinegar.""  first  reliable  record  we  have  of  its  advent 

Sl^eti;  molt  common  o^tntie  10  Coi6,lTif)ul^  Coffa, 
tea  Uadtetnittof  o;iritte  maoe  of  afcino  of  fdulfe  like  peafe^ 
cofleoCotua;  tD^  being  atotxmo  in  tt)e  milUanDbotleD  in 
imtet^  H^D^mSeitasbot  astljep  can fuffcc  it; taljicl)  t\)c^ 
ftmto  agne  tieri^Uieatinl!)  tbem  againtt  tljcic  auoities  ano 
iitetat  onbeacb^anD  catoemeates* 

3it  t0  occountcD  a  great  cuttt&t  amonsS  tbem  to  giue  bnto 
tlieic  f ccnos  iDtjen  i\)e^  tome  to  utat  tbem,a  ifm-  ton  o^  ^cut^el^ 
laofCofFa,  lD^ut)tduto;etiolefometbant(Dt|irome)fo^  it  cao^ 
fetl)  SOD  concoction ,  ano  o^iuetb  atnav  o;»tD(ineaei 

^  W^tit  Cof{a^ottfe0  ace  mo;e  common  t^mSk-^onttBrn 
(i^nglami;  butti^  bfenotfomu^tofit  in  V)t  ^onttB  us  on 
bencbe0  on  botb  Qoe^  tbe  ftreets  netce  bnto  a  CoSi  boufe,  euec? 
ttian  tuitb  W  if  tn*ton  ful^ixibicl^beins  rmotunsbot^  tf^e;  bfe  to 
put  itto  ^eit  nofes  f  eaceB,  anb  tlftn  fnpitoff  b^Ieadtce,  being 
fnllof  iole  anoiaie-boufetalbelubtled  tije^ace  amongtltt^em^ 
felues  blinking  of  it ;  if  tbece  be  ani>  nt\s)Sy  it  is  talbeo  of  tljere^ 

Kefekences   to   Coffee   as    Found    in    Kiddulpii's  Travels    1G04) 
J  From   the  black  -  letter  original  in   the  British  Museum 

William  Harvey  (1578-1657),  the  fa-  is  to  be  found  in  the  Diary  and  Corre- 
mous  English  physician  who  discovered  the  spondence  of  John  Evelyn,  F.  B.  S. ", 
circulation  of  the  blood,  and  his  brother  are  under  "Notes  of  1637",  where  he  says : 
reputed  to  have  used  coffee  before  coffee  Tiiere  came  in  my  time  to  tine  college  (Baliol, 
houses  came  into  vogue  in  London  —  this  Oxford)  one  Natlianiel  Conopios.  out  of  Greece, 
must  have  been  previous  to  1652.  "I  re-  f™m  Cyrill,  the  Patriarch  of  Constantinople, 
TTiPmher"  ^savs  Anbrev"  "be  was  wont  to  ^^'^^"'  ''^turning  many  years  after  was  made  (as 
^^™,  ®  'J^^^  f  ?V^^  '  ^f  ^,^?  T  1  ^  understand)  Bishop  of  Smyrna.  He  was  the 
dnnke  coffee ;  which  his  brother  Eliab  did,  first  I  ever  saw  drink  cofCee ;  which  custom 
before  coffee  houses  were  the  fashion  in  came  not  into  England  till  thirty  years  there- 
London."     Houghton,  in  1701,  speaks  of  a^t^i'- 

"the  famous  inventor  of  the  circulation  of         Evelyn  should  have  said  thirteen  years 

the  blood.  Dr.  Harvey,  who  some  say  did  after;  for  then  it  was  that  the  first  coffee 

frequently  use  it."  house  was  opened  (1650). 
"TTT-.u    .  r,    .        rr,.    r.     .:  .■      .  .  .■    :■  Couoplos  was  a  native  of  Crete,  trained 

**  Gilbert.   Gustav.      The   Conxtttuttonal  Anttqmttes       •       ii,      /-i        i       x.         i         tt      i  • 

of  Sparta  and  Athena.    London.  1895.  (p.  69.)  m  tile  Lrreek  ctiurch.     He  became  pnmore 

"  Aubrev.  John.     Lives  of  Eminent  Men.     London, 

1813.     (vol.  ii :  pt.  2  :  pp.  384  -  85.)  "  Works,     (vol.  iv  :  p.  389.) 



Cyril],    Patriarch    of    Constantinople. 

''hen  Cyrill  was  strangled  by  the  vizier, 

Jonopios  fled  to  England  to  avoid  a  like 

jarbarity.      He   came   with   credentials   to 

irchbishop  Laud,  who  allowed  him  main- 

'tenance  in  Balliol  College. 

It  was  observed  that  while  he  continued  in 
Balliol  College  he  made  the  drink  for  his  own 
use  called  Coffey,  and  usually  drank  it  every 
morninj;:.  heiiiR  the  first,  as  the  antients  of  that 
House  have  informed  me,  that  was  ever  drank 
in   Oxon.^^ 

In  1640  John  Parkinson  (1567-1650), 
English  botanist  and  herbalist,   published 

Mol's  Coffeie  House,  Exeter,  England, 
Now  WouTii's  Art  KoOxMS 

his  Theatrnm  Botanicum^%  containing  the 
first  botanical  description  of  the  coffee  plant 

"a  Wood,  Anthony.  Athcnac  Oxonicnaea.  London, 
1692.     (vol.  il:  col.  058.) 

"  Parkinson.  John.  Theatruin  Botanictim.  London, 
1640.      (p.    1622.) 

in  English,  referred  to  as  ''Arbor  Bon  cum 
sua  Buna.    The  Turkes  Berry  Drinke". 

His  work  being  somewhat  rare,  it  may  be 
of  historical  interest  to  quote  the  quaint 
description  here : 

Alpinus,  in  his  Booke  of  Egiptian  plants,  giv- 
eth  us  a  description  of  this  tree,  which  as  hee 
saith,  hee  saw  in  the  garden  of  a  certain  Cap- 
taine  of  the  lanissarics,  which  was  brought  out 
of  Arabia  fclix  and  there  planted  as  a  rarity, 
never  seene  growing  in  those  places  before. 

Tlie  tree,  saith  Alpinus,  is  somewhat  like  unto 
the  Evonymus  Pricketimber  tree,  whose  leaves 
were  thicker,  harder,  and  greener,  and  always 
abiding  greene  on  the  tree;  the  fruite  is  called 
Buna  and  is  somewhat  bigger  then  an  Hazell 
Nut  and  longer,  round  also,  and  pointed  at  the 
end,  furroweti  also  on  both  sides,  yet  on  one 
side  more  conspicuous  than  the  other,  tha$  it 
might  be  parted  in  two,  in  each  side  whereof 
lyeth  a  small  long  white  kernell,  flat  on  that 
side  they  joyne  together,  covered  with  a  yellow- 
ish skinne.  of  an  acid  taste,  and  somewhat  bit- 
ter withall  and  contained  in  a  thinne  shell,  of 
a  darkish  ash-color ;  with  these  berries  gen- 
erally in  Arabia  and  Egipt,  and  in  other  places 
of  the  Turkes  Dominions,  they  make  a  decoc- 
tion or  drinke.  which  is  in  the  stead  of  Wine 
to  them,  and  generally  sold  in  all  their  tappe 
houses,  called  by  the  name  of  Caova;  Paludatms 
saith  Chaova,  and  Ramcolflus  Chaube. 

This  drinke  hath  many  good  physical  prop- 
erties therein ;  for  it  strengtheneth  a  week 
stomacke,  helpeth  digestion,  and  the  tumors  and 
obstructions  of  the  liver  and  spleene,  being 
drunke  fasting  for  some  time  together. 

In  1650,  a  certain  Jew  from  Lebanon, 
in  some  accounts  Jacob  or  Jacobs  by  name, 
in  others  Jobson  ",  opened  "at  the  Angel 
in  the  parish  of  St.  Peter  in  the  East", 
Oxford,  the  earliest  English  coffee  house 
and  "there  it  [coffee]  was  by  some  who 
delighted  in  noveltie,  drank".  Chocolate 
was  also  sold  at  this  first  coffee  house. 

Authorities  differ,  but  the  confusion  as  to 
the  name  of  the  coffee-house  keeper  may 
have  arisen  from  the  fact  that  there  were 
two  —  Jacobs,  who  began  in  1650;  and  an- 
other. Cirques  Jobson,  a  Jewish  Jacobite, 
who  followed  him  in  1654. 

The  drink  at  once  attained  great  favor 
among  the  students.  Soon  it  was  in  such 
demand  that  about  1655  a  society  of  young 
students  encouraged  one  Arthur  Tillyard, 
' '  apothecary  and  Royalist, ' '  to  sell  ' '  coffey 
publickly  in  his  house  against  All  Soules 
College."  It  appears  that  a  club  composed 
of  admirers  of  the  young  Charles  met  at 
Tillyard's  and  continued  until  after  the 
Restoration.  This  Oxford  Coffee  Club  was 
the  start  of  the  Royal  Society. 

"  D'lsraeli.  I.  Curiosities  of  Literature.  London, 
1798.      (vol.  i :  p.  345.) 



Jacobs  removed  to  Old  Southhampton 
Buildings,  London,  where  he  was  in  1671. 

Meanwhile,  the  first  coffee  house  in  Lon- 
don had  been  opened  by  Pasqua  Ros^e  in 
1652 ;  and,  as  the  remainder  of  the  story  of 
coffee's  rise  iind  fall  in  England  centers 
around  the  coffee  houses  of  old  London,  we 
shall  reserve  it  for  a  separate  chapter. 

Uf  course,  the  coffee-house  idea,  and  the 
use  of  coffee  in  the  home,  quickly  spread 
to  other  cities  in  Great  Britain ;  but  all  the 
coffee  houses  were  patterned  after  the  Lon- 

When  the  Bishop  of  Berytus  (Beirut) 
was  on  his  way  to  Cochin  China  in  1666, 
he  reported  that  the  Turks  used  coffee  to 
correct  the  indisposition  caused  in  the 
stomach  by  the  bad  water.  "This  drink," 
he  says,  "imitates  the  effect  of  wine  ,  .  . 
has  not  an  agreeable  taste  but  rather  bitter, 
yet  it  is  much  used  by  these  people  for  the 
good  effects  they  find  therein." 

In  1686,  John  Ray  (1628-1704),  one  of 
the  most  celebrated  of  English  naturalists, 
published  his  Universal  History  of  Plants, 

JUthough  they  be  dcftitutc  of  Taucms,yct  hauc  they  their 
CofEhhoufes,  which  Ibmething  refemble  them.  There  fiifthey  chatting  moil  of 
the  day;  ^  fippe  of  a  drinke  called  Coffii  (of the  berry  that  it  is  made  of)  in  little 
Ckmd  diiibes,  as  hoc  as  they  can  futfer  it :  blacke  as  foote^nd  tailing  not  much  W 
Iikeic<why.pot  that  blade  broth  which  was  invfeamongft  the  LucedemoniAns'^) 
which  helpeth,fe  they  (ay,  digeftion,andprocureth  alacrity:  many  of  the  Coffa- 
DKolce^mgbcautiiuUboyeSjwhoienieasftalesto  procure  them  cii^ 

Early  English  Reference  to  Coffee  by  Sib   Gbx)rge  Sandys 
From  the  seventh  edition  of  Sandys'  Travels,  London,  1673 

don  model.  Mol's  coffee  house  at  Exeter, 
Devonshire,  which  is  pictured  on  page  41, 
was  one  of  the  first  coffee  houses  established 
in  England,  and  may  be  regarded  as  typical 
of  those  that  sprang  up  in  the  provinces. 
It  had  previously  been  a  noted  club  house ; 
and  the  old  hall,  beautifully  paneled  with 
oak,  still  displays  the  arms  of  noted  mem- 
bers. Here  Sir  Walter  Ealeigh  and  con- 
genial friends  regaled  themselves  with 
smoking  tobacco.  This  was  one  of  the  first 
places  where  tobacco  was  smoked  in  Eng- 
land.    It  is  now  an  art  gallery. 

notable  among  other  things  for  being  the 
first  work  of  its  kind  to  extol  the  virtues  of  - 
coffee  in  a  scientific  treatise. 

R.  Bradley,  professor  of  botany  at  Cam- 
bridge, published  (1714)  A  Short  Histori- 
cal Account  of  Coffee,  all  trace  of  which 
appears  to  be  lost. 

Dr.  James  Douglas  published  in  London 
(1727)  his  Arior  Yemensis  fructum  Cofe 
ferens;  or,  a  description  and  History  of 
the  Coffee  Tree,  in  which  he  laid  under 
heavy  contribution  the  Arabian  and  French 
writers  that  had  preceded  him. 

Chapter   VII 


Hotv  the  enterprising  Dutch  traders  captured  the  first  world's 
market  for  coffee  —  Activities  of  the  Netherlands  East  India  Com- 
pany  —  The  first  coffee  house  at  the  Hague  —  The  first  public  auction 
at  Amsterdam  in  1711,  when  Java  coffee  brought  forty-seven  cents  a 
pound,  green 

THE  Dutch  had  early  knowledge  of 
coffee  because  of  their  dealings  with 
the  Orient  and  with  the  Venetians, 
and  of  their  nearness  to  Germany,  where 
Rauwolf  first  wrote  about  it  in  1582.  They 
were  familiar  with  Alpini's  writings  on  the 
subject  in  1592.  Paludanus,  in  his  coffee 
note  on  Linschoten's  Travels,  furnished 
further  enlightenment  in  1598. 

The  Dutch  were  always  great  merchants 
and  shrewd  traders.  Being  of  a  practical 
turn  of  mind,  they  conceived  an  ambition 
to  grow  coffee  in  their  colonial  possessions, 
so  as  to  make  their  home  markets  head- 
quarters for  a  world 's  trade  in  the  product. 
In  considering  modern  coffee-trading,  the 
Netherlands  East  India  Company  may  be 
said  to  be  the  pioneer,  as  it  established  in 
Java  one  of  the  first  experimental  gardens 
for  coffee  cultivation. 

The  Netherlands  East  India  Company 
was  formed  in  1602.  As  early  as  1614, 
Dutch  traders  visited  Aden  to  examine  into 
the  possibilities  of  coffee  and  coffee-trad- 
ing. In  1616  Pieter  Van  dan  Broeck 
brought  the  first  coffee  from  Mocha  to 
Holland.  In  1640  a  Dutch  merchant,  named 
Wurffbain,  offered  for  sale  in  Amsterdam 
the  first  commercial  shipment  of  coffee  from 
Mocha.  As  indicating  the  enterprise  of 
the  Dutch,  note  that  this  was  four  years 
before  the  beverage  was  introduced  into 
France,  and  only  three  years  after  Conopios 
had  privately  instituted  the  breakfast  coffee 
cup  at  Oxford. 

About  1650,  Varnar,  the  Dutch  minister 
resident  at  the  Ottoman  Porte,  published 
a  treatise  on  coffee. 

When  the  Dutch  at  last  drove  the  Por- 
tuguese out  of  Ceylon  in  1658,  they  began 
the  cultivation  of  coffee  there,  although  the 
plant  had  been  introduced  into  the  island 
by  the  Arabs  prior  to  the  Portuguese  in- 
vasion in  1505.  However,  it  was  not  until 
1690  that  the  more  systematic  cultivation 
of  the  coffee  plant  by  the  Dutch  was  under- 
taken in  Ceylon. 

Regular  imports  of  coffee  from  Mocha  to 
Amsterdam  began  in  1663.  Later,  supplies 
began  to  arrive  from  the  Malabar  coast. 

Pasqua  Ros6e,  who  introduced  the  coffee 
house  into  London  in  1652,  is  said  to  have 
made  coffee  popular  as  a  beverage  in  Hol- 
land by  selling  it  there  publicly  in  1664. 
The  first  coffee  house  was  opened  in  the 
Korten  Voorhout,  the  Hague,  under  the 
protection  of  the  writer  Van  Essen ;  others 
soon  followed  in  Amsterdam  and  Haarlem. 

At  the  instigation  of  Nicolaas  Witsen, 
burgomaster  of  Amsterdam  and  governor  of 
the  East  India  Company,  Adrian  Van  Om- 
men,  commander  of  Malabar,  sent  the  first 
Arabian  coffee  seedlings  to  Java  in  1696, 
recorded  in  the  chapter  on  the  history  of 
coffee  propagation.  These  were  destroyed 
by  flood,  but  were  followed  in  1699  by  a 
second  shipment,  from  which  developed  the 
coffee  trade  of  the  Netherlands  East  Indies, 
that  made  Java  coffee  a  household  word  in 
every  civilized  country. 




A  trial  shipment  of  the  coffee  grown  near 
Batavia  was  received  at  Amsterdam  in  1706. 
also  a  plant  for  the  botanical  gardens.  This 
plant  subsequently  became  the  progenitor 
of  most  of  the  coffees  of  the  West  Indies 
and  America. 

The  first  Java  coffee  for  the  trade  was 
received  at  Amsterdam  1711.  The  ship- 
ment consisted  of  894  pounds  from  the 
Jakatra  plantations  and  from  the  interior 
of  the  island.  At  the  first  public  auction, 
this  coffee  brought  twenty-three  and  two- 
thirds  stuivers  (about  forty-seven  cents) 
per  Amsterdam  pound. 

The  Netherlands  East  India  Company 
contracted  with  the  regents  of  Netherlands 
India  for  the  compulsory  delivery  of  coffee ; 
and  the  natives  were  enjoined  to  cultivate 
coffee,  the  production  thus  becoming  a 
forced  industry  worked  by  government.  A 
"general  system  of  cultivation"  was  intro- 
duced into  Java  in  1832  by  the  government, 
which  decreed  the  employment  of  forced 
labor  for  different  products.  Coffee  -  grow- 
ing was  the  only  forced  industry  that  ex- 

isted before  this  system  of  cultivation,  and 
it  was  the  only  government  cultivation  that 
survived  the  abolition  of  the  system  in 
1905  -  08,  The  last  direct  government  in- 
terest in  coffee  was  closed  out  in  1918.  From 
1870  to  1874,  the  government  plantations 
yielded  an  average  of  844,854  piculs  *  a 
year;  from  1875  to  1878,  the  average  was 
866,674  piculs.  Between  1879  and  1883,  it 
rose  to  987,682  piculs.  From  1884  to  1888, 
the  average  annual  yield  was  only  629,942 

Holland  readily  adopted  the  coffee  house ; 
and  among  the  earliest  coffee  pictures  pre- 
served to  us  is  one  depicting  a  scene  in  a 
Dutch  coffee  house  of  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury, the  work  of  Adriaen  Van  Ostade 
(1610-1675),  shown  on  page  586. 

History  records  no  intolerance  of  coffee 
in  Holland.  The  Dutch  attitude  was  ever 
that  of  the  constructionist.  Dutch  inventors 
and  artisans  gave  us  many  new  designs  in 
coffee  mortars,  coffee  roasters,  and  coffee 
serving  -  pots. 

*  A  weight  of  from  1.33  to  140  pounds. 

Chapter   VIIj 


The  contributions  made  by  German  travelers  and  writers  to  the 
literature  of  the  early  history  of  coffee  —  The  first  coffee  house  in 
Hamburg  opened  by  an  English  merchant  —  Famous  coffee  houses 
of  old  Berlin  —  The  first  coffee  periodical,  and  the  first  kaffee- 
klatsch—  Frederick  the  Great's  coffee-roasting  monopoly  —  Coffee 
persecutions  —  ''Coffee-smellers"  —  The  first  coffee  king 

AS   we   have   already   seen,   Leonhard 
Rauvvolf,  in  1573,  made  his  memora- 
ble trip  to  Aleppo  and,  in  1582,  won 
for  Germany  the  honor  of  being  the  first 
European  country  to  make  printed  mention 
of  the  coffee  drink, 

Adam  Olearius  (or  Oelschlager) ,  a  Ger- 
man Orientalist  (1599-1671),  traveled  ia 
Persia  as  secretary  to  a  German  embassy 
in  1633  -  36.  Upon  his  return  he  published 
an  account  of  his  journeys.  In  it,  under 
date  of  1637,  he  says  of  the  Persians: 

They  drink  with  their  tobacco  a  certain  blaclc 
water,  whicli  they  call  cahwa,  made  of  a  fruit 
brought  out  of  Egypt,  and  which  is  in  colour 
like  ordinary  wheat,  and  in  taste  like  Turkish 
wheat,  and  is  of  the  bigness  of  a  little  bean. 
.  .  .  The  Persians  think  it  allays  the  natural 

In  1637,  Joh.  Albrecht  von  Mandelsloh,, 
in  his  Oriental  Trip,  mentions  "the  black 
water  of  the  Persians  called  Kahwe",  say- 
ing ' '  it  must  be  drunk  hot. ' ' 
^  .Coffee  drinking  was  introduced  into  Ger- 
many about  1670.  The  drink  appeared  at 
the  court  of  the  great  elector  of  Branden- 
burg in  1675.  Northern  Germany  got  its. 
first  taste  of  the  beverage  from  London,  an 
English  merchant  opening  the  first  coffee- 
house in  Hamburg  in  1679  -  80.  Regens- 
burg  followed  in  1689 ;  Leipsic,  in  1694 
Nuremberg,  in  1696;  Stuttgart,  in  1712;. 
Augsburg,  in  1713;  and  Berlin,  in  1721. 
In  that  year  (1721)  King  Frederick  Will- 
iam I  granted  a  foreigner  the  privilege  of 

conducting  a  coffee  house  in  Berlin  free  of 
all  rental  charges.  It  was  known  as  the 
English  coffee  house,  as  was  also  the  first 
coffee  house  in  Hamburg.  And  for  many 
years,  English  merchants  supplied  the 
coffees  consumed  in  northern  Germany; 
while  Italy  supplied  southern  Germany. 

Other  well  known  coffee  houses  of  old 
Berlin  were,  the  Royal,  in  Behren  Strasse; 
that  of  the  Widow  Doebbert,  in  the  Stech  - 
bahn ;  the  City  of  Rome,  in  Unter  -  den  - 
Linden;  Amoldi,  in  Kronen  Strasse; 
Miercke,  in  Tauben  Strasse,  and  Schmidt, 
in  Post  Strasse. 

Later,  Philipp  Falck  opened  a  Jewish 
coffee  house  in  Spandauer  Strasse.  In  the 
time  of  Frederick  the  Great  (1712-1786) 
there  were  at  least  a  dozen. coffee  houses  in 
the  metropolitan  district  of  Berlin.  In  the 
suburbs  were  many  tents  where  coffee  was 

The  first  coffee  periodical,  The  New  and 
Curious  Coffee  House,  was  issued  in  Leipsic 
in  1707  by  Theophilo  Georgi.  The  full  title 
was  The  New  and  Curious  Coffee  House, 
formerly  in  Italy  hut  now  opened  in  Ger- 
many. First  water  debauchery.  "City  of 
the  Well."  Brunnenstadt  by  Lorentz 
Schoepfftvasser  [draw-water]  1707.  The 
second  issue  gave  the  name  of  Georgi  as  the 
real  publisher.  It  was  intended  to  be  in 
the  nature  of  an  organ  for  the  first  real 
-German  kaft'ee-klatsch.  It  was  a  chronicle 
of  the  comings  and  goings  of  the  savants 




who  frequented  the  "Tusculum"  of  a 
well-to-do  gentleman  in  the  outskirts  of 
the  city.  At  the  beginning  the  master  of 
the  house  declared: 

I  know  that  the  gentlemen  here  speak  French, 
Italian  and  other  languages.  I  know  also  that 
in  many  eoflfee  and  tea  meetings  it  is  considered 
requisite  that  French  be  spoken.  May  I  ask, 
however,  that  he  who  calls  upon  me  should  use 
no  other  language  l)ut  German.  We  are  all 
Germans,  we  are  in  Germany ;  shall  we  not  con- 
duct ourselves  like  true  Germans? 

In  1721  Leonhard  Ferdinand  Meisner 
published  at  Nuremberg  the  first  compre- 
hensive German  treatise  on  coffee,  tea,  and 

During  the  second  half  of  the  eighteenth 
century  coffee  entered  the  homes,  and  be- 
gan to  supplant  flour-soup  and  warm  beer 
at  breakfast  tables. 

Meanwhile  coffee  met  with  some  opposi- 
tion in  Prussia  and  Hanover.  Frederick 
the  Great  became  annoyed  when  he  saw 
how  much  money  was  paid  to  foreign  coffee 
merchants  for  supplies  of  the  green  bean, 
and  tried  to  restrict  its  use  by  making 
coffee  a  drink  of  the  "quality".  Soon  all 
the  German  courts  had  their  own  coffee 
roasters,  coffee  pots,  and  coffee  cups. 

Many  beautiful  specimens  of  the  finest 
porcelain  cups  and  saucers  made  in  Meissen, 
and  used  at  court  fetes  of  this  period,  sur- 
vive in  the  collections  at  the  Potsdam  and 
Berlin  museums.  The  wealthy  classes  fol- 
lowed suit;  but  when  the  poor  grumbled 
because  they  could  not  afford  the  luxury, 
and  demanded  their  coffee,  they  were  told 
in  effect:  "You  had  better  leave  it  alone. 
Anyhow,  it's  bad  for  you  because  it  causes 
sterility."  Many  doctors  lent  themselves 
to  a  campaign  against  coffee,  one  of  their 
favorite  arguments  being  that  women  using 
the  beverage  must  forego  child-bearing. 
Bach's  Coffee  Cantata^  (1732)  was  a 
notable  protest  in  music  against  such  libels. 

On  September  13,  1777,  Frederick  issued 
a  coffee  and  beer  manifesto,  a  curious  docu- 
ment, which  recited: 

It  is  disgusting  to  notice  the  increase  in  the 
quantity  of  coffee  used  by  my  subjects,  and  the 
amount  of  money  that  goes  out  of  the  country 
in  consequence.  Everybody  is  using  coffee.  If 
possible,  this  must  be  prevented.  My  people 
must  drink  beer.  His  Majesty  was  brought  up 
on  beer,  and  so  were  his  ancestors,  and  his 
officers.  Many  battles  have  been  fought  and 
won  by  soldiers  nourished  on  beer;  and  the 
King  does  not  believe  that  coffee-drinking  sol- 
diers can  be  depended  upon  to  endure  hardship 

1  See  chapter  XXXII. 

or  to  beat  his  enemies  in  case  of  the  occurrence 
of  another-  war. 

For  a  time  beer  was  restored  to  its 
honored  place ;  and  coffee  continued  to  be  a 
luxury  afforded  only  by  the  rich.  Soon  a 
revulsion  of  feeling  set  in ;  and  it  was  found 
that  even  Prussian  military  rule  could  not 
enforce  coffee  prohibition.  Whereupon,  in 
1781,  finding  that  all  his  efforts  to  reserve 
the  beverage  for  the  exclusive  court  circles, 
the  nobility,  and  the  officers  of  his  army, 
were  vain,  the  king  created  a  royal  mo- 
nopoly in  coffee,  and  forbade  its  roasting 
except  in  royal  roasting  establishments.  At 
the  same  time,  he  made  exceptions  in  the 
cases  of  the  nobility,  the  clergy,  and  govern  - 
ment  officials;  but  rejected  all  applications 
for  coffee-roasting  licenses  from  the  com- 
mon people.  His  object,  plainly,  was  to 
confine  the  use  of  the  drink  to  the  elect. 
To  these  representatives  of  the  cream  of 
Prussian  society,  the  king  issued  special 
licenses  permitting  them  to  do  their  own 
roasting.  Of  course,  they  purchased  their 
supplies  from  the  government;  and  as  the 
price  was  enormously  increased,  the  sales 
yielded  Frederick  a  handsome  income.  In- 
cidentally, the  possession  of  a  coffee-roast- 
ing license  became  a  kind  of  badge  of 
membership  in  the  upper  class.  The  poorer 
classes  were  forced  to  get  their  coffee  by 
stealth;   and,   failing  this,   they   fell   back 

Richteb's    Coffee   House   in    Leipsic 
TEENTH  Century 


upon  numerous  barley,  wheat,  corn, 
chicory,  and  dried-fig  substitutes,  that  soon 
appeared  in  great  numbers. 

This  singular  coffee  ordinance  was  known 
as  the  "Declaration  du  Roi  concernant  la 



Coffee  House  in  Germany  —  Middle  of  the  Seventeenth  Century 

ve7ite  du  cafe  hruU",  and  was  published 
January  21,  1781. 

After  placing  the  coffee  regie  (revenue) 
in  the  hands  of  a  Frenchman,  Count  de 
Lannay,  so  many  deputies  were  required  to 
make  collections  that  the  administration 
of  the  law  became  a  veritable  persecution. 
Discharged  wounded  soldiers  were  mostly 
employed,  and  their  principal  duty  was  to 
spy  upon  the  people  day  and  night,  fol- 
lowing the  smell  of  roasting  coffee  when- 
ever detected,  in  order  to  seek  out  those 
who  might  be  found  without  roasting 
permits.  The  spies  were  given  one-fourth 
of  the  fine  collected.  These  deputies  made 
themselves  so  great  a  nuisance,  and  became 
so  cordially  disliked,  that  they  were  called 
"coffee-smellers"  by  the  indignant  people. 

Taking  a  leaf  out  of  Frederick's  book,  the 
elector  of  Cologne,  Maximilian  Frederick, 
l)ishop  of  Miinster,  (Duchy  of  Westphalia) 
on  February  17,  1784,  issued  a  manifesto 
which  said : 

To  our  great  displeasure  we  have  learned 
that  in  our  Duchy  of  Westphalia  the  misuse  of 
the  coffee  beverage  has  become  so  extended  that 
to  counteract  the  evil  we  command  that  four 
weeks  after  the  publication  of  this  decree  no 
one  shall  sell  coffee  roasted  or  not  roasted  un- 
der a  fine  of  one  hundred  dollars,  or  two  years 
in  prison,  for  each  offense. 

Every  coffee-roasting  and  coffee-serving  place 
shall  he  closed,  and  dealers  and  hotel-koepers 
are  to  get  rid  of  their  coffee  supplies  in  four 
weeks.  It  is  only  permitted  to  obtain  from  the 
outside  coffee  for  one's  own  consumption  in  lots 
of  fifty  pounds.  House  fathers  and  mothers 
shall  not  allow  their  work  people,  especially 
their  washing  and  ironing  women,  to  prepare 

coffee,   or  to  allow  it  in  any  manner  under  "a 
penalty  of  one  hundred  dollars. 

All  officials  and  government  employees,  to 
avoid  a  penalty  of  one  hundred  gold  florins,  are 
called  upon  closely  to  follow  and  to  keep  -a 
watchful  eye  over  this  decree.  To  the  one  who 
reports  such  persons  as  act  contrary  to  this 
decree  shall  be  granted  one-half  of  the  said 
money  fine  with  absolute  silence  as  to  his  name. 

This  decree  was  solemnly  read  iq.  the 
pulpits,  and  was  published  besides  in  the 
usual  places  and  ways.  There  immediately 
followed  a  course  of  'Helling-ons",  and 
of  "coffee-smellings",  that  led  to  many 
bitter  enmities  and  caused  much  unhappi- 
ness  in  the  Duchy  of  Westphalia.  Appar- 
ently the  purpose  of  the  archduke  was  to 
prevent  persons  of  small  means  from  enjoy- 
ing the  drink,  while  those  who  could  afford 
to  purchase  fifty  pounds  at  a  time  were  to 
be  permitted  the  indulgence.  As  was  to  be 
expected,  the  scheme  was  a  complete  failure. 

While  the  king  of  Prussia  exploited  his 
subjects  by  using  the  state  coffee  monopoly 
as  a  means  of  extortion,  the  duke  of  Wiirt- 
temberg  had  a  scheme  of  his  own.  He  sold 
to  Joseph  Suess-Oppenheimer,  an  un- 
scrupulous financier,  the  exclusive  privilege 
of  keeping  coffee  houses  in  Wiirttemberg. 
Suess-Oppenheimer  "in  turn  sold  the  in- 
dividual coffee-house  licenses  to  the  highest 
bidders,  and  accumulated  a  considerate 
fortune.    He  was  the  first  ' '  coffee  king. ' ' 

But  coffee  outlived  all  these  unjust 
slanders  and  cruel  taxations  of  too  paternal 
governments,  and  gradually  took  its  right- 
ful pl^fee  as  one  of  the  favorite  beverages 
of  the  German  people."  " 







Chapter    IX 


The  romantic  adventure  of  Franz  George  Kolschitsky,  who  carried 
"a  message  to  Garcia"  through  the  enemy's  lines  and  won  for  him- 
self the  honor  of  being  the  first  to  teach  the  Viennese  the  art  of 
making  coffee,  to  say  nothing  of  falling  heir  to  the  supplies  of  the 
green  beans  left  behind  by  the  Turks;  also  the  gift  of  a  house  from  a 
gratefid  municipality,  and  a  statue  after  death  —  Affectionate  regard 
in  tvhich  ^'brother-heart''  Kolschitsky  is  held  as  the  patron  saint  of 
the  Vienna  kaffeesieder  —  Life  in  the  early  Vienna  cafes 

AROMAA^TIC  tale  has  been  woven 
around  the  introduction  of  coffee  into 
Austria.  When  Vienna  was  besieged 
l)y  the  Turks  in  1683,  so  runs  the  legend, 
Franz  George  Kolschitzky,  a  native  of 
Poland,  formerly  an  interpreter  in  the 
Turkish  army,  saved  the  city  and  won  for 
himself  undying  fame,  with  coffee  as  his 
principal  reward. 

It  is  not  known  whether,  in  the  first  siege 
of  Vienna  by  the  Turks  in  1529,  the  in- 
vaders boiled  coffee  over  their  camp  fires 
that  surrounded  the  Austrian  capital;  al- 
though they  might  have  done  so,  as  Selim 
I,  after  con([uering  Egypt  in  1517,  had 
brought  with  him  to  Constantinople  large 
stores  of  coffee  as  part  of  his  booty.  But 
it  is  certain  that  when  they  returned  to  the 
attack,  154  years  later,  they  carried  with 
them  a  plentiful  supply  of  the  green  beans. 
Mohammed  IV  mobilized  an  army  of 
300,000  men  and  sent  it  forth  under  his 
vizier,  Kara  Miistapha,  (Kuprili's  succes- 
sor) to  destroy  Christendom  and  to  conquer 
Europe.  Reaching  Vienna  July  7,  1683,  the 
army  quickly  invested  the  city  and  cut  it 
off  from  the  world.  Emperor  Leopold  had 
escaped  the  net  and  was  several  miles  away. 
Nearby  was  the  prince  of  Lorraine,  with  an 
army  of  33,000  Austrians,  awaiting  the 
succor  promised  by  John  Sobieski,  king  of 

Poland,  and  an  opportunity  to  relieve  the 
besieged  capital.  Count  Rudiger  von  Star- 
hemberg,  in  command  of  the  forces '  in 
Vienna,  called  for  a  volunteer  to  carry  a 
message  through  the  Turkish  lines  to  hurry 
along  the  rescue.  He  found  him  in  the 
person  of  Franz  George  Kolschitzky,  who 
had  lived  for  many  years  among  the  Turks 
and  knew  their  language  and  customs. 

On  August  13,  1683,  Kolschitzky  donned 
a  Turkish  iniiform,  passed  through  the 
enemy's  lines  and  reached  the  Emperor's 
army  across  the  Danube.  Several  times  he 
made  the  perilous  journey  between  the  camp 
of  the  prince  of  Lorraine  and  the  garrison 
of  the  governor  of  Vienna.  One  account 
says  that  he  had  to  swim  the  four  interven- 
ing arms  of  the  Danube  each  time  he  per- 
formed the  feat.  His  messages  did  much 
to  keep  up  the  morale  of  the  city's  de- 
fenders. At  length  King  John  and  his  army 
of  rescuing  Poles  arrived  and  were  consoli- 
dated with  the  Austrians  on  the  summit  of 
Mount  Kahlenberg.  It  was  one  of  the  most 
dramatic  moments  in  history.  The  fate  of 
Christian  Europe  hung  in  the  balance. 
Everything  seemed  to  point  to  the  triumph 
of  the  crescent  over  the  cross.  Once  again 
Kolschitzky  crossed  the  Danube,  and 
brought  back  word  concerning  the, signals 
that  the  prince  of  Lorraine  and  King  Jflhn 




Franz  George  Kolschitzky,  Patron  Saint  of 
Vienna   Coffee   Lovers 

would  give  from  Mount  Kahlenberg  to  in- 
dicate the  beginning  of  the  attack.  Count 
Starhemberg  was  to  make  a  sortie  at  the 
same  time. 

The  battle  took  place  September  12,  and 
thanks  to  the  magnificent  generalship  of 
King  John,  the  Turks  were  routed.  The 
Poles  here  rendered  a  never  -  to  -  be  -  for- 
gotten service  to  all  Christendom.  The 
Turkish  invaders  fled,  leaving  25,000  tents, 
10,000  oxen,  5,000  camels,  100,000  bushels 
of  grain,  a  great  quantity  of  gold,  and 
many  sacks  filled  with  coffee  —  at  that  time 
unknown  in  Vienna.  The  booty  was  dis- 
tributed; but  no  one  wanted  the  coffee. 
They  did  not  know  what  to  do  with  it; 
that  is,  no  one  except  Kolschitzky.  He  said, 
•'If  nobody  wants  those  sacks,  I  will  take 
them",  and  every  one  was  heartily  glad 
to  be  rid  of  the  strange  beans.  But  Kol- 
schitzky knew  what  he  was  about,  and  he 
soon  taught  the  Viennese  the  art  of  prepar- 
ing coffee.  Later,  he  established  the  first 
public  booth  where  Turkish  coffee  was 
served  in  Vienna. 

This,  then,  is  the  story  of  how  coffee  was 
introduced  into  Vienna,  where  was  devel- 
oped that  typical  Vienna  caf6  which  has 

become  a  model  for  a  large  part  of  the 
world.  Kolschitzky  is  honored  in  Vienna 
as  the  patron  saint  of  coffee  houses.  His 
followers,  united  in  the  guild  of  coffee 
makers  (kaffee-sieder),  even  erected  a 
statue  in  his  honor.  It  still  stands  as  part 
of  the  facade  of  a  house  where  the  Kol- 
schitzygasse  merges  into  the  Favoritengasse, 
as  shown  in  the  accompanying  picture. 

Vienna  is  sometimes  referred  to  as  the 
"mother  of  cafes".  Caf6  Sacher  is  world- 
renowned.  Tart  a  la  Sacher  is  to  be  found 
in  every  cook-book.  The  Viennese  have 
their  '' jause"  every  afternoon.  When  one 
drinks  coffee  at  a  Vienna  cafe  one  generally 
has  a  kipfel  with  it.  This  is  a  crescent- 
shaped  roll  —  baked  for  the  first  time  in  the 
eventful  year  1683,  when  the  Turks  be- 
sieged the  city.  A  baker  made  these  cres- 
cent rolls  in  a  spirit  of  defiance  of  the  Turk. 
Holding  sword  in  one  hand  and  kipfel  in 
the  other,  the  Viennese  would  show  them- 
selves on  top  of  their  redoubts  and  chal- 
lenge the  cohorts  of  Mohammed  IV. 

Mohammed  IV  was  deposed  after  losing 
the  battle,  and  Kara  Mustapha  was  executed 
for  leaving  the  stores  —  particularly  the 
sacks  of  coffee  beans  —  at  the  gates  of 
Vienna;  but  Vienna  coffee  and  Vienna 
kipfel  are  still  alive,  and  their  appeal  is 
not  lessened  by  the  years. 

The  hero  Kolschitzky  was  presented  with 
a  house  by  the  grateful  municipality;  and 

The  First  Coffee  House  in  the  Leopoldstadt 
From  a  cut  so  titled  in  Bermann's  Alt  und  Neu  Wiett 

there,  at  the  sign  of  the  Blue  Bottle,  ac- 
cording to  one  account,  he  continued  as  a 
coffee-house  keeper  for  many  years.^  This, 
in  brief,  is  the  story  that — although  not 

'  Vulcaren.   John   Peter  A. 
of  Vienna.     1684. 

Relation  of  the  Siege 




authenticated  in  all  its  particulars  —  is 
seriously  related  in  many  books,  and  is 
firmly  believed  throughout  Vienna. 

It  seems  a  pity  to  discredit  the  hero  of 
so  romantic  an  adventure ;  but  the  archives 
of  Vienna  throw  a  light  upon  Kolschitzky 's 
later  conduct  that  tends  to  show  that,  after 
all,  this  Viennese  idol's  feet  were  of  com- 
mon clay. 

It  is  said  that  Kolschitzky,  after  receiv- 
ing the  sacks  of  green  coffee  left  behind  by 
the  Turks,  at  once  began  to  peddle  the 
beverage, from  house  to  house,  serving  it  in 
little  cups  from  a  wooden  platter.  Later  he 
rented  a  shop  in  Bischof-hof.  Then  he 
began  to  petition  the  municipal  council, 
that,  in  addition  to  the  sum  of  100  ducats 
already  promised  him  as  further  recogni- 
tion of  his  valor,  he  should  receive  a  house 
with  good  will  attached;  that  is,  a  shop  in 
some  growing  business  section.  "His  peti- 
tions to  the  municipal  council",  writes  M. 
Bermann  *,  ' '  are  amazing  examples  of  meas- 
ureless self-conceit  and  the  boldest  greed. 
He  seemed  determined  to  get  the  utmost 
out  of  his  own  self-sacrifice.  He  insisted 
upon  the  most  highly  deserved  reward,  such 
as  the  Romans  bestowed  upon  their  Curtius, 
the  Lacedsemonians  upon  their  Pompilius, 
the  Athenians  upon  Seneca,  with  whom  he 
modestly  compared  himself." 

At  last,  he  was  given  his  choice  of  three 
houses  in  the  Leopoldstadt,  any  one  of 
them  worth  from  400  to  450  gulden,  in 
place  of  the  money  reward,  that  had  been 
fixed  by  a  compromise  agreement  at  300 
gulden.  But  Kolschitzky  was  not  satisfied 
with  this;  and  urged  that  if  he  was  to 
accept  a  house  in  full  payment  it  should 
be  one  valued  at  not  less  than  1000  gulden. 
Then  ensued  much  correspondence  and  con- 
siderable haggling.  To  put  an  end  to  the 
acrimonious  dispute,  the  municipal  council 
in  1685  directed  that  there  should  be  deeded 
over  to  Kolschitzky  and  his  wife,  Maria 
Ursula,  without  further  argument,  the 
house  known  at  that  time  as  30  (now  8) 

It  is  further  recorded  that  Kolschitzky 
sold  the  house  within  a  year;  and,  after 
many  moves,  he  died  of  tuberculosis,  Feb- 
ruary 20,  1694,  aged  fifty-four  years.  He 
was  courier  to  the  emperor  at  the  time  of 
his  death,  and  was  buried  in  the  Stefans- 
freithof  Cemetery. 

*  Bermann,  M. 
(p.  964.) 

Alt  und  Neu  Wien.     Vienna,   1880. 

Statue  of   Kolschitzky  Erected  by   the 
Coffee  Makers  Guild  of  Vienna 

Kolschitzky 's  heirs  moved  the  coflfee 
house  to  Donaustrand,  near  the  wooden 
Schlagbriicke,  later  known  as  Ferdinand's 
briicke  (bridge).  The  celebrated  coffee 
house  of  Franz  Mosee  (d.  1860)  stood  on 
this  same  spot. 

In  the  city  records  for  the  year  1700  a 
house  in  the  Stock-im-Eisen-Platz  (square) 
is  designated  by  the  words  "allwo  das  erste 
kaffeegewolhe"  ("here  was  the  first  coffee 
house").  Unfortunately,  the  name  of  the 
proprietor  is  not  given. 

Many  stories  are  told  of  Kolschitzky 's 
popularity  as  a  eoflPee-house  keeper.  He  is 
said  to  have  addressed  everyone  as  hruder- 
herz  (brother-heart)  and  gradually  he 
himself  acquired  the  name  bruderherz.  A 
portrait  of  Kolschitzky,  painted  about  the 
time  of  his  greatest  vogue,  is  carefully  pre- 
served by  the  Innungi  der  Wiener  Kaffee- 
sieder  (the  Coffee  Makers'  Guild  of 
Vienna) . 


ALL    A  B  OUT     COFFEE 

Even  during  the  lifetime  of  the  first 
kaffee-sieder,  a  number  of  others  opened 
coffee  houses  and  acquired  some  little  fame. 
Early  in  the  eighteenth  centurj^  a  tourist 
gives  us  a  glimpse  of  the  progress  made  by 
coffee  drinking  and  by  the  coffee-house 
idea  in  Vienna.    "We  read : 

The  t'it.v  of  Vienna  is  filled  witli  coffee  liouses, 
where  the  novelists  or  those  who  Inisy  them- 
selves with  the  newspapers  delight  to  meet,  to 
read  the  gazettes  and  discuss  their  contents. 
Some  of  these  houses  have  a  better  reputation 
than  others  because  such  zeitungs-d  actors 
(newspaper  dQ'ctors  — an  ironical  title)  gather 
there   to   pass   most  unhesitating   judgment   on 

the  weightiest  events,  and  to  surpass  all  others 
in  their  opinions  concerning  political  matters 
and  considerations. 

All  this  wins  them  such  respect  tliat  many 
congregate  there  because  of  them,  and  to  enrich 
their  minds  with  inventions  and  foolishness 
which  thev  innnediately  run  through  the  city  to 
bring  to  the  ears  of  the  said  ])ersonalities.  It 
is^  impossil)le  to  believe  what  freedom  is  per- 
mitted, in  furnishing  this  gossip.  They  speak 
without  reverence  not  only  of  the  doings  of  gen- 
erals and  ministers  of  state,  but  also  mix  them- 
selves in  the  life  of  the  Kaiser  (Emperor)  him- 

Vienna  liked  the  coffee  house  so  well  that 
by  1839  there  were  eighty  of  them  in  the 
city  proper  and  fifty  more  in  the  suburbs. 


Chapter   X 

THE     COFFEE     HOUSES      OF     OLD     LONDON 


One  of  the  most  picturesque  chapters  in  the  history  of  coffee The 

first  coffee  house  in  London  —  The  first  coffee  handbill,  and  the  first 
newspaper  advertisement  for  coffee— Strange  coffee  mixtures  — 
Fantastic  coffee  claims— Coffee  prices  and  coffee  licenses— Coffee 
club  of  the  Rota  —  Early  coffee-house  manners  and  customs  — 
Coffee-house  keepers'  tokens  —  Opposition  to  the  coffee  house  — 
''Penny  universities'' —  Weird  coffee  substitutes —  The  proposed 
coffee-house  newspaper  monopoly  —  Evolution  of  the  club  — Decline 
and  fall  of  the  coffee  house  —  Pen  pictures  of  coffee-house  life  — 
Famous  coffee  houses  of  the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth  centuries  — 
Some  Old  World  pleasure  gardens  —  Locating  the  notable  coffee 

THE  two  most  picturesque  chapters  in 
the  history  of  coffee  have  to  do  with 
the  period  of  the  old  London  and 
Paris  coffee  houses  of  the  seventeenth  and 
eighteenth  centuries.  Much  of  the  poetry 
and  romance  of  coffee  centers  around  this 

"The  history  of  coffee  houses,"  says 
D 'Israeli,  "ere  the  invention  of  clubs,  was 
that  of  the  manners,  the  morals  and  the 
politics  of  a  people."  And  so  the  history 
of  the  London  coffee  houses  of  the  seven- 
teenth and  eighteenth  centuries  is  indeed 
the  history  of  the  manners  and  customs  of 
the  English  people  of  that  period. 

The  First  London  Co  fee  House 

"The  first  coffee  house  in  London", 
says  John  Aubrey  (1626-97),  the  Eng- 
lish antiquary  and  folklorist,  "was  in  St. 
Michael's  Alley,  in  Comhill,  opposite  to 
the  church,  which  was  sett  up  by  one  .  .  . 
Bowman  (coachman  to  Mr.  Hodges,  a  Tur- 
key merchant,  who  putt  him  upon  it)  in 
or  about  the  yeare  1652.  'Twas  about  four 
years  before  any  other  was  sett  up,  and 
that  was  by  Mr.  Farr.    Jonathan  Paynter, 

over-against  to  St.  Michael's  Church,  was 
the  first  apprentice  to  the  trade,  viz.,  to 
Bowman. ' '  * 

Another  account,  for  which  we  are  in- 
debted to  William  Oldys  (1696  - 1761),  the 
bibliographer,  relates  that  Mr.  Edwards,  a 
London  merchant,  acquired  the  coffee  habit 
in  Turkey,  and  brought  home  with  him 
from  Ragusa,  in  Dalmatia,  Pasqua  Ros6e, 
an  Armenian  or  Greek  youth,  who  prepared 
the  beverage  for  him.  "But  the  novelty 
thereof,"  says  Oldys,  "drawing  too  much 
company  to  him,  he  allowed  the  said  servant 
with  another  of  his  son-in-law  to  set  up 
the  first  coffee  house  in  London  at  St. 
Michael's  Alley,  in  Cornhill." 

From  this  it  would  appear  that  Pasqua 
Ros6e  had  as  partner  in  this  enterprise,  the 
Bowman,  who,  according  to  Aubrey,  was^ 
coachman  to  Mr.  Hodges,  the  son-in-law 
of  Mr.  Edwards,  and  a  fellow  merchant 

Oldys  tells  us  that  Rosee  and  Bowman 
soon  separated.  John  Timbs  (1801  - 1875), 
another  English  antiquary,  says  they 
quarreled,  Rosee  keeping  the  house,  and  his 

*  Manuscript  in  t\n'  Boilloiaii  Library. 




partner  Bowman  obtaining  leave  to  pitch 
a  tent  and  to  sell  the  drink  in  St.  Michael's 

Still  another  version  of  this  historic  inci- 
dent is  to  be  found  in  Houghton's  Collec- 
tion, 1698.    It  reads : 

It  appears  that  a  Mr.  Danie'  Edwards,  an 
English  merchant  of  Smyrna,  brought  with  him 
to  this  conntry  a  Greek  of  the  name  of  Pasqua, 
in  16r)2,  who  made  his  coffee ;  this  Mr.  Edwards 
married  one  Alderman  Ilodges's  danghter,  who 
lived  in  Walbrook.  and  set  up  Pasqna  for  a  cof- 
fee man  in  a  shed  in  the  churchyard  in  St. 
Michael.  Cornhill,  which  is  now  a  scrivener's 
brave-house,  when,  having  great  custom,  the 
ale-sellers  i)etitioned  the  Lord  Mayor  against 
him,  as  being  no  freeman.  This  made  Alderman 
Hodges  join  his  coachman,  Bowman,  who  was 
free,  as  Pasqua's  partner;  but  Pasqua,  for 
some  misdemeanor,  was  forced  to  run  the  coun- 
try, and  Bowman,  by  his  trade  and  a  contribu- 
tion of  1000  sixpences,  turned  the  shed  to  a 
house.  Bowman's  apprentices  were  first,  John 
Painter,  then  Humphry,  from  whose  wife  I  had 
this  account. 

This  account  makes  it  appear  that  Ed- 
wards was  Hodges'  son-in-law.  Whatever 
the  relationship,  most  authorities  agree  that 
Pasqua  Rosee  was  the  first  to  sell  coffee 
publicly,  whether  in  a  tent  or  shed,  in  Lon- 
don in  or  about  the  year  1652.  His  original 
shop-bill,  or  handbill,  the  first  advertise- 
ment for  coffee,  is  in  the  British  Museum, 
and  from  it  the  accompanying  photograph 
was  made  for  this  work.  It  sets  forth  in 
direct  fashion :  "The  Vertue  of  the  COF- 
FEE Drink  First  publiquely  made  and 
sold  in  England,  by  Pasqua  Rosee  ...  in 
St.  Michaels  Alley  in  Cornhill.  ...  at  the 
Signe  of  his  own  Head."  ' 

H.  R.  Fox  Bourne  '  (about  1870)  is  alone 
in  an  altogether  different  version  of  this 
historic  event.    He  says: 

"In  1652  Sir  Nicholas  Crispe,  a  Levant 
merchant,  opened  in  London  the  first  coffee 
house  known  in  England,  the  beverage  be- 
ing prepared  by  a  Greek  girl  brought  over 
for  the  work," 

There  is  nothing  to  substantiate  this 
story;  the  preponderance  of  evidence  is  in 
support  of  the  Edwards  -  Rosee  version. 

Such  then  was  the  advent  of  the  coffee 
house  in  London,  which  introduced  to  Eng- 
lish-speaking people  the  drink  of  de- 
mocracy. Oddly  enough,  coffee  and  the 
Commonwealth  came  in  together.  The 
English  coffee  house,  like  its  French  con- 
temporary, was  the  home  of  liberty. 

»  See  also  chapter  XXVIII. ' 

'  The  Romance  of  Trade.  London,  (chap,  ii ;  p.  31.) 

Robinson,  who  accepts  that  version  of 
the  event  wherein  Edwards  marries 
Hodges 's  daughter,  says  that  after  the  part- 
ners Rosee  and  Bowman  separated,  and 
Bowman  had  set  up  his  tent  opposite  Rosee, 
a  zealous  partisan  addressed  these  verses 
"To  Pasqua  Rosee,  at  the  Sign  of  his  own 
Head  and  half  his  Body  in  St.  Michael's 
Alley,  next  the  first  Coffee-Tent  in  Lon- 

Were  not  the  fountain  of  my  Tears 
Each  day  exhausted  by  the  steam 

Of  your  Coffee,  no  doubt  appears 

But  they  would  swell  to  such  a  stream 

As  could  admit  of  no  restriction 

To  see,  poor  Pasqua,  thy  Affliction. 

What!  Pasqua,  you  at  first  did  broach 
This  Nectar  for  the  publick  Good, 

Must  you  call  Kitt  down  from  the  Coach 
To  drive  a  Trade  he  understood 

No  more  than  you  did  then  your  creed, 

Or  he  doth  now  to  write  or  read? 

Pull  Courage,  Pasqua,  fear  no  Harms 

From   the  besieging  Foe ; 
Make  good  your  Ground,  stand  to  your  Arms, 

Hold  out  this  summer,  and  then  tho' 
He'll  storm,  he'll  not  prevail  —  your  Face  * 
Shall  give  the  Coffee  Pot  the  chace. 

Eventually  Pasqua  Rosee  disappeared, 
some  say  to  open  a  coffee  house  on  the  Con- 
tinent, in  Holland  or  Germany.  Bowman, 
having  married  Alderman  Hodges 's  cook, 
and  having  also  prevailed  upon  about  a 
thousand  of  his  customers  to  lend  him  six- 
pence apiece,  converted  his  tent  into  a  sub- 
stantial house,  and  eventually  took  an 
apprentice  to  the  trade. 

Concerning  London's  second  coffee- 
house keeper,  James  Farr,  proprietor  of  the 
Rainbow,  who  had  as  his  most  distinguished 
visitor  Sir  Henry  Blount,  Edward  Hatton' 

I  find  it  recorded  that  one  James  Farr,  a 
barber,  who  kept  the  coffee-house  which  is  now 
the  Rainbow,  by  the  Inner  Temple  Gate  (one  of 
the  first  in  England),  was  in  the  year  1657, 
prosecuted  by  the  inquest  of  St.  Dunstan's  in 
the  West,  for  making  and  selling  a  sort  of 
liquor  called  coffe,  as  a  great  nuisance  and 
prejudice  to  the  neighborhood,  etc.,  and  who 
would  then  have  thought  London  would  ever 
have  had  near  three  thousand  such  nuisances, 
and  that  coffee  would  have  been,  as  now,  so 
much  drank  by  the  best  of  quality  and  physi- 

Hatton  evidently  attributed  Farr's  nuis- 
ance to  the  coffee  itself,  whereas  the  present- 

*  Pasqua  Rosee's  sign.  Kltt's  (or  Bowman's)  sign 
was  a  coffee  pot. 

*  Ilatton,  Edward.  .  New  View  of  London.  London. 
1708.     (vol.  i:  p.  30.) 




[ThcVevtucofthe  COFFEE  Drinkr 

Firftpub!ic]uciy  mad:  and  fold  in  England,  by  Ttifciti^  <Pofee, 

TH  E  Grain  or  Berry  called  Coffecy  groweth  upon  licdc  Trees, 
on  ;y  i  n  the  Defeits  of  Arabia: 

ic  is  brouglu  from  thence,  anddmnk  generally  throughouc 
all  tlie  Grand  Seigniors  Dominions. 

I.  is  a  fimple  innocent  thing,  compofed  into  a  Drijik,  by  being  dry- 
cd  in  snOven,  and  ground  to  Powder,and  boiled  up  with  Spring  wa- 
ter, and  about  half  a  pint  of  it  to  be  drunk,  fading  an  hour  before  .and 
not  Edting  an  hour  after,  and  CO  be  taken  as  hot  as  pofsibly  can  be  en- 
dured ;  chcvvhich  will  never  fetch  the  skin  offthe  mouth,or  raifc  any 
Blii>.:'rs,by  rc:fon  of  chat  Heat, 

V  The  ru:ks  drink  2t  meals  and  other  times,  is  ufually  W'^ffr,  and 
their  Dyec  confill;  much  of  Fr/4^  ^  the  Crudities  whereof  arc  very 
much  corrected  by  this  Drink.  ;■  4^  Is 

The  quality  of  this  Drink  h  cofd  and  Dryj  and  though  it  be  a 
Dryer^  yst  it  neither  heats, 'nor  inflames  more  then  hot  fojfet. 

Ir  fcTclofech  the  Orifice  of  the  Stomack,  and  fortifies  the  heat  wiih- 
ns  very  good  (o^help  digeftionj  and  therefore  of  great  u/e  to  be 
bout 3  or4aCiockafternoon,as  wcUas  \n  the  morning.- 
ucn  quickens  the  Spirits^  and  makes  the  Heart  Ughtfwie, 

.  is  goodagauift  lore  Eys,  and  the  better  if  you  hold  your  Head  o- 
er  It,  and  rake  in  the  Steem  that  way. 

Ic  lu'.preifeth  Fumes  exceedingly,  and  therefore  good  againftthc 
Head~ach,  an^i  wiU  very  much  flop  any  De fluxion  of  <l{heums,  that  diftil 
from  the  Hrad  upon  the  Stomachy  and  fo  prevent  and  help  Qonjumfti' 
ons^a  nd  the  Cough  of  the  Lun^s, 

It  is  excellent  to  prevent  and  cure  the  Vropfyy  Gout,  and  Scuryy, 

II  is  known  l?y  experience  to  be  better  then  any  other  Drying 
"DnuV^oxTeople  in  years,  or  CWirew  that  have  any  running  humors  u^- 
cnx!tiCV[\yZS  the  Kings  B\fiU  &c. 

It  is  very  good  to  prevent  Mif  carryings  in  Qnli-hearing  Women, 

Jt  is  a  moft  excellent  Remedy  againft  the  Spleen  ^  Hypoconclriac^, 
TT/nt/y,  or  thelike. 

It  will  prevent  'Dro'^fintfsy  and  make  one  fitforbiifines,if  one  have 
occafion  ro  Watch-^  and  therefore  you  are  not  to  Drink  of  u  after  Supper^ 
unlets  you  intend  to  be  watchful^^or  it  will  hinder  llecp  for )  <jr  4  hours. 

It  is  obferVed  that  in  Turkey 3  Ti'here  this  is  generally  drunk,  that  they  are 
mt  trolled  leith  the  Stone ,  Gout ,  Dropjie ,  or  ScurVey ,  a?id  that  their 
Skins  are  exceeding  deer  and  vhite.  ^^£^ 

khnckhct  Laxative  not  ^eflringent.    ^8. 

Made  and  Sold  in  St.  Michaels  Alley  in  Cornhilh  by  Pafqua  T^hftty 
at  the  Signc  of  lus  own  Head. 


Handbill  used  by  Pasqua  Rosf^e,  who  opened  the  first  coffee  house  in  London 
From  the  original  in  the  British  Museum 



ment*    clearly    shows    it    was    in    Farr's 
chimney  and  not  in  the  coffee. 

Mention  has  already  been  made  that  Sii 
Henry  Blount  w'as  spoken  of  as  "the  fathei 
of  Enirlish  coffee  houses"  and  his  claim  to 
this  distinction  would  seem  to  be  a  valid 
one,  for  his  strong  personality  "stamped  it 
self  upon  the  system."  His  favorite  motto, 
"Loqnendum  est  cum  vulgo,  sentiendum 
cum  sapientihus  (the  crowd  may  talk  about 
it;  the  wise  decide  it),  says  Robinson,  "ex- 
presses well  their  colloquial  purpose,  and 
w'as  natural  enough  on  the  lips  of  one  whose 
experience  had  been  world  wide. ' '  Aubrej 
says  of  Sir  Henry  Blount,  ' '  He  is  now  neer 
or  altogether  eighty  yeares,  his  intellectuals 
good  still  and  body  pretty  strong." 

Women  played  a  not  inconspicuous  part 
in  establishing  businesses  for  the  sale  of  the 
coffee  drink  in  England,  although  the  coffee 
houses  were  not  for  both  sexes,  as  in  other 
European  countries.  The  London  City 
Quaeries  for  1660  makes  mention  of  "a  she- 
coffee  merchant."  Mary  Stringar  ran  a 
coffee  house  in  Little  Trinity  Lane  in  1669  ; 
Anne  Blunt  was  mistress  of  one  of  the 
Turk's-Head  houses  in  Cannon  Street  in 
1672.  Mary  Long  was  the  widow  of  Will- 
iam Long,  and  her  initials,  together  with 
those  of  her  husband,  appear  on  a  token 
issued  from  the  Rose  tavern  in  Bridge 
Street,  Covent  Garden.  Mary  Long's  token 
from  the  "Rose  coffee  house  by  the  play- 
house" in  Covent  Garden  is  shown  among 
the  group  of  coffee-house  keepers'  tokens 
herein  illustrated. 

The  First  Newspaper  Advertisement 

The  first  newspaper  advertisement  for 
coffee  appeared.  May  26,  1657,  in  the  Puh- 
lich  Adviser  of  London,  one  of  the  first 
weekly  pamphlets.  The  name  of  this  pub- 
lication was  erroneously  given  as  the  Pub- 
lick  Advertiser  by  an  early  writer  on  coffee, 
and  the  error  has  been  copied  by  succeeding 
writers.  The  first  newspaper  advertisement 
was  contained  in  the  issue  of  the  Puhlick 
Adviser  for  the  week  of  May  19  to  May  26, 
and  read: 

In  Bartholometc  Lane  on  the  back  side  of  the 
Old  Exchange,  the  drink  called  Coffee,  (which 
is  a  very  wholsom  and  Physical  drink,  having 
many  excellent  vei-tues.  closes  the  Orifice  of  the 
Stomack,  fortifies  the  heat  within,  helpeth  Di- 
gestion, quickneth  the  Spirits,  maketh  the  heart 
lightsom,  is  good  against  Eye-sores,  Ck>ughs,  or 
Colds,  Rhumes,  Consumptions,  Head-ach,  Drop- 

»  The   prosecution    came   under   the   heading,    "Pis- 
orders  and  Annoys." 

sie,  Gout,  Scurvy,  Kings  Evil,  and  many  others 
is  to  be  sold  both  in  the  morning,  and  at  three 
of  the  clock  in  the  afternoon. 

Chocolate  was  also  advertised  for  sale  in 
London  this  same  year.  The  issue  of  the 
Puhlick  Adviser  for  June  16,  1657,  con- 
tained this  announcement: 

In  Bishopgate  Street,  in  Queen's  Head  Alley, 
at  a  Frenchman's  house  is  an  excellent  West 
India  drink  called  chocolate,  to  be  sold,  where 
you  may  have  it  ready  at  any  time,  and  also 
unmade  at  reasonable  rates. 

Tea  was  first  sold  publicly  at  Garra way's 
(or  Garway's)  in  1657. 

Strange  Coffee  Mixtures 

The  doctors  were  loath  to  let  coffee  escape 
from  the  mysteries  of  the  pharmacopoeia 
and  become  "a  simple  and  refreshing  bev- 
erage" that  any  one  might  obtain  for  a 
penny  in  the  coffee  houses,  or,  if  preferred, 
might  prepare  at  home.  In  this  they  were 
aided  and  abetted  by  many  well-meaning 
but  misguided  persons  (some  of  them  men 
of  considerable  intelligence)  who  seemed 
possessed  of  the  idea  that  the  coffee  drink 
was  an  unpleasant  medicine  that  needed 
something  to  take  away  its  curse,  or  else 
that  it  required  a  complex  method  of 
preparation.  Witness  "Judge"  Walter 
Rumsey's  Electuary  of  Cophy,  which  ap- 
peared in  1657  in  connection  with  a  curious 
work  of  his  called  Organon  Salutis:  an  in- 
strument to  cleanse  the  stomach. '  The  in- 
strument itself  was  a  flexible  whale-bone, 
two  or  three  feet  long,  with  a  small  linen 
or  silk  button  at  the  end,  and  was  designed 
to  be  introduced  into  the  stomach  to  pro- 
duce the  effect  of  an  emetic.  The  electuary 
of  coffee  was  to  be  taken  by  the  patient 
before  and  after  using  the  instrument, 
which  the  "judge"  called  his  Provang. 
And  this  was  the  "judge's"  "new  and 
superior  way  of  preparing  coffee ' '  as  found 
in  his  prescription  for  making  electuary  of 
cophy : 

Take  equal  quantity  of  Butter  and  Sallet-oyle, 
melt  them  well  together,  but  not  boyle  them ; 
Then  stir  re  them  well  that  they  may  incorpor- 
ate together:  Then  melt  therewith  three  times 
as  much  Honey,  and  stirre  it  well  together: 
Then  add  thereunto  powder  of  Turkish  Cophie, 
to  make  it  a  thick  Electuary. 

A  little  consideration  will  convince  any 
one  that  the  electuary  was  most  likely  to 
achieve  the  purpose  for  which  it  was  recom- 

'  Rumsey  (or  Ramsey),  W.  Organon  Salutis.  LoU' 
don,   1657. 





CommunicsUin(*  unto   the  whole 

Nation  the  fcvcral  Occafroni  of  all  perfons 
that  arc  any  way  concerned  in  matter  of  Buying  and 
iSelling,  or  in  any  kind  of  Impa)ymcnt,  or  deahnos 
whaifoever^  according  to  the  int«ntof  the  OFFICE 
OF  PUBLICK  ADVICE  newly  fct  up  in 
feveral  places  ,  in  and  about  L4ff/ipff  and  rP^/- 

For  the  better  Accommodation  and  Eafc  of 
the  People ,  and  the  Univerfal  Benefit  of  the 
Commonwealth,  in  point  of 


from  Tuefda^  Maj  r^  r#  Ttn/Hdy  May  a5. 

la  B^rtholomem  Lane  on  the  back  liJc  of  the  Old 
Exchange,  the  drink  called  Coffee^  (  yvhich  is  a  very  wHol- 
form  and  Phyfical  drink,  havjng  many  excellent  vertues, 
clofes  rhe.Orifice  of  the  Stomack,  fortifies  the  heat  with- 
m,  helpcth  Digeftion,qUJckncthihc  Spirits,  niakcth  the 
hitt  hghtfom,  is  gcodagainft  Eyc-furfS.  Coughs,  or 
Colds/ Hhun^cs,  Confumptions;  Heid-ach,  Dropfie, 
Goac,.ScQrvy»Kings  Evlland  many  others  if  to  hrfofd 
bothta  the  morning,  and  at  three  of  the  clock  in  ihe^  a(-^ 


ONc  Mrs.  Uffdel  living  at  the  fi^  of  the  Boot  in  Ful- 
lers Rentsin//o/^»r;i,  AttirethanJ  DrefTcih  Lidicf 
and  Gcntlt  womcns  Heads  •,  and  tcawheth  Maids  to  ** 
H:ads:  TAct';  fV  c  refTiMS  *  ' 
till  they  br  p*****^ 




Another  concoction  invented  by  the 
"jud^e"  was  known  as  "wash-brew",  and 
included  oatmeal,  powder  of  "cophie",  a 
pint  of  ale  or  any  wine,  ginger,  honey,  or 
sugar  to  please  the  taste;  to  these  ingre- 
dients butter  might  be  added  and  any 
cordial  powder  or  pleasant  spice.  It  was  to 
be  put  into  a  tiannel  bag  and  "so  keep  it  at 
pleasure  like  starch."  This  was  a  favorite 
medicine  among  the  common  people  of 

The  book  contained  in  a  prefix  an  in- 
teresting historical  document  in  the  shape 
of  a  letter  from  James  Howell  (1595  - 1666) 
the  writer  and  historiographer,  which  read : 

Touching  coffee,  I  concurre  with  them  in  opin- 
ion, who  lioltl  it  to  be  that  black-broth  which 
was  us'd  of  old  in  Lacedemon,  whereof  the 
Poets  sing ;  Surely  it  must  needs  be  salutiferous, 
because  so  many  sagacious,  and  the  wittiest 
sort  of  Nations  use  it  so  much ;  as  they  who 
have  conversed  with  Shashes  and  Turbants  doe 
well  know.  But,  besides  the  exsiccant  quality 
it  hath  to  dry  up  the  crudities  of  the  Stomach, 
as  also  to  comfort  the  Brain,  to  fortifle  the 
sight  with  its  steem,  and  prevent  Dropsies, 
Gouts,  the  Scurvie,  together  with  the  Spleen 
and  Hypocondriacall  windes  (all  which  it  doth 
without  any  violance  or  distemper  at  all.)  I 
say,  besides  all  these  qualities,  'tis  found  al- 
ready, that  this  Coffee-drink  hath  caused  a 
greater  sobriety  among  the  nations;  for  where- 
as formerly  Apprentices  and  Clerks  with  others, 
used  to  take  their  mornings'  draught  in  Ale, 
Beer  or  Wine,  which  by  the  dizziness  they  cause 
in  the  Brain,  make  many  unfit  for  business, 
they  use  now  to  play  the  Good-fellows  in  this 
wakefull  and  civill  drink :  Therefore  that 
-worthy  Gentleman,  Mr.  Mudiford*,  who  intro- 
duced the  practice  hereof  first  to  London,  de- 
serves much  respect  of  the  whole  nation. 

The  coffee  drink  at  one  time  was  mixed 
with  sugar  candy,  and  also  with  mustard. 
In  the  coffee  houses,  however,  it  was  usually 
served  black;  "few  people  then  mixed  it 
with  either  sugar  or  milk." 

Fantastic  Coffee  Claims 
One  can  not  fail  to  note  in  connection 
with  the  introduction  of  coffee  into  Eng- 
land that  the  beverage  suffered  most  from 
the  indiscretions  of  its  friends.  On  the  one 
band,  the  quacks  of  the  medical  profession 
sought  to  claim  it  for  their  own ;  and,  on 
the  other,  more  or  less  ignorant  laymen 
attributed  to  the  'drink  such  virtues  as  its 
real  champions  among  the  physicians  never 
dreamed  of.  It  was  the  favorite  pastime 
of  its  friends  to  exaggerate  coffee 's  merits ; 
and  of  its  enemies,  to  vilify  its  users.  All 
this  furnished  good  ' '  copy ' '  for  and  against 

*  Also  given  as  Sir  James  Muddiford,  Murford,  Mud- 
ford,  Moundeford,  and  Modyford, 

the  coffee  house,  which  became  the  central 
figure  in  each  new  controversy. 

From  the  early  English  author  who 
damned  it  by  calling  it  "more  wholesome 
than  toothsome",  to  Pas(iua  Rosee  and  his 
contemporaries,  who  urged  its  more  fan- 
tastic claims,  it  was  forced  to  make  its  way 
through  a  veritable  morass  of  misunder- 
standing and  intolerance.  No  harmless 
drink  in  history  has  suffered  more  at  hands 
of  friend  and  foe. 

Did  its  friends  hail  it  as  a  panacea,  its 
enemies  retorted  that  it  was  a  slow  poison. 
In  France  and  in  England  there  were  those 
who  contended  that  it  produced  melancholy, 
and  those  who  argued  it  was  a  cure  for  the 
same.  Dr.  Thomas  Willis  (1621-1673),  a 
distinguished  Oxford  physician  whom  An- 
toine  Portal  (1742-1832)  called  "one  of 
the  greatest  geniuses  that  ever  lived",  said 
he  would  sometimes  send  his  patients  to  the 
coffee  house  rather  than  to  the  apothecary's 
shop.  An  old  broadside,  described  later  in 
this,  chapter,  stressed  the  notion  that  if  you 
"do  but  this  Rare  ARABIAN  cordial  use, 
and  thou  may'st  all  the  Doctors  Slops 

As  a  cure  for  drunkenness  its  "magic'' 
power  was  acclaimed  by  its  friends,  and 
grudgingly  admitted  by  its  foes.  This  will 
appear  presently  in  a  description  of  the  war 
of  the  broadsides  and  the  pamphlets.  Coffee 
was  praised  by  one  writer  as  a  deodorizer. 
Another  (Richard  Bradley),  in  his  treatise 
concerning  its  use  with  regard  to  the  plague, 
said  if  its  qualities  had  been  fully  known 
in  1665,  "Dr.  Hodges  and  other  learned 
men  of  that  time  would  have  recommended 
it."  As  a  matter  of  fact,  in  Grideon  Har- 
vey's Advice  against  the  Plague,  published 
in  1665,  we  find,  "coffee  is  commended 
against  the  contagion." 

This  is  howl  the  drink's  sobering  virtue 
was  celebrated  by  the  author  of  the  Rehelli- 
ous  Antidote : 

Come,  Frantick  Fools,  leave  off  your  Drunken 

Obsequious  be  and  I'll  recall  your  Wits, 
From  perfect  Madness  to  a  modest  Strain 
For  farthings  four  I'll  fetch  you  back  again, 
Enable  all  your  mene  with  tricks  of  State, 
Enter  and  sip  and  then  attend  your  Fate; 
Come  Drunk  or  Sober,  for  a  gentle  Fee, 
Come  n'er  so  Mad,  I'll  your  Physician  be. 

Dr.  Willis,  in  his  Pharmaceutice  Ration- 
alis  (1674),  was  one  of  the  first  to  attempt 
to  do  justice  to  both  sides  of  the  coffee 
question.  At  best,  he  thought  it  a  some- 
what risky  beverage,  and  its  votaries  must, 



some  cases,  be  prepared  to  suffer  languor 
and  even  paralysis;  it  may  attack  the  heart 
and  cause  tremblings  in  the  limbs.  On  the 
other  hand  it  may,  if  judiciously  used, 
prove  a  marvelous  benefit;  "being  daily 
drunk  ii,  wonderfully  clears  and  enlightens 
each  part  of  the  Soul  and  disperses  all  the 
clouds  of  every  Function." 

It  was  a  long  time  before  recognition  was 
obtained  for  the  truth  about  the  "novelty 
drink'';  especially  that,  if  there  were  any 
beyond  purely  social  virtues  to  be  found  in 
coffee,  they  were  "political  rather  than 

Dr.  James  Duncan^  of  the  Faculty  of 
Montpellier,  in  his  book  Wholesome  Advice 
against  the  Abuse  of  Hot  Liquors,  done  into 
English  in  1706,  found  coffee  no  more  de- 
serving of  the  name  of  panacea  than  that 
of  poison. 

George  Cheyne  (1671-1743),  the  noted 
British  physician,  proclaimed  his  neutral- 
ity in  the  words,  "I  have  neither  great 
praise  nor  bitter  blame  for  the  thing.  * ' 

Coffee  Prices  and  Coffee  Licenses 

Coffee,  with  tea  and  chocolate,  was  first 
mentioned  in  the  English  Statute  books  in 
1660,  when  a  duty  of  four  pence  was  laid 
upon  every  gallon  made  and  sold,  "to  be 
paid  by  the  maker. ' '  Coffee  was  classed  by 
the  House  of  Commons  with  "other  out- 
landish drinks." 

It  is  recorded  in  1662  that  "the  right 
coffee  powder"  was  being  sold  at  the  Turk's 
Head  coffee  house  in  Exchange  Alley  for 
"4s.  to  6s.  8d.  per  pound;  that  pounded  in 
a  mortar,  2s ;  East  India  berry.  Is.  6d. ;  and 
the  right  Turkic  berry,  well  garbled 
[ground]  at  3s.  The  ungarbled  [in  the 
bean]  for  less  with  directions  how  to  use 
the  same."  Chocolate  was  also  to  be  had 
at  "2s.  6d.  the  pound;  the  perfumed  from 
4s.  to  10s," 

At  one  time  coffee  sold  for  five  guineas  a 
pound  in  England,  and  even  forty  crowns 
(about  forty-eight  dollars)  a  pound  was 
paid  for  it. 

In  1663,  all  English  coffee  houses  were 
required  to  be  licensed ;  the  fee  was  twelve 
pence.  Failure  to  obtain  a  license  was 
punished  by  a  fine  of  five  pounds  for  every 
month's  violation  of  the  law.  The  coffee 
houses  were  under  close  surveillance  by 
government  officials.  One  of  these  was 
Muddiman,  a  good  scholar  and  an  "arch 
rogue ' ',  who  had  formerly  '  *  written  for  the 
Parliament"  but  who  later  became  a  paid 

spy.  L 'Estrange,  who  had  a  patent  on 
"the  sole  right  of  intelligence",  wrote  in 
his  Intelligencer  that  he  was  alarmed  at  the 
ill  effects  of  "the  ordinary  written  papers 
of  Parliament's  news  .  .  .  making 
coffee  houses  and  all  the  popular  clubs 
judges  of  those  councils  and  deliberations 
which  they  have  nothing  to  do  with  at  all." 

The  first  royal  warrant  for  coffee  was 
given  by  Charles  II  to  Alexander  Man,  a 
Scotsman  who  had  followed  General  Monk 
■to  London,  and  set  up  in  Whitehall.  Here 
he  advertised  himself  as  "coffee  man  to 
Charles  II." 

Owing  to  increased  taxes  on  tea,  coffee, 
and  newspapers,  near  the  end  of  Queen 
Anne's  reign  (1714)  coffee-house  keepers 
generally  raised  their  prices  as  follows: 
Coffee,  two  pence  per  dish;  green  tea,  one 
and  a  half  pence  per  dish.  All  drams,  two 
pence  per  dram.  At  retail,  coffee  was  then 
sold  for  five  shillings  per  pound ;  while  tea 
brought  from  twelve  to  twenty-eight  shill- 
ings per  pound. 

Cofee  Club  of  The  Rota 

"Coffee  and  Commonwealth",  says  a 
pamphleteer  of  1665,  "came  in  together  for 
a  Reformation,  to  make  's  a  free  and  sober 
nation."  The  writer  argues  that  liberty 
of  speech  should  be  allowed,  "where  men 
of  differing  judgements  croud";  and  he 
adds,  "that's  a  coffee-house,  for  where 
should  men  discourse  so  free  as  there?" 
Robinson's  comments  are  apt: 

Now  perhaps  we  do  not  always  connect  the 
ideas  of  sociableness  and  freedom  of  discussion 
with  the  days  of  Puritan  rule;  yet  it  must  be 
admitted  that  something  like  geniality  and 
openness  characterized  what  Pepys  calls  the 
Coffee  Club  of  the  Rota.  This  "free  and  open 
Society  of  ingenioiis  gentlemen"  was  founded  in 
the  year  1659  by  certain  members  of  the  Re- 
publican party,  whose  peculiar  opinions  had 
been  timidly  expressed  and  not  very  cordially 
tolerated  under  the  Great  Oliver.  By  the  weak 
Government  that  followed,  these  views  were  re- 
garded with  extreme  dislike  and  with  some 
amount  of  terror. 

"They  met",  says  Aubrey,  who  was  him- 
self of  their  number,  "at  the  Turk's  Head 
[Miles 's  coffee  house]  in  New  Palace  Yard, 
Westminster,  where  they  take  water,  at  one 
Miles 's,  the  next  house  to  the  staires,  where 
•  was  made  purposely  a  large  ovall  table, 
wdth  a  passage  in  the  middle  for  Miles  to 
deliver  his  coffee." 
Robinson  continues : 

This  curious  refreshment  bar  and  the  interest 
with  which  the  beverage  Itself  was  regarded, 
were  quite  secondary  to  the  excitement  caused 



A  Coffee  House  in  the  Time  of  Charles   II 
From  a  wood  cut  of  1674 

by  another  novelty.  When,  after  heated  dis- 
putation, a  member  desired  to  test  tlie  opinion 
of  the  meeting,  any  particular  point  might,  by 
agreement,  be  put  to  the  vote  and  then  every- 
thing depended  upon  "our  wooden  oracle,"  the 
first  balloting-box  ever  seen  in  England.  Formal 
methods  of  procedure  and  the  intensely  practi- 
cal nature  of  the  subjects  discussed,  combined 
to  give  a  real  importance  to  this  Amateur  Par- 

The  Rota,  or  Coffee  Club,  as  Pepys  called 
it,  was  essentially  a  debating  society  for  the 
rlissemi nation  of  repubjican  opinions.  It 
was  preceded  only,  in  the  reign  of  Henry 
IV,  by  the  club  called  La  Court  de  Bone 
Compagnie ;  by  Sir  Walter  Raleigh's  Friday 
Street,  or  Bread  Street,  club ;  the  club  at  the 
Mermaid  tavern  in  Bread  Street,  of  which 
Shakespeare,  Beaumont,  Fletcher,  Raleigh, 
Selden,  Donne,  et  al.,  were  members;  and 
"rare"  Ben  Jonson's  Devil  tavern  club, 
between  Middle  Temple  Gate  and  Temple 

I  The  Rota  derived  its  name  from  a  plan. 

Which    it    was    designed    to    promote,    for 

onanging  a  certain  number  of  members  of 

parliament  annually  by  rotation.     It  was 

y^ounded  by  James  Harrington,   who  had 

/painted  it  in  fairest  colors  in  his  Oceana, 

I  that  ideal  commonwealth. 

Sir  "William  Petty  was  one  of  its  mem- 
bers. Around  the  table,  "in  a  room  every 
fivening  as  full  as  it  could  be  crammed," 
says  Aubrey,  sat  Milton  ( ?)  and  Marveil, 
Cyriac   Skinner,   Hamngton,   Nevill,    and 

their  friends,  discussing  abstract  political 

The  Rota  became  famous  for  its  literary 
strictures.  Among  these  was  ' '  The  censure 
of  the  Rota  upon  Mr.  Milton 's  book  entitled 
The  ready  and  easie  way  to  establish  a  free 
commonwealth"  (1660) ,  although  it  is  doubt- 
ful if  Milton  was  ever  a  visitor  to  this 
"bustling  coffee  club."  The  Rota  also 
censured  "Mr.  Driden's  Conquest  of 
Granada"  (1673). 

Early  Coffee-House  Manners  and  Customs 
Among  many  of  the  early  coffee-house 
keepers  there  was  great  anxiety  that  the 
coffee  house,  open  to  high  and  low,  should 
be  conducted  under  such  restraints  as  might 
secure  the  better  class  of  customers  from 
annoyance.     The  following  set  of  regula- 
tions in  somewhat  halting  rhyme  was  dis- 
played on  the  walls  of  several  of  the  coffee 
houses  in  the  seventeenth  century : 
The  Rules  and  Orders  of  the  Coffee  Housej. 
Enter,  Sirs,  freely,  but  first,  if  you  please, 
Peruse  our  civil  orders,  which  are  these. 
Jlrst,  gentry,  tradesmen,  all  are  welcome  hither, 
And  may  without  affront  sit  down  together: 
Pre-eminence  of  place  none  here  should  mind, 
Rut  take  the  next  fit  seat  that  he  can  find : 
Nor  need   any.   if  finer  persons  come, 
Rise  up  to  assigue  to  them  his  room; 
To  limit  men's  expence,  we  think  not  fair, 
But    let    him    forfeit    twelve-pence    that   shall 

swear ; 
He  that  shall  any  quarrel  here  begin. 
Shall  give  each  man  8  digU  t'  atone  the  sin; 



And  so  shall  he,  whose  compliments  extend 

So  far  to  drink  in  coffee  to  his  friend ; 

Ij«»t  noise  of  loud  disputes  he  quite  forhorne, 

\()  maudlin  lovers  here  in  corners  mourn. 

Hut  all  he  brisk  and  talk,  hut  not  too  much, 

On  sacred  things,  let  none  presume  to  touch. 

Nor  profane  Scripture,  nor  sawcily  wrong 

Affairs  of  state  with  an  irreverent  tongue : 

Let  mirth  he  innocent,  and  each  man  see 

That  all  his  jests  without  reflection  be ; 

To  keep  the  house  more  quiet  and  from  blame, 

We  banish  hence  cards,  dice,  and  every  game ; 

Nor  can  allow  of  wagers,  that  exceed 

Five    shillings,    which    ofttimes    much    trouble 

breed ; 
Let  all  that's  lost  or  forfeited  be  spent 
In  such  good  liquor  as  the  house  doth  vent. 
And  customers  endeavour,   to  their  powers. 
For  to  observe  still,  seasonable  hours. 
Lastly,  let  each  man  what  he  calls  for  pay. 
And  so  you're  welcome  to  come  every  day. 

The  early  coffee  houses  were  often  up  a 
flight  of  stairs,  and  consisted  of  a  single 
large  room  with  ' '  tables  set  apart  for  divers 
topics."  There  is  a  reference  to  this  in  the 
prologue  to  a  comedy  of  1681  (quoted  by 
Malone)  : 

In  a  coffee  house  just  now  among  the  rabble 
I  bluntly  asked,  which  is  the  treason  table? 

This  was  the  arrangement  at  Man's  and 
others  favored  by  the  wits,  the  literati,  and 
"men  of  fashionable  instincts."  In  the 
distinctly  business  coffee  houses  separate 
rooms  were  provided  at  a  later  time  for 
mercantile  transactions.  The  introduction 
of  wooden  partitions  —  wooden  boxes,  as  at 
a  tavern  —  was  also  of  somewhat  later  date. 

A  print  of  1674  shows  five  persons  of  dif- 
ferent ranks  in  life,  one  of  them  smoking, 
sitting  on  chairs  around  a  coffee-house 
table,  on  which  are  small  basins,  or  dishes, 
without  saucers,  and  tobacco  pipes,  while 
a  coffee  boy  is  serving  coffee. 

In  the  beginning,  only  coffee  was  dis- 
pensed in  the  English  coffee  houses.  Soon 
chocolate,  sherbert,  and  tea  were  added; 
but  the  places  still  maintained  their  status 
as  social  and  temperance  factors.  Con- 
stantine  Jennings  (or  George  Constantine) 
of  the  Grecian  advertised  chocolate,  sher- 
bert and  tea  at  retail  in  1664  -  65 ;  also 
free  instruction  in  the  part  of  preparing 
these  liquors.  "Drams  and  cordial  waters 
were  to  be  had  only  at  coffee  houses  newly 
set  up,"  says  Elford  the  younger,  writing 
about  1689.  While  some  few  places  added 
ale  and  beer  as  early  as  1669,  intoxicating 
liquors  were  not  items  of  importance  for 
many  years. 

After  the  fire  of  1666,  many  new  coffee 
houses  were  opened  that  were  not  limited 

to  a  single  room  up  a  flight  of  stairs.  Be- 
cause the  coffee-house  keepers  over-em- 
phasized the  sobering  qualities  of  the  coffee 
drink,  they  drew  many  undesirable  char- 
acters from  the  taverns  and  ale  houses  after 
the  nine  o'clock  closing  hour.  These  were 
hardly  calculated  to  improve  the  reputa- 
tion of  the  coffee  houses;  and,  indeed,  the 
decline  of  the  coffee  houses  as  a  temperance 
institution   would   seem   to   trace   back   to 

CojpFiE  House  xests 

A  London  Coffee  House  of  the  Seventeenth 


From   a   wood  cut   of  the   period 

this  attitude  of  false  pity  for  the  victims 
of  tavern  vices,  evils  that  many  of  the 
coffee  houses  later  on  embraced  to  their 
own  undoing.  The  early  institution  was 
unique,  its  distinctive  features  being  un- 
like those  of  any  public  house  in  England 
or  on  the  Continent.  Later  on,  in  the  eigh- 
teenth century,  when  these  distinctive  fea- 



tures   became   obscured,    the   name   coffee 
house  became  a  misnomer. 

However,  Robinson  says,  "the  close  in- 
tercourse between  the  habitu6s  of  the  coffee 
house,  before  it  lost  anything  of  its  gen- 
erous social  traditions  and  whilst  the  issue 
of  the  struggle  for  political  liberty  was  as 
yet   uncertain,   was   to  lead  to  something 

Coffee  House,  Queen  Anne's  Time  — 1702-14 
Showing  coffee  pots,  coffee  dishes,  and  coffee  boy 

more  than  a  mere  jumbling  or  huddling 
together  of  opposites.  The  diverse  ele- 
ments gradually  united  in  the  bonds  of 
common  sympathy,  or  were  forcibly  com- 
bined by  persecution  from  without  until 
there  resulted  a  social,  political  and  moral 
force  of  almost  irresistible  strength." 

Coffee-Eouse  Keepers'  Tokens 

The  great  London  fire  of  1666  destroyed 
some  of  the  coffee  houses;  but  prominent 
among  those  i^iat  survived  was  the  Rain- 
bow, whose  proprietor,  James  Farr,  issued 
one  of  the  earliest  coffee-house  tokens, 
doubtless  in  grateful  memory  of  his  escape. 
Farr's    token    shows    an    arched    rainbow 

emerging  from  the  clouds  of  the  "great 
fire,"  indicating  that  all  was  well  with 
him,  and  the  Rainbow  still  radiant.  On 
the  reverse  the  medal  was  inscribed,  "In 
Fleet  Street  — His  Half  Penny." 

A  large  number  of  these  trade  coins  were 
put  out  by  coffee-house  keepers  and  other 
tradesmen  in  the  seventeenth  century  as 
evidence  of  an  amount  due,  as  stated  there- 
on, by  the  issuer  to  the  holder.  Tokens 
originated  because  of  the  scarcity  of  small 
change.  They  were  of  brass,  copper,  pew- 
ter, and  even  leather,  gilded.  They  bore 
the  name,  address,  and  calling  of  the  is- 
suer, the  nominal  value  of  the  piece,  and 
some  reference  to  his  trade.  They  were 
readily  redeemed,  on  presentation,  at  their 
face  value.  They  were  passable  in  the  im- 
mediate neighborhood,  seldom  reaching 
farther  than  the  next  street.  C.  G.  William- 
son writes : 

Tokens  are  essentially  deniooratic ;  they  would 
never  have  been  issued  but  for  the  indifterenee 
of  the  Government  to  a  public  need ;  and  in 
tJieni  we  have  a  remarkable  instance  of  a  people 
forcing  a  legislature  to  comply  with  demands  at 
once  reasonable  and  imperative.  Taken  as  a 
whole  series,  they  are  homely  and  quaint,  want- 
ing in  beauty,  but  not  without  u  curious  domes- 
tic art  of  their  own. 

Robinson  finds  an  exception  to  the  gen- 
eral simplicity  in  the  tokens^  issued  by  one 
of  the  Exchange  Alley  houses.  The  dies 
of  these  tokens  are  such  as  to  have  sug- 
gested the  skilled  workmanship  of  John 
Roettier.  The  most  ornate  has  the  head 
of  a  Turkish  sultan  at  that  time  famed  for 
his  horrible  deeds,  ending  in  suicide;  its 
inscription  runs: 

Morat  ye  Great  Men  did  mee  call; 
Where  Eare  I  came  I  conquer'd  all. 

A  number  of  the  most  interesting 
coffee-house  keepers'  tokens  in  the  Beau- 
foy  collection,  in  the  Guildhall  Museum 
were  photographed  for  this  work,  and  are 
shown  herewith.  It  will  be  observed  that 
many  of  the  traders  of  1660-75  adopted 
as  their  trade  sign  a  hand  pouring  coffee 
from  a  pot,  invariably  of  the  Turkish- 
ewer  pattern.  Morat  (Amurath)  and  Soli- 
man  were  frequent  coffee-house  signs  in 
the  seventeenth  century. 

J.  H.  Bum,  in  his  Catalogue  of  Traders' 
Tokens,  recites  that  in  1672  "divers  per- 
sons who  presumed  ...  to  stamp,  coin, 
exchange  and  distribute  farthings,  half- 
pence and  pence  of  brass  and  copper' 
were  "taken  into  custody,  in  order  to 



Andrew  Vincent 
in  Friday  Street 

Morat  Ye  Great  Coffee  House 
in  Kxchange  Alley 

Mary  Long 
in  Russell  Street 

Robins'  Coffee  House 
in  Old  Jewry 

Union   Coffee   House 
in   Cornhill 

James  Farr,  the  Rainbow 
In  Fleet  Street 

Chapter  Coffee  House 
in  Paternoster  Row 

Sultaness   Coffee  House 
in  Cornhill 

Achler  Brocas 
in  Exeter 

Morat  Coffee  House 
in  Exchange  Alley 


Drawn  for  this  work  from  the  originals  in  the  British  Museum,  and  in  the  Beaufoy  collection  at  the 

Guildhall  Museum 



severe  prosecution";  but  upon  submission, 
their  offenses  were  forgiven,  and  it  was 
not  until  the  year  1675  that  the  private 
token  ceased  to  pass  current. 

A  royal  proclamation  at  the  close  of 
1674  enjoined  the  prosecution  of  any  who 
should  "utter  base  metals  with  private 
stamps,"  or  "hinder  the  vending  of  those 
half  pence  and  farthings  which  are  pro- 
vided for  necessary  exchange."  After 
this,  tokens  were  issued  stamped  "neces- 
sary change." 

losition  to  the  Coffee  House 

It  is  easy  to  see  why  the  coffee  houses 
at  once  found  favor  among  men  of  intel- 

A  Cup  oh 

O    F    E    E 


CoiFee  in  its  Colqms. 

7WiMmt<jtad«^d  . 



ii.{>.p»»j.rfi».°ti'»~"r'  ■ 

•w,  SKl^i 

w«  luw  fkM  fMT  WMteAi  Jn 


A  Broadside  of  1GG3 

ligence  in  all  classes.  Until  they  came, 
the  average  Englishman  had  only  the  tav- 
ern as  a  place  of  common  resort.  But 
here  was  a  public  house  offering  a  non-in- 
toxicating beverage,  and  its  appeal  was  in- 
stant and  universal.  As  a  meeting  place 
for  the  exchange  of  ideas  it  soon  attained 
wide  popularity.  But  not  without  opposi- 
tion. The  publicans  and  ale-house  keep- 
ers, seeing  business  slipping  away  from 
them,  made  strenuous  propaganda  against 
this  new  social  center;  and  not  a  few  at- 
tacks were  launched  against  the  coffee 
drink.  Between  the  Restoration  and  the 
year  1675,  of  eight  tracts  written  upon  the 
subject  of  the  London  coffee  houses,  four 

have  the  words  "character  of  a  coffee 
house"  as  part  of  their  titles.  The  au- 
thors appear  eager  to  impart  a  knowledge 
of  the  town's  latest  novelty,  with  which 
many  readers  were  unacquainted; 

One  of  these  early  pamphlets  (1662)  was 
entitled  lite  Coffee  Scuffle,  and  professed 
to  give  a  dialogue  between  "a  learned 
knight  and  a  pitifull  pedagogue,"  and  con- 
tained an  amusing  account  of  a  house 
where  the  Puritan  element  was  still  in  the 
ascendant.  A  numerous  company  is  pres- 
ent, and  each  little  group  being  occupied 
with  its  own  subject,  the  general  effect  is 
that  of  another  Babel.  "While  one  is  en- 
gaged in  ({noting  the  classics,  another  con- 
fides to  his  neighbors  how  much  he  admires 
Euclid ; 

A  third's  for  a  lecture,  a  fourth  a  conjecture, 
A  fifth  for  a  penny  in  the  pound. 

Theology  is  introduced.  Mask  balls  and 
plays  are  condemned.  Others  again  dis- 
cuss the  news,  and  are  deep  in  the  store 
of  "mercuries"  here  to  be  found.  One 
cries  up  philosophy.  Pedantry  is  rife,  and 
for  the  most  part  unchecked,  when  each 
'prentice-boy  "doth  call  for  his  coffee  in 
Latin"  and  all  are  so  prompt  with  their 
learned  quotations  that  "  't  would  make 
a  poor  Vicar  to  tremble." 

The  first  noteworthy  effort  attacking  the 
coffee  drink  was  a  satirical  broadside  that 
appeared  in  1663.  It  was  entitled  A  Cup 
of  Coffee:  or,  Coff'ee  in  its  Colours.  It  said: 

For   men   and    Christians    to    turn   Turks,    and 

T'  excuse  the  Crime  because  'tis  in  their  drink, 
Is  more  tlian  Magick     . 

Pure  English  Apes !  Ye  may,  for  ought  I  know. 
Would  it  but  mode,  learn  to  eat  Spiders  too. 

The  writer  wonders  that  any  man  should 
prefer  coffee  to  canary,  and  refers  to  the 
days  of  Beaumont,  Fletcher,  and  Ben 
Jonson.     He  says : 

They  drank  pure  nectar  as  the  gods  drink  too, 
Sublim'd  with  rich  Canary     .      . 

shall  then 
These  less  than  coffee's  self,  these  coffee-men. 
These  sons  of  nothing,  that  can  hardly  make 
Their   Broth,    for   laughing  how    the  jest  doth 

take ; 
Yet  grin,  and  give  ye  for  the  Vine's  pure  Blood 
A  loathsome  potion,  not  yet  understood, 
Syrrop  of  soot,  or  Essence  of  old  Shooes, 
Dasht  with  Diurnals  and  the  Books  of  news? 

The  author  of  A  Cup  of  Coffee,  it  will 
be  seen,  does  not  shrink  from  using  epi- 



Richard  Lione 
in  tlie  Strand 

Mary    Stringar 
in  Little  Trinity  Lane 

Richard  Tart 
in  Gray  Friars,  Newgate  Street 


William  Russell 
in  St.  Bartholomew's  Close,  Smithfleld 

John   Marston 
in  Trumpington  Street,  Cambridge 

Henry  Muscut 
opposite  Brook  House  in  Holborn 

West   Country   Coffee  House 
in  Lothebury 

Thomas  Outridge 
in  Carter  Lane  End,  near  Creed  Lane 

Ward's  Coffee  House 
in  Bread  Street 

Mansfield's  Coffee  House 
in  Shoe  Lane 


Drawn  for  this  work  from  the  originals  in  the  British  Museum,  and  in  the  Beaufoy  collection  at  the 

Guildhall  Museum 



The  Coffee  Man's  Granado  Discharged 
upon  the  Maiden's  Complaint  Against 
Coffee,  a  dialogue  in  verse,  also  appeared 
in  1663. 

The  Character  of  a  Coffee  House,  hy  an 
Eye  and  Ear  Witness  appeared  in  1665. 
It  was  a  ten-page  pamphlet,  and  proved  to 
be  excellent  propaganda  for  coffee.  It  is 
so  well  done,  and  contains  so  much  local 
color,  that  it  is  reproduced  here,  the  text 
being  copied  from  the  original  in  the  Brit- 
ish Museum.     The  title  page  reads: 


OF  A 


Is    contained    a    Description    of    the    Persons 
usually  frequenting  it,  with  their  Dis- 
course and  Humors, 
As  Also 
The  Admirable  Vertues  of 
By  an  Eye  and  Ear  Witness 

When  Coffee  once  was  vended  here. 
The  Alc'ron  shortly  did  appear, 
For  our  Reformers  were  such  Widgeons. 
New  Liquors  brought  in  new  Religions. 

Printed  in  the  Year,  1665. 


The   text   and   the   arrangement   of 
body  of  the  pamphlet  are  as  follows : 


OF  A 

the  derivation  of 
A  coffee-house 

A  Coffee-house,  the  learned  hold 
It  is  a  place  where  Coffee's  sold ; 
This  derivation  cannot  fail  us, 
For   where  Ale's  vended,   that's  an   Ale-house. 

This  being  granted  to  be  true, 
'Tis  meet  that  next  the  Signs  we  shew 
Both  where  and  how  to  find  this  house 
Where  men  such  cordial  hroth  carowse. 
And  if  Culpepper  woon  some  glory 
In  turning  the  Dispensatory 
From  Latin  into  English;  then 
Why  should  not  all  good  English  men 
Give  him  much  thanks  who  shews  a  cure 
For  all  diseases  men  endure? 

SIGNS  :    HOW    TO 

As  you  along  the  streets  do  trudge. 

To  take  the  pains  you  must  not  grudge, 

To  view  the  Posts  or  Broomsticks  where 

The  Signs  of  Liquors  hanged  are. 

And  if  you  see  the  great  Moral 

With  Shash  on's  head  instead  of  hat, 

Or  any  Sultan  in  his  dress, 

Or  picture  of  a  Sultaness, 

Or  John's  admir'd  curled  pate, 

Or  th'  great  Mogul  in's  Chair  of  State, 

Or  Constantine  the  Grecian, 

Who  fourteen  years  was  th'  onely  man 

That  made  Coffee  for  th'  great  Bashaw, 

Although  the  man  he  never  saw; 
Or  if  you  see  a  Coffee-cup 
Fil'd  from  a  Turkish  pot,  hung  up 
Within  the  clouds,  and  round  it  Pipes, 
Wax  Candles,  Stoppers,  these  are  types 
And  certain  signs  (with  many  more 
Would  be  too  long  to  write  them  'ore,) 
Which  plainly  do  Spectators  tell 
That  in  that  house  they  Coffee  sell. 
Some  wiser  than  the  rest  (no  doubt,) 
Say  they  can  by  the  smell  find't  out ; 
In  at  a  door   (say  they,)   but  thrust 
Your  Nose,  and  if  you  scent  burnt  Crust, 
Be  sure  there's  Coffee  sold  that's  good. 
For  so  by  most  'tis  understood. 

Now  being  enter'd,  there's  no  needing 
Of  complements  or  gentile  breeding, 
For  you  may  seat  you  any  where, 
There's  no  respect  of  persons  there ; 
Then  comes  the  Coffee-man  to  greet  you, 
With  welcome  Sir,  let  me  entreat  you. 
To  tell  me  what  you'l  please  to  have. 
For  I'm  your  humble,  humble  slave ; 
But  if  you  ask,  what  good  does  Coffee? 
He'l  answer,  Sir,  don't  think  I  scoff  yee. 
If  I  affirm  there's  no  disease 
Men  have  that  drink  it  but  find  ease. 


Look,  there's  a  man  who  takes  the  steem 
In  at  his  Nose,  has  an  extreme 
Worm  in  his  pate,  and  giddiness. 
Ask  him  and  he  will  say  no  less. 
There  sitteth  one  whose  Droptick  belly 
AVas  hard  as  flint,  now's  soft  as  jelly. 
There  stands  another  holds  his  head 
'Ore  th'  Co:i9'ee-pot,  was  almost  dead 
Even  now  with  Rhume;  ask  him  hee'l  say 
That  all  his  Rhum's  now  past  away. 
See,  there's  a  man  sits  now  demure 
And   sober,  was  within  this  hour 
Quite  drunk,  and  comes  here  frequently. 
For  'tis  his  daily  Malady, 
More,  it  has  such  reviving  power 
'Twill  keep  a  man  awake  an  houre, 
Nay,  make  his  eyes  wide  open  stare 
Both  Sermon  time  and  all  the  prayer. 
Sir,  should  I  tell  you  all  the  rest 
O'   th'  cures  't  has   done,   two  hours  at  least 
In  numb'ring  them  I  needs  must  spend. 
Scarce  able  then  to  make  an  end. 
Besides  these  vertues  that's  therein, 
For  any  kind  of  Medicine, 
The   C ommonwealthr Kingdom  I'd   say. 
Has  mighty  reason  for  to  pray 
That  still  Arabia  may  produce 
Enough  of  Berry  for  it's  use : 
For't   has   such    strange   magnetick    force, 
That  it  draws  after't  great  concourse 
Of  all  degrees  of  persons,  even 
From  high  to  low,  from  morn  till  even ; 
Especially  the  "iober  Party, 
And  News-mongers  do  drink't  most  hearty. 
Here  you'r  not  thrust  into  a  Box 
As  Taverns  do  to  catch  the  Fox, 
But  as  from  th'  top  of  Pauls  high  steeple, 
Th'  whole  City's  view'd,  even  so  all  people 
May  here  be  seen ;  no  secrets  are 
At  th'  Court  for  Peace,  or  th'  Camp  for  War,. 
But  straight  they'r  here  disclos'd  and  known ; 
Men  in  this  Age  so  wise  are  grown. 
Now   (Sir)  what  profit  may  accrew 

^BWith  that  he's  loudly  call'd  upon 
^B  For  Coffee,  and  then  whip  he's  gone. 
^Hthe  company 
^B       Here  at  a  Table  sits  (perplext) 

A  griping  Usurer,  and  next 

To  him  a  gallant  Furioso, 

Then  nigh  to  him  a  Virtuoso; 

A  Player  then   (full  fine)   sits  down, 

And  close  to  him  a  Country  Clown. 

()'  th'  other  side  sits  some  Pragmatick, 

And  next  to  him  some  sly  Phanatick. 


The  gallant  he  for  Tea  doth  call, 
The   Usurer  for  nought  at  all. 
The  Pragmatick  he  doth  intreat 
That  they  will  fill  him  some  Beau-cheat, 
The  Virtuoso  he  cries  hand  me 
Some  Coffee  mixt  with  Sugar-candy. 
Phanaticus  (at  last)   says  come. 
Bring  me  some  Aromaticum. 
The  Player  bawls  for  Chocolate, 
All  which  the  Bumpkin  wond'ring  at, 
Cries,  ho,  my  Masters,  what  d'  ye  speak, 
D'  ye  call  for.  drink  in  Heathen  Greek  ? 
Give  me  some  good  old  Ale  or  Beer, 
Or  else  I  will  not  drink.  I  swear. 
Then  having  charg'd  their  Pipes  around, 


They  silence  break ;   First  the  profound 
And  sage  Phanatique,  Sirs  what  news? 
Troth  says  the  UsWer  I  ne'r  use 
To  tip  my  tongue  with  such  discourse, 
.  'Twere  news  to  know  how  to  disburse 
A  summ  of  mony   (makes  me  sad) 
To  get  ought  by't,  times  are  so  bad. 
The  other  answers,  truly  Sir 
You  speak  but  truth,  for  I'le  aver 
They  ne'r  were  worse ;  did  you  not  hear 
What  prodigies  did  late  appear 
At  Xoririch.  Ipsirich.  Grantham,  Gotam? 
And  though  prophane  ones  do  not  not'em, 
Yet  we  —  Here  th'  Virtuoso  stops 
The  current  of  his  speech,  with  hopes 
Quoth  he.  you  will  not  tak'd  amiss, 
I  say  all's  lies  that's  news  like  this, 
For  I  have  Factors  all  about 
The  Realm,  so  that  no  Stars  peep  out 
That  are  unusual,  much  less  these 
Strange  and  unheard-of  prodigies 
You  would  relate,  but  they  are  tost 
To  me  in  letters  by  first  Post. 
At  which  the  Furioso  swears 
Such  chat  as  this  offends  his  ears 
It  rather  doth  become  this  Age 
To  talk  of  bloodshed,  fury,  rage. 
And  t'  drink  stout  healths  in  brim-fill'd  Nogans. 
To  th'  downfall  of  the  Hogan  Mogans. 
With  that  the  Player  doffs  his  Bonnet, 
And  tunes  his  voice  as  if  a  Sonnet 
Were  to  be  sung;  then  gently  says, 
O  what  delight  there  is  in  Plays! 
Sure  if  we  were  but  all  In  Peace, 
This  noise  of  Wars  and  News  would  cease ; 
All  sorts  of  people  then  would  club 
Their  pence  to  see  a  Play  that's  good. 
You'l  wonder  all  this  while  (perhaps) 
The  Ctirioso  holds  his  chaps. 
But  he  doth  in  his  thoughts  devise. 
How  to  the  rest  he  may  seem  wise ; 


Yet  able  longer  not  to  hold. 

His  tedious  tale  too  must  be  told. 

And  thus  begins.  Sirs  unto  me 

It  reason  seems  that  liberty 

Of  speech  and  words  should  be  allow'd 

Where  men  of  differing  judgements  croud. 

And  that's  a  Coffee-house,  for  where 

Should  men  discourse  so  free  as  there? 

Coffee  and  Commonwealth  begin 

Both  with  one  letter,  both  came  in 

Together  for  a  Reformation, 

To  make's  a  free  and  sober  Nation. 

But  now  —  With   that  Phanaticus 

Gives  him  a  nod.  and  speaks  him  thus. 

Hold  brother,  I  know  your  intent, 

That's  no  dispute  convenient 

For  this  same  place,  truths  seldome  find 

Acceptance  here,  they'r  more  confin'd 

To  Taverns  and  to  Ale-house  liquor. 

Where  men  do  vent  their  minds  more  quicker 

If  that  may  for  a  truth  but  pass 

What's  said,  In  vino  Veritas. 

With  that  up  starts  the  Country  Clown, 

And  stares  about  with  threatening  frown 

As  if  he  would  even  eat  them  all  up. 

Then  bids  the  boy  run  quick  and  call  up, 

A  Constable,  for  he  has  reason 

To  fear  their  Latin  may  be  treason 

But  straight  they  all  call  what's  to  pay, 

Lay't  down,  and  march  each  several  way. 


At  th'  other  table  sits  a  Knight, 
And  here  a  grave  old  man  ore  right 
Against  his  worship,  then  perhaps 
That  hy  and  by  a  Drawer  claps 
His  bum  close  by  them,  there  down  squats 
A  dealer  in  old  shoes  and  hats; 
And  here  withouten  any  panick 
Fear,  dread  or  care  a  bold  Mechanick. 


The  Knight  (because  he's  so)  he  prates 
Of  matters  far  beyond  their  pates. 
The  grave  old  man  he  makes  a  bustle, 
And  his  wise  sentence  in  must  justle. 
Up  starts  th'  Apprentice  boy  and  he 
Says  boldly  so  and  so't  must  be. 
The  dealer  in  old  shoes  to  utter 
His  saying  too  makes  no  small  sputter. 
Then  comes  the  pert  mechanick  blade, 
And  contradicts  what  all  have  said. 
*     *     * 

There  by  the  fler-side  doth  sit, 
One  freezing  in  an  Ague  fit. 
Another  poking  in't  with  th'  tongs, 
Still  ready  to  cough  up  his  lungs 
Here  sitteth  one  that's  melancolick. 
And  there  one  singing  in  a  frolick. 
Each  one  hath  such  a  prety  gesture. 
At  Smithfield  fair  would  yield  a  tester. 
Boy  reach  a  pipe  cries  he  that  shakes. 
The  songster  no  Tobacco  takes. 
Says  he  who  coughs,  nor  do  I  smoak. 
Then  Monsieur  Mopus  turns  his  cloak 
Off  from  his  face,  and  with  a  grave 
Majestick  beck  his  pipe  doth  crave. 
They  load  their  guns  and  fall  a  smoaking 
Whilst  he  who  coughs  sits  by  a  choaking. 
Till  he  no  longer  can  abide. 
And  so  removes  from  th'  fier  side. 
Now  all  this  while  none  calls  to  drink. 
Which  makes  the  Coffee  hoy  to  think 



Much  they  his  pots  should  so  enclose, 

He  cannot  pass  but  tread  on  toes. 

With  that  as  he  the  Nectar  fills 

From  pot  to  pot,  some  on't  he  spills 

Upon  the  Songster.    Oh  cries  he. 

Pox,  what  dost  do?    thou'st  burnt  my  knee; 

No  says  the  boy,   (to  make  a  bald 

And  blind  excuse.)     Sir  Hvnll  not  scald. 

With  that  the  man  lends  him  a  cuff 

O'  th'  ear,  and  whips  away  in  snuff. 

The  other  two,  their  pipes  being  out, 

Says  Monsieur  Mopus  I  much  doubt 

My  friend  I  wait  for  will  not  come. 

But  if  he  do,  say  I'm  gone  home. 

Then  says  the  Aguish  man  I  must  come 

According  to  my  wonted  custome. 

To  give  ye'  a  visit,  although  now 

I  dare  not  drink,  and  so  adieu. 

The  boy  replies,  O  Sir,  however 

You'r  very  welcome,  we  do  never 

Our  Candles,  Pipes  or  Fier  grutch 

To  daily  customers  and  such, 

They'r  Company  (without  expence,) 

For  that's  sufficient  recompence. 

Here  at  a  table  all  alone, 

Sits  (studying)  a  spruce  youngster,  (one 

Wlio  doth  conceipt  himself  fully  witty, 

And's  counted  one  o'  th'  wits  o'  th'  City,) 

Till  by  him  (with  a  stately  grace,) 

A  Spanish  Don  himself  doth  place. 

Then  (cap  in  hand)  a  brisk  Monsieur 

He  takes  his  seat,  and  crowds  as  near 

As  possibly  that  he  can  come. 

Then  next  a  Dutchman  takes  his  room. 

The  Wits  glib  tongue  begins  to  chatter, 

Though't  utters  more  of  noise  than  matter, 

Yet  'cause  they  seem  to  mind  his  words. 

His  lungs  more  battle  still  affords 

At  last  says  he  to  Don,  I  trow 

Ydu  understand  me?    Sennor  no 

Says  th'  other.    Here  the  Wit  doth  pause 

A  little  while,  then  opes  his  jaws. 

And  says  to  Monsieur,  you  enjoy 

Our  tongue  I  hope?    Non  par  ma  foy, 

Replies  the  Frenchm/m :  nor  you,  Sir? 

Says  he  to  th'  Dutchman,  7veen  mynheer, 

With  that  he's  gone,  and  cries,  why  sho'd 

He  stay  where  tmfs  not  understood? 

There  in  a  place  of  his  own  chusing 

(Alone)  some  lover  sits  a  musing, 

With  arms  across,  and's  eyes  up  lift, 

As  if  he  were  of  sence  bereft. 

Till  sometimes  to  himself  he's  speaking, 

Then  sighs  as  if  his  heart  were  breaking. 

Here  in  a  comer  sits  a  Phrantick, 

And  there  stands  by  a  frisking  Antick, 

Of  all  sorts  some  and  all  conditions 

Even  Vintners,  Surgeons  and  Physicians. 

The  blind,  the  deaf,  and  aged  cripple 

Do  here  resort  and  Coffee  tipple. 

Now  here  (perhaps)  you  may  expect 
My  Muse  some  trophies  should  erect 
In  high  flown  verse,  for  to  set  forth 
The  noble  praises  of  its  worth. 

Truth  is,  old  Poets  beat  their  brains 
To  find  out  high  and  lofty  strains 
To  praise  the  (now  too  frequent)  use 
Of  the  bewitching  grapes  strong  juice, 
Some  have  strain'd  hard  for  to  exalt 
The  liquor  of  our  English  Mault 
Nay  Don  has  almost  crackt  his  nodle 
Enough  t'  applaud  his  Caaco  Caudle. 

The  Germans  Mum,  Teag's  Usquebagh, 
(Made  him  so  well  defend  Tredagh,) 
MethegUn,   which   the  Brittains  tope, 
Hot  Brandy  wine,  the  Hogans  hope. 
Stout  Meade  which  makes  the  Russ  to  laugh, 
Spic'd  Punch  (in  bowls.)  the  Indians  quaff. 
All  these  have  had  their  pens  to  raise 
Tliem  Monuments  of  lasting  praise, 
Onely  poor  Coffee  seems  to  me 
No  subject  fit  for  Poetry 
At  least  'tis  one  that  none  of  mine  is. 
So  I  do  wave  't,  and  here  write — 

News  from  the  Coffe  House;  in  which 
is  shewn  their  several  sorts  of  Passions  ap- 

NEWS  from  the  COFFE-HOUSE; 

In  which  is  (hewn  their  fcvaral  forts  of  Pairions, 
Conuining  Newes  fiom  all  cm  Nogjibour  \amn!. 

A      POEM. 

YOo  tint  4eli«lit  iii  iv-,i  j„j  Mirth, 
Aniiotn  to  bcBr  imti  N«w(, 
Ai  roam  from  «11  P»m  of  the  Fteih, 
Vmii.  DMfj,  Mil  Tmltj,  md  J,w', 

Ihe,  know  more  Tbingi 'then  ci 
No  Moitty  ia  the  M'liiing-jMtufc 

/I  >«a,i  tm  h  CO 

Bdore  tf«  Ji.vp,  ftlt  tn  Work 
Tta^kai*  who  lladi  kc  Wion 

Tbiy  llMTt  CM  tdl  yciritH  the  7 

Wks  M  dU  Cm  D.  tmim,  u« 
hmBffi  Ita  jovial  Crete ; 

Ob  WhoMl  givf  tiM  i^fTiitkji 

k  filhrma  i,i  taWlv  teTI, 
Am  ftrongly  d:il  a  voucli. 

He  Cufht  %  Shne!  (.i  Metkirel, 

ntf„.,hK..,mV,.  G,d\,i,mg, 

Miiieof  Mit-S  >ctom-d  Hoan, 
Shell  Coinfiu  E.t.'"»l  '*u-il  *h  .Lt 

There*!  neit!  ing  done  ir.  ill  iht  Wi  r/, 

Bw««vDevo(Nicht':i»bjr:<i  , 

Into  the  tr.f  ,.fa»/,. 
WEUI  tiiJitar  Rhtt   fM^<r  tin 

By  An,  n«i  briri;  Ibiwr, 
*i  C.f.-*wi//  you'l  find  ■  Ml", 

C—  faitH/i  fi-d  .1  .«, 

They1tti)|«ilierc.  whit  Itdy  wire. 

Oflite  i»  fftn/n  too  I'l^itf  ; 
WhSt  W.fe.tBin  Ibeii  tnta  favour  r»f> 

Whet  fo«l  diill  bt  1  K-mhil 
Ztty'i  tell  yc  wbcn  tier  F«>  Inn  Xttie, 

&fMl!Kifcij;'in,  end  Flotitilh, 
Or  m-Iks  7,*r^  JJ^ai,  (hill  be  mi^ 

Olorth-Wirden  ^  tie  Pirifli. 

'*>&>,  trimti  h)  t.  Cnw>l,  for  rbx,^  frt  •>;  ilii 

Ttty  lnow»hol)>«iiin  Iimei  i,no» 

Be  either  made,  or  undone, 
Trom great  S!.  fiwi-Jtrintn  timt 

And  lloeile  Kill  at  Clrtjn,., 
WhittnU  uath  great ei'l  Gi.n; 

And  in  that  place,  what  Biajen-f.te 
Doth  mtti  a  Golden  Cham. 

At  Sea  their  Knoia-ledee  ii  lo  muth, 
TleyHrowall  Kotli  and  snel.ei, 

Tl«y  Unrn  ,h  Counci'li  of  t.'.t  D.r.*, 
More  il,e=  -hey  kr»»  Them^elrei , 

f.  ho  •[,!  ni.l    -el  the  ti'>  ai  lad. 
They  perlefily  ran  Omw 

The?  know  a:!  that  it  Gtini,  t"  Hun 
To  Dam  yr,  or  to  Save  ye  ; 

There  i,  the  C  ''*i',  and  the  Cfr, 
TlwCa*"';.  tTaaip,  and  hivit; 

)&&.  IheDtml:n5ill.reotCt..>./.,-, 

S^  Tht  tend  Of  nii/i:-,.- 

5^^  "Til  Cheaperfarr  then  Wine. 

«)(v>  Yoti  ftiall.  fciiow  there,  lehatFllltontwei 

ij;i6>  H»"l'<irT»igg,artCiirl'd, 

y  fci;  Arf  lor  a  Penny  yoo  flit||  ktall, 

gj*  All  Novel*  in  (he  WoHd 

gg  Doth  Old  and  Yontif,  and  Gleat  andSlMB, 

CVqp  And  Kich,  and  faon,  ymtl  ftf : 

Sf&  Thavefori  ktl  t«  tie  Cafe  *8, 

gg^  Cone  All  an;  >1A  Uk.           FMl   . 

C»iia!c. fafcv/n»  ><«j.    ^ahjkfnnsa.  ji 

A  Broadside  of  1667 

peared  in  1667.  It  was  reprinted  in  1672 
as  The  Coffee  House  or  Newsmongers' 

Several  stanzas  from  these  broadsides 
have  been  much  quoted.  They  serve  to 
throw  additional  light  upon  the  manners 
of  the  time,  and  upon  the  kind  of  conver- 
sation met  with  in  any  well  frequented 
coffee  house  of  the  seventeenth  century, 
particularly  under  the  Stuarts.  They  are 
finely   descriptive   of   the   company   char- 



acteristics  of  the  early  coffee  houses.  The 
fifth  stanza  of  the  edition  of  1667,  inimical 
to  the  French,  was  omitted  when  the  broad- 
side was  amended  and  reprinted  in  1672, 
the  year  that  England  joined  with  France 
and  again  declared  war  on  the  Dutch.  The 
following'  verses  with  explanatory  notes 
are  from  Timbs: 

News  from  the  Coffe  House 

You  that  delight  in  Wit  and  Mirth, 

And  long  to  hear  such  News, 
As  comes  from  all  Parts  of  the  Earth, 

Dutch,  Danes,  and  Turks,  and  Jews, 
I'le  send  yee  to  a  Rendezvouz, 

Where  it  is  smoaking  new ; 
Go  hear  it  at  a  Coffe-house, 

It  cannot  hut  he  true. 

Tliere   Battles   and   Sea-Fights  are  Fought, 

And  bloudy  Plots  display'd ; 
They  know  more  Things  then  ere  was  thought 

Or  ever  was  betray'd : 
No  Money  in  the  Minting-house 

Is  halfe  so  Bright  and  New ; 
And  comming  from  a  Coffe-house 

It  cannot  hut  he  true. 

Before  the  Navyes  fall  to  Work, 

They  know  who  shall  be  Winner ; 
They  there  can  tell  ye  what  the  Turk 

Last  Sunday  had  to  Dinner ; 
Who  last  did  Cut  Du  Ruitters "  Corns, 

Amongst  his  jovial  Crew ; 
Or  Who  first  gave  the  Devil  Horns, 

Which  cannot  hut  he  true. 

A  Fisherman  did  boldly  tell, 

And   strongly  did  avouch, 
He  Caught  a  Shoal  of  Mackarel, 

That  Parley'd  all  in  Dutch, 
And  cry'd  out  Yaw,  yaw,  yaw  Myne  Here; 

But  as  the  Draught  they  Drew 
They  Stunck  for  fear,  that  Monck^''  was  there. 

Which  cannot  hut  he  true. 

There's  nothing  done  in  all  the  World, 

From  M anarch  to  the  Mouse 
But  every  Day  or  Night  'tis  hurld 

Into  the  Coffe-house. 
What  Lillie^^  or  what  Booker^  can 

By  Art,,  not  bring  about, 
At  Coffe-house  you'l  find  a  Man, 

Can  quickly  find  it  out. 

They  know  who  shall  in  Times  to  come, 

Be  either  made,  or  undone, 
From  great  St.  Peters  street  in  Rome, 

To  Tumhull-street^^  in  London; 

*  *     * 

They  know  all  that  is  Good,  or  Hurt, 

To  Dam  ye,  or  to  Save  ye; 
There  is  the  Colledge,  and  the  Court, 

The  Country,  Camp  and  Navie; 
So  great  a  Universitie, 

I  think  there  ne're  was  any ; 
In  which  you  may  a   Schoolar  be 

For  spending  of  a   Penny. 

*  *     * 

Here  Men  do  talk  of  every  Thing, 

With  large  and  liberal  Lungs, 
Like  Women  at  a  Gossiping, 

With  double  tyre  of  Tongues; 
They'l  give  a  Broad-side  presently, 

Soon  as  you  are  in   view. 
With  Stories  that,  you'l  wonder  at, 

Which  they  will  swear  are  true. 

Tlie  Drinking  there  of  Chockalat, 

Can  make  a  Fool  a  Sophie : 
'Tls  thought  the  Turkish  Mahomet 

Was  first  Inspir'd  with  Coffe, 
By  which  his  Powers  did  Over-flow 

The  Land  of  Palestine : 
Then  let  us  to,  the  Coffe-house  go, 

'Tis  Cheaper  farr  then  Wine. 

You  shall  know  there,  what  Fashions  are ; 

How  Perrywiggs  are  Curl'd ; 
And  for  a  Penny  you  shall  heare, 

All  Novells  in  the  World. 
Both  Old  and  Young,  and  Great  and  Small, 

And  Rich,  and  Poore,  you'l  see ; 
Therefore  let's  to  the  Coffe  All, 

Come  All  away  with  Mee. 


Robert  Morton  made  a  contribution  to 
the  controversy  in  Lines  Appended  to  the 
Nature,  Quality  and  Most  Excellent  Ver- 
ifies of  Coffee  in  1670. 

There  was  published  in  1672  A  Broad- 
side Against  Coffee,  or  the  Marriage  of 
the  Turk,  verses  that  attained  consider- 
able fame  because  of  their  picturesque  in- 
vective. They  also  stressed  the  fact  that 
Pasqua  Ros^e's  partner  was  a  coachman, 

»  The  Dutch  admiral  who,  in  June,  1667,  dashed 
into  the  Downs  with  a  fleet  of  eighty  "sail",  and 
many  "flre-ships",  blocljed  up  the  mouths  of  the 
Medway  and  Thames,  destroyed  the  fortifications  at 
Sheerness.  cut  away  the  paltry  defenses  of  booms  and 
chains  drawn  across  the  rivers,  and  got  to  Chatham, 
on  the  one  side,  and  nearly  to  Gravesend  on  the 
other,  the  king  having  spent  in  debauchery  the  money 
voted  by  Parliament  for  the  proper  support  of  the 
English  navy. 

"  General  Monk  and  Prince  Rupert  were  at  this 
time  commanders  of  the  English  fleet. 

"  Lillie  (Lilly)  was  the  celebratefl  astrologer  of  the 
Protectorate,  who  earned  great  fame  at  that  time  by 
predicting,  in  June,  1645,  "if  now  we  fight,  a  victory 
stealeth  upon  us ;"  a  lucky  guess,  signally  verified  in 

the  King's  defeat  at  Naseby.  Lilly  thenceforth  always 
saw  the  stars  favourable  to  the  Puritans. 

"  This  man  was  originally  a  fishing-tackle  maker  in 
Tower  Street  during  the  reign  of  Charles  I ;  but 
turning  enthusiast,  he  went  about  prognosticating 
"the  downfall  of  the  King  and  Popery  ;"  and  as  he 
and  his  predictions  were  all  on  the  popular  side,  he 
became  a  great  man  with  the  superstitious  "godly 
brethren"   of   that  day. 

1*  Turnball,  or  TurnbuU  -  street,  as  it  is  still  called, 
had  been  for  a  century  previous  of  infamous  repute. 
In  Beaumont  and  Fletcher's  play,  the  Knipht  of  the 
Burning  Pestle,  one  of  the  ladies  who  is  undergoing 
penance  at  the  barber's,  has  her  character  sufliciently 
pointed  out  to  the  audience,  in  her  declaration,  that 
she  had  been  "stolen  from  her  friends  in  Turnball  - 



N.taircQualicy,  and  Mofl:  Ex'ccllcnc  V' 




MKti  ihmi    k>r  the 

fhim  rtiobchts  »^  <lrv'  becaufeO- 
'  -iid  axnft,  liiakcn  ^hcn  ^vr\  has* 

M  coU  thm^*  dulli  the  tK'sui  n 

tcrfii  liung    i)Ott  d*  SroiB*  '■ 

^     h  t  ai,d  di^  rfang^  flroigiithe 

A  Broadside  of  1670 

and  imitated   the  broken   English   of   the 
Ragusan  youth: 

A  Broad-side  Against  COFFEE  ; 

Ob,  the 

Mabbiage  of  the  Turk 

Coffee,  a  kind  of  Turkish  Renegade, 

Has  late  a  match  with  Christian  water  made ; 

At  first  l)etween  them  happen'd  a  Demur, 

Yet  joyn'd  they  were,  but  not  without  great  stir; 

*  *     * 

Coffee  was  cold  as  Earth,   Water  as   Thames, 
And  stood  in  need  of  recommending  Flames; 

*  iti         * 

Coffee  so  brown  as  berry  does  appear, 
Too  swarthy  for  a  Nymph  so  fair,  so  clear : 

*  *     * 

A  Coachman  was  the  first  (here)   Coffee  made, 
And  ever  since  the  rest  drive  on  the  trade; 
Me  no  good  Engalash!  and  sure  enough. 
He  plaid  the  Quack  to  salve  his  Stygian  stuff; 
Ver  boon  for  de  stomach,  de  Cough,  de  Ptisick 
And  I  believe  him,  for  it  looks  like  Physick. 
Coffee  a  crust  is  charkt  into  a  coal. 
The  smell  and  taste  of  the  Mock  China  bowl ; 
Where  huflf  and  puff,  they  labour  out  their  lungs, 
Lest  Dives-like  they  should  bewail  their  tongues. 
And  yet  they  tell  ye  that  it  will  not  burn. 
Though  on  the  Jury  Blisters  you  return ; 
Whose  furious  heat  does  make  the  water  rise. 
And  still  through  the  Alembicks  of  your  eyes. 
Dread  and  desire,  ye  fall  to't  snap  by  snap, 

As  hungry  Dogs  do  scalding  porrige  lap, 
But  to  cure  Drunkards  it  has  got  great  Fame; 
Posset  or  Porrige,  will't  not  do  the  same? 
Confusion  huddles  all  into  one   Scene, 
Like  Noah's  Ark,  the  clean  and  the  unclean. 
But  now,  alas!  the  Drench  has  credit  got, 
And  he's  no  Gentleman  that  drinks  it  not ; 
That  such  a  Dwarf  should  rise  to  such  a  stature  I 
But  Custom  is  but  a  remove  from  Nature. 
A  little  Dish,  and  a  large  Coffee-house, 
What  is  it,  but  a  Mountain  and  a  Mouse? 
*     *     * 

Mens  humana  novitatis  avidissim^a. 

And  so  it  came  to  pass  that  coffee  his- 
tory repeated  itself  in  England.  Many 
good  people  became  convinced  that  coffee 
was  a  dangerous  drink.  The  tirades  against 
the  beverage  in  that  far-off  time  sound  not 
unlike  the  advertising  patter  employed  by 
some  of  our  present-day  coffee-substitute 
manufacturers.  It  was  even  ridiculed  by 
being  referred  to  as  "ninny  broth"  and 
"Turkey  gruel." 

A  brief  description  of  the  excellent  ver- 
tues  of  that  sober  and  wholesome  drink 
called  coffee  appeared  in  1674  and  proved 
an  able  and  dignified  answer  to  the  at- 
tacks that  had  preceded  it.  That  same  year, 
for  the  first  time  in  history,  the  sexes  di- 
vided in  a  coffee  controversy,  and  there 
was  issued  The  Women's  Petition  against 
Coffee,  representing  to  public  consideration 
the  grand  inconveniences  accruing  to  their 

A  Broad-ride  againft  COFFEE;  , 

Or,  the 

Marriage  of  the  Turk.  -x 


^  lih  t    ,  ;  jr  11 

ii/f  iThisMii 
r  rmadi;  'And  boil 
I     ACo 


All         H.  funtlouk  y  I   t 

.      JnrUintoacjjl 

'1  •» ' 
I,  )'l 


I'l.l   lu(a»  I  t      , 

S  K  I.   ijf[\  t-  1  1 1 
An'    1        <i.<fl. 

;,  I'L'  diou-,h  t-om 
^■ur  t'>ij'e i  -vcxt  U 

Wh  t  ft.ll!    HI 

lie  1  ft 

VVi   I 

L  lltt  c 

An  J  yctt 

rhouctioiiil-JuryBli         »  r 

W  lioie  furijj  heat  does  n^k«  tl  e  Witcrn  c, 

\nA  dtil  iluougii  ilw  Atcmbicls  of  yaur  cyn 

0  eaJ  ind  dcHre,  w  f-'i'  to  i  f  lap  I )  f  lap, 

'AshongryI>)j;i«oK-aldingp  iii       ip 
Bjiiocir  Dn nlad? It lia  go«gc  iF  in  , 

lPi>,r«o  -Por??,  wiiitnotdodnlmi  > 
CtiI  I'm   lit.i"j  -tall  idtoone  S  c  i- 

Xl  ^M»  All,  hedcamndiUuiiclcw 

iRurov,  Va  '  .hr  Drench  ha  crd.  ;;« 
AnilKu  jtjcn  l-matitlntdiiik   H»ut, 
T  in.  1    u    /)  r      rt  ouH  r¥c  to  fi.  H  a  Ibture ' 
B'ClH  i    til  no\    fromNaluri: 

A  ii  'f  D  n  f    ft  e  V,  m'c 

\V  ,        ' 

?  („,J  , 




'  L.  JfiM  Efits  itf^a 

A  Broadside  of  1672 



sex  from  the  excessive  use  of  the  drying 
and  enfeebling  Liquor,  in  which  the  ladies, 
who  had  not  been  accorded  the  freedom  of 
the  coffee  houses  in  England,  as  was  the 
custom  in  France,  Germany,  Italy,  and 
other  countries  on  the  Continent,  com- 
plained that  coffee  made  men  as  "unfruit- 
ful as  the  deserts  where  that  unhappy 
berry  is  said  to  be  bought."  Besides  the 
more  serious  complaint  that  the  whole  race 
was  in  danger  of  extinction,  it  was  urged 
that  "on  a  domestic  message  a  husband 
would  stop  by  the  way  to  drink  a  couple 
of  cups  of  coffee." 

This  pamphlet  is  believed  to  have  pre- 
cipitated the  attempt  at  suppression  by 
the  crown  the  following  year,  despite  the 
prompt  appearing,  in  1674,  of  The  Men's 
Answer  to  the  Women's  Petition  Against 
Coffee,  vindicating  .  .  .  their  liquor,  from 
the  undeserved  aspersion  lately  cast  upon 
them,  in  their  scandalous  pamphlet. 

The  1674  broadside  in  defense  of  coffee 
was  the  first  to  be  illustrated;  and  for  all 
its  air  of  pretentious  grandeur  and  occa- 
sional bathos,  it  was  not  a  bad  rhyming 
advertisement  for  the  persecuted  drink.  It 
was  printed  for  Paul  Greenwood  and  sold 
"at  the  sign  of  the  coffee  mill  and  tobacco- 
roll  in  Cloath-fair  near  West-Smithfield, 
who  selleth  the  best  Arabian  coffee  powder 
and  chocolate  in  cake  or  roll,  after  the 
Spanish  fashion,  etc."  The  following  ex- 
tracts will  serve  to  illustrate  its  epic  char- 
acter : 

When    the    sweet    Poison    of    the    Treacherous 

Had  Acted  on  the  world  a  General  Rape ; 
Drowning  our  very  Reason  and  our  Souls 
In  such  deep  Seas  of  large  o'reflowing  Bowls, 

*  *      an 

When  Foggy  Ale,  leavying  up  mighty  Trains 
Of  muddy  Vapours,  had  besieg'd  our  Brains ; 

*  *     * 

Then  Heaven  in  Pity,  to  Effect  our  Cure, 

*  *     * 

First  sent  amongst  us  this  All-heaUng-Berry, 
At  once  to  make  us  both  Sober  and  Merry. 

Arabian  Coffee,  a  Rich  Cordial 
To  Purse  and  Person  Beneficial, 
Which  of  so  many  Vertues  doth  partake, 
Its  Country's  called  Felix  for  its  sake. 
From  the  Rich  Chambers  of  the  Rising  Sun, 
Where  Arts,  and  all  good  Fashions  first  begun. 
Where  Earth  with  choicest  Rarities  is  blest. 
And  dying  Phoenix  builds  Her  wondrous  Nest;: 
COFFEE   arrives,    that   Grave   and   wholesome 

That    heals    the    Stomack,    makes    the    Genius 




'.*-jj^       EFFECTS 


mil  F    HOUSE. 

I  b  whi,.^  I.  ..  HA.n.VMVM. 

A    I  ".udADsii'i;   III     It;,  1 
The  first  one  to  be  illustrated 

Relieves  the  Memory,  Revives  the  Sad. 
*     *     * 

Do  but  this  Rare  ARABIAN  Cordial  Use, 
And  thou  may'st  all  the  Doctors  Slops  Refuse. 
Hush  then,  dull  QUACKS,  your  Mountebanking 

COFFEE'S  a  speedier  Cure  for  each  Disease; 
How  great  its  Vertues  are,  we  hence  may  think. 
The  Worlds  third  Part  makes  it  their  common 

Drink ; 
In  Breif,  all  you  who  Healths  Rich  Treasures 

And  Court  not  Ruby  Noses,  or  blear'd  Eyes, 
But  own  Sobriety  to  be  your  Drift. 
And  Love  at  once  good  Company  and  Thrift ; 
To  Wine  no  more  make   Wit  and   Coyn  a 

But  come  each  Night  and   Fi-<>llique  here  in 



An  eight-page  folio,  the  last  argument 
to  be  issued  in  defense  of  coffee  before 
Charles  II  sought  to  follow  in  the  foot- 
steps of  Kair  Bey  and  Kuprili,  was  issued 
in  the  early  part  of  1675.  It  was  entitled 
Coffee  Houses  Vindicated.  In  answer  to 
the  late  published  Character  of  a  Coffee 
House.  Assertiiig  from  Reason,  Experi- 
ence and  good  Authors  the  Excellent  Use 
and  physical  Virtues  of  that  Liquor.  .  .  . 
With  the  Grand  Conveniency  of  such  civil 
Places  of  Resort  and  ingenious  Conversa- 



The  advantage  of  a  coffee  house  com- 
pared with  a  "  publiek-house "  is  thus  set 

First,  In  regard  of  easy  expense.     Being  to 
wait  for  or  meet  a  friend,  a  tavern-reckoning 
soon    breeds    a    purse-consumption :    in    an   ale 
house,  you  must  gorge  yourself  with  pot  after 
pot     .     .     .     But  here,  for  a  penny  or  two,  you 
may  spend  two  or  three  hours,  have  the  shelter 
of  a  house,  the  warmth  of  *a  fire,  the  diversion 
of  company ;  and  conveniency,  if  you  please,  of 
taking  a  pipe  of  tobacco ;  and  all  this  without 
any  grumbling  or  repining.     Secondly.     For  so- 
briety.    It  is  grown,  by  the  ill  influences  of  I 
know  not  what  hydropick  stars,  almost  a  gen- 
eral custom  amongst  us,  that  no  bargain  can 
be  drove,   or  business  concluded  between  man 
and   man,  hut  it   must   be   transacted   at  some 
publick-house     .     .     .     where  continual  sippings 
.     .     .     would  be  apt  to  fly  up  into  their  brains, 
and  render  them  drowsy  and  indisposed     .     .     . 
whereas,    having    now    the    opportunity    of    a 
coffee-house,    they    repair    thither,    take    each 
man  a  dish  or  two  (so  far  from  causing,  that  it 
cures  any  dizziness,  or  disturbant  fumes)  :  and 
so,    dispatching    their    business,    go    out    more 
sprightly  about  their  affairs,  than  before.  .    .   . 
Lastly,  For  diversion     .     .     .     where  can  young 
gentlemen,  or  shop-keepers,  more  innocently  and 
advantageously  spend  an  hour  or  two  in  the  eve- 
ning than  at  a  coffee-house?    Where  they  shall 
be  sure  to  meet  company,  and,  by  the  custom  of 
the  house,  not  such  as  at  other  places  stingy  and 
reserved  to  themselves,  but  free  and  communica- 
tive, where  every  man  may  modestly  begin  his 
story,    and   propose    to,    or   answer    another,    as 
he  thinks  fit.     .     .     .     So  that,  upon  the  whole 
matter,  spight  of  the  idle  sarcasms  and  paltry 
reproaches   thrown   upon   it,    we  may,    with   no 
less  truth  than  plainness,  give  this  brief  char- 
acter of  a  well-regulated  coffee-house,   (for  our 
pen  disdains  to  be  an  advocate  for  any  sordid 
holes,  that  assume  that  name  to  cloke  the  prac- 
tice of  debauchery,)   that  it  is  the  sanctuary  of 
health,  the  nursery  of  temperance,  the  delight  of 
frugality,    and    academy    of   civility,    and    free- 
school  of  ingenuity. 

The  Ale  Wives'  Complaint  Against  the 
Coffee-houses,  a  dialogue  between  a  vict- 
ualer's  wife  and  a  coffee  man,  at  difference 
about  spiriting  away  each  other's  trade, 
also  was  issued  in  1675. 

As  early  as  1666,  and  again  in  1672,  we 
find  the  government  planning  to  strike  a 
blow  at  the  coffee  houses.  By  the  year 
1675,  these  "seminaries  of  sedition"  were 
much  frequented  by  persons  of  rank  and 
substance,  who,  "suitable  to  our  native 
genius,"  says  Anderson,"  "used  great  free- 
dom therein  with  respect  to  the  courts' 
proceedings  in  these  and  like  points,  so 
contrary  to  the  voice  of  the  people." 
.  In  1672,  Charles  II,  seemingly  eager  to 
emulate  the  Oriental  intolerants  that  pre- 

^*  Anderson.    Adam.      Historical    and    Chronological 
Deduction  of  the  Origin  of  Commerce.     London,  1787. 

ceded  him,  determined  to  try  his  hand  at 
suppression.  "Having  been  informed  of 
the  great  inconveniences  arising  from  the 
great  number  of  persons  that  resort  to 
coffee-houses,"  the  king  "desired  the  Lord 
Keeper  and  the  Judges  to  give  their  opin- 
ion in  writing  as  to  how  far  he  might  law- 
fully proceed  against  them." 

Roger  North  in  his  Examen  gives  the 
full  story;  and  D 'Israeli,  commenting  on 
it,  says,  "it  was  not  done  without  some 
apparent  respect  for  the  British  constitu- 
tion." The  courts  affected  not  to  act 
against  the  law,  and  the  judges  were  sum- 
moned to  a  consultation ;  but  the  five  who- 
met  could  not  agree  in  opinion. 

Sir  William  Coventry  spoke  against  the 
proposed  measure.  He  pointed  out  that 
the  government  obtained  considerable 
revenue  from  coffee,  that  the  king  himself 
owed  to  these  seemingly  obnoxious  places 
no  small  debt  of  gratitude  in  the  matter 
of  his  own  restoration;  for  they  had  been 
permitted  in  Cromwell's  time,  when  the 
king's  friends  had  used  more  liberty  of 
speech  than  "they  dared  to  do  in  any 
other."  He  urged,  also,  that  it  might  be 
rash  to  issue  a  command  so  likely  to  be 

At  last,  being  hard  pressed  for  a  reply, 
the  judges  gave  such  a  halting  opinion  in 
favor  of  the  king's  policy  as  to  remind  us 
of  the  reluctant  verdict  wrung  from  the 
physicians  and  lawyers  of  Mecca  on  the 
occasion  of  coffee 's  first  persecution.''  ' '  The 
English  lawyers,  in  language  which,  for  its 
civility  and  indefiniteness, ' '  says  Robinson, 
"would  have  been  the  envy  of  their  East- 
em  brethren,"  declared  that: 

Retailing  coffee  might  be  an  innocent  trade, 
as  it  might  be  exercised;  but  as  it  is  used  nt 
present,  in  the  nature  of  a  common  assembly, 
to  discourse  of  matters  of  State,  news  and 
great  Persons,  as  they  are  Nurseries  of  Idle- 
ness and  Pragmaticalness,  and  hinder  the  ex- 
pence  of  our  native  Provisions,  they  might  be 
thought  common  nuisances. 

An  attempt  was  made  to  mold  public 
opinion  to  a  favorable  consideration  of  the 
attempt  at  suppression  in  The  Grand  Con- 
cern of  England  explained,  which  w^as  good 
propaganda  for  his  majesty's  enterprise, 
but  utterly  failed  to  carry  conviction  to 
the  lovers  of  liberty. 

After  much  backing  and  filling,  the  king, 
on  December  23,  1675,  issued  a  proclama- 
tion which  in  its  title  frankly  stated  its 

"  See  chapter  III. 



object  —  "foF  the  suppression  of  coffee 
houses."  It  is  here  given  in  a  somewhat 
condensed  form: 




Charles  R. 

Whereas  it  is  most  apparent  that  the  multi- 
tude of  Coffee  Houses  of  late  years  set  up  and 
kept  within  this  kingdom,  the  dominion  of 
Wales,  and  town  of  Berwick-upon-Tweed,  and 
the  great  resort  of  Idle  and  disaffected  persons 
to  them,  have  produced  very  evil  and  dangerous 
effects ;  as  well  for  that  many  tradesmen  and 
others,  do  herein  mispend  much  of  their  time, 
which  might  and  probably  would  be  employed 
in  and  about  their  Lawful  Calling  and  Affairs ; 
but  also,  for  that  in  such  houses  .... 
divers  false,  malitious  and  scandalous  reports 
are  devised  and  spread  abroad  to  the  Defama- 
tion of  his  Majestie's  Government,  and  to  the 
Disturbance  of  the  Peace  and  Quiet  of  the 
Realm ;  his  Majesty  hath  thought  fit  and  neces- 
sary, that  the  said  Coffee  Houses  be  (for  the 
future)  Put  down,  and  suppressed,  and  doth 
.  strictly  charge  and  command  all  man- 
ner of  persons.  That  they  or  any  of  them  do 
not  presume  from  and  after  the  Tenth  Day  of 
January  next  ensuing,  to  keep  any  Public  Cof- 
fee House,  or  to  utter  or  sell  by  retail,  in  his, 
her  or  their  house  or  houses  (to  be  spent  or 
consumed  within  the  same)  any  Coffee,  Choco 
let,  Sherbett  or  Tea,  as  they  will  answer  the 
contrary  at  their  utmost  perils  .  .  .  (all 
licenses  to  be  revoked). 

Given  at  our  Court  at  Whitehall,  this  third- 
and-twentleth  dajj  of  Dec,  1675,  in  the  seven - 
and-twentieth  year  of  our  Reign. 


And  then  a  remarkable  thing  happened. 
It  is  not  usual  for  a  royal  proclamation 
issued  on  the  29th  of  one  month  to  be  re- 
called on  the  8th  day  of  the  next ;  but  this 
is  the  record  established  by  Charles  II. 
The  proclamation  was  made  on  December 
23,  1675,  and  issued  December  29,  1675. 
It  forbade  the  coffee  houses  to  operate 
after  January  10,  1676,  But  so  intense 
was  the  feeling  aroused,  that  eleven  days 
was  sufficient  time  to  convince  the  king 
that  a  blunder  had  been  made.  Men  of 
all  parties  cried  out  against  being  deprived 
of  their  accustomed  haunts.     The  dealers 

I  in  coffee,  tea,  and  chocolate  demonstrated 
that  the  proclamation  would  greatly  lessen 
his  majesty's  revenues.  Convulsion  and 
discontent  loomed  large.  The  king  heeded 
|the  warning,  and  on  January  8,  1676,  an- 
other proclamation  was  issued  by  which 
the  first  proclamation  was  recalled. 

In  order  to  save  the  king's  face,  it  was 
solemnly  recited  that  "His  Gracious  Maj- 

esty," out  of  his  "princely  consideration 
and  royal  compassion"  would  allow  the  re- 
tailers of  coffee  liquor  to  keep  open  until 
the  24th  of  the  following  June.  But  this 
was  clearly  only  a  royal  subterfuge,  as 
there  was  no  further  attempt  at  molesta- 
tion, and  it  is  extremely  doubtful  if  any 
was  contemplated  at  the  time  the  second 
proclamation  was  promulgated. 

"Than  both  which  proclamations  noth- 
ing could  argue  greater  guilt  nor  greater 
weakness,"  says  Anderson.  Robinson  re- 
marks, "A  battle  for  freedom  of  speech 
was  fought  and  won  over  this  question  at 
a  time  when  Parliaments  were  infrequent 
and  when  the  liberty  of  the  press  did  not 
exist, ' ' 

"Penny  Universities" 

"We  read  in  1677  that  "none  dare  ven- 
ture into  the  coffee  houses  unless  he  be 
able  to  argue  the  question  whether  Parlia- 
ment were  dissolved  or  not." 

All  through  the  years  remaining. in  the 
seventeenth  century,  and  through  most  of 
the  eighteenth  century,  the  London  coffee 
houses  grew  and  prospered.  As  before 
stated,  they  were  originally  temperance  in- 
stitutions, very  different  from  the  taverns 
and  ale  houses.  "Within  the  walls  of  the 
coffee  house  there  was  always  much  noise, 
much  clatter,  much  bustle,  but  decency 
was  never  outraged." 

At  prices  ranging  from  one  to  two 
pence  per  dish,  the  demand  grew  so  great 
that  coffee-house  keepers  were  obliged  to 
make  the  drink  in  pots  holding  eight  or 
ten  gallons. 

The  seventeenth-century  coffee  houses 
were  sometimes  referred  to  as  the  "penny 
universities";  because  they  were  great 
schools  of  conversation,  and  the  entrance 
fee  was  only  a  penny.  Two  pence  was  the 
usual  price  of  a  dish  of  coffee  or  tea,  this 
charge  also  covering  newspapers  and  lights. 
It  was  the  custom  for  the  frequenter  to 
lay  his  penny  on  the  bar,  on  entering  or 
leaving.  Admission  to  the  exchange  of 
sparkling  wit  and  brilliant  conversation 
was  within  the  reach  of  all. 

So  great  a  Vniveraitie 
I  think  there  ne're  was  any ; 
In  which  you  may  a  Schoolar  be 
For  spending  of  a  Penny. 

"Regular  customers,"  we  are  told,  "had 
particular  seats  and  special  attention  from 
the  fair  lady  at  the  bar,  and  the  tea  and 
coffee  boys." 



It  is  believed  that  the-iiifidern  custom 
of  tipping,  and  the  wordQ^tip^  originated 
in  the  coffee  houses,  where  irequently  hung 
brass-bound  boxes  into  which  customers 
were  expected  to  drop  coins  for  the  ser- 
vants. The  boxes  were  inscribed  "Jc)  Ttt- 
mxet  Promptness''  and  from  the  initial 
letters  of  these  words  came  "tip." 

The  National  Review  says,  ' '  be^re  1715 
the  number  of  coffee  houses  in  London  was 
reckoned  at  2-000."  Dufour,  who  wrote  in 
1683,  declares,  upon  information  received 
from  several  persons  who  had  staid  in 
London,  that  there  were  3000  of  these 
places.  However,  2000  is  probably  nearer 
the  fact. 

In  that  critical  time  in  English  history, 
when  the  people,  tired  of  the  misgovern- 
ment  of  the  later  Stuarts,  were  most  in  need 
of  a  forum  where  questions  of  great  mo- 
ment could  be  discussed,  the  coffee  house 
became  a  sanctuary.  Here  matters  of 
supreme  political  import  were  threshed  out 
and  decided  for  the  good  of  Englishmen 
for  all  time.  And  because  many  of  these 
questions  were  so  well  thought  out  then, 
there  was  no  need  to  fight  them  out  later. 
England's  great  struggle  for  political 
liberty  was  really  fought  and  won  in  the 
coffee  house. 

To  the  end  of  the  reign  of  Charles  II, 
coffee  was  looked  upon  by  the  govern- 
ment rather  as  a  new  check  upon  license 
than  an  added  luxury.  After  the  revolu- 
tion, the  London  coffee  merchants  were 
obliged  to  petition  the  House  of  Lords 
against  new  import  duties,  and  it  was  not 
until  the  year  1692  that  the  government, 
"for  the  greater  encouragement  and  ad- 
vancement of  trade  and  the  greater  impor- 
tation of  the  said  respective  goods  or  mer- 
chandises," discharged  one  half  of  the  ob- 
noxious tariff. 

Weird  Co/fee  Substitutes 

Shortly  after  the  "great  fire,"  coffee 
substitutes  began  to  appear.  First  came 
a  liquor  made  with  betony,  "for  the  sake 
of  those  who  could  not  accustom  themselves 
to  the  bitter  taste  of  coffee."  Betony  is 
a  herb  belonging  to  the  mint  family,  and 
its  root  was  formerly  employed  in  medi- 
cine as  an  emetic  or  purgative.  In  1719, 
when  coffee  was  7s.  a  pound,  came  bocket, 
later  known  as  saloop,  a  decoction  of  sassa- 
fras and  sugar,  that  became  such  a  favorite' 
among  those  who  could  not  afford  tea  or 
coffee,  that  there  were  many  saloop  stalls 

in  the  streets  of  London.     It  was  also  sold 
at  Read's  coffee  house  in  Fleet  Street. 

The  Coffee  Men  Overreach  Themselves 

The  coffee-house  keepers  had  become  so 
powerful  a  force  in  the  community  in  1729 
that  they  lost  all  sense  of  proportion;  and 
we  find  them  seriously  proposing  to  usurp 
the  functions  of  the  newspapers.  The  vain- 
glorious coffee  men  requested  the  govern- 
ment to  hand  over  to  them  a  journalistic 
monopoly;  the  argument  being  that  the 
newspapers  of  the  day  were  choked  with 
advertisements,  filled  with  foolish  stories 
gathered  by  ail-too  enterprising  news- 
writers,  and  that  the  only  way  for  the  gov- 
ernment to  escape  "further  excesses  occa- 
sioned by  the  freedom  of  the  press"  and 
to  rid  itself  of  "those  pests  of  society,  the 
unlicensed  newsvendors, "  was  for  it  to  in- 
trust the  coffee  men,  as  "the  chief  support- 
ers of  liberty"  with  the  publication  of  a 
Coffee  House  Gazette.  Information  for  the 
journal  was  to  be  supplied  by  the  habitues 
of  the  houses  themselves,  written  down  on 
brass  slates  or  ivory  tablets,  and  called  for 
twice  daily  by  the  Gazette's  representatives. 
All  the  profits  were  to  go  to  the  coffee  men 
—  including  the  expected  increase  of  cus- 

Needless  to  say,  this  amazing  proposal 
of  the  coffee-house  masters  to  have  the  pub- 
lic write  its  own  newspapers  met  with  the 
scorn  and  the  derision  it  invited,  and  noth- 
ing ever  came  of  it. 

The  increasing  demand  for  coffee  caused 
the  government  tardily  to  seek  to  stimulate 
interest  in  the  cultivation  of  the  plant  in 
"British  colonial  possessions.  It  was  tried 
out  in  Jamaica  in  1730.  By  1732  the  ex- 
periment gave  such  promise  that  Parlia- 
ment, "for  encouraging  the  growth  of 
coffee  in  His  Majesty's  plantations  in 
America,"  reduced  the  inland  duty  on  cof- 
fee coming  from  there,  "but  of  none  other," 
from  two  shillings  to  one  shilling  six  pence 
per  pound.  "It  seems  that  the  French  at 
Martinico,  Hispaniola,  and  at  the  Isle  de 
Bourbon,  near  Madagascar,  had  somewhat 
the  start  of  the  English  in  the  new  prod- 
uct as  had  also  the  Dutch  at  Surinam,  yet 
none  had  hitherto  been  found  to  equal  cof- 
fee from  Arabia,  whence  all  the  rest  of 
the  world  had  theirs."  Thus  writes  Adam 
Anderson  in  1787,  somewhat  ungraciously 
seeking  to  damn  England's  business  rivals 
with  faint  praise.  Java  coffee  was  even 
then  in  the  lead,  and  the  seeds  of  Bourbon- 



Jantos  were  multiply ing  rapidly  in  Bra- 
ilian  soil. 

The  British  East  India  Company,  how- 
Bver,  was  much  more  interested  in  tea  than 
coffee.  Having  lost  out  to  the  French 
ind  Dutch  on  the  "little  brown  berry  of 
Lrabia,"  the  company  engaged  in  so  lively 
propaganda  for  "the  cup  that  cheers" 
lat,  whereas  the  annual  tea  imports  from 
[700  to  1710  averaged  800,000  pounds,  in 
[721  more  than  1,000,000  pounds  of  tea 
Jrere  brought  in.  In  1757,  some  4,000,000 
^Jounds  were  imported.  And  when  the  cof- 
fee house  finally  succumbed,  tea,  and  not 
coffee,  was  firmly  intrenched  as  the  na- 
tional drink  of  the  English  people. 

A  movement  in  1873  to  revive  the  coffee 
house  in  the  form  of  a  coffee  ' '  palace, ' '  de- 
signed to  replace  the  public  house  as  a 
place  of  resort  for  working  men,  caused 
the  Edinburgh  Castle  to  be  opened  in  Lon- 
don. The  movement  attained  considerable 
success  throughout  the  British  Isles,  and 
even  spread  to  the  United  States. 

Evolution  of  the  Club 

Every  profession,  trade,  class,  and  party 
had  its  favorite  coffee  house.  ' '  The  bitter 
black  drink  called  coffee,"  as  Mr.  Pepys 
described  the  beverage,  brought  together 
all  sorts  and  conditions  of  men;  and  out 
of  their  mixed  association  there  developed 
groups  of  patrons  favoring  particular 
houses  and  giving  them  character.  It  is 
easy  to  trace  the  transition  of  the  group 
into  a  clique  that  later  became  a  club,  con- 
tinuing for  a  time  to  meet  at  the  coffee 
house  or  the  chocolate  house,  but  event- 
ually demanding  a  house  of  its  own. 

Decline  and  Fall  of  the  Coffee  House 

Starting  as  a  forum  for  the  commoner, 
the  coffee  house  soon  became  the  plaything 
of  the  leisure  class ;  and  when  the  club  was 
evolved,  the  coffee  house  began  to  retro- 
grade to  the  level  of  the  tavern.  And  so 
the  eighteenth  century,  which  saw  the  cof- 
fee house  at  the  height  of  its  power  and 
popularity,  witnessed  also  its  decline  and 
fall.  It  is  said  there  were  as  many  clubs 
at  the  end  of  the  century  as  there  were 
coffee  houses  at  the  beginning. 

For  a  time,  when  the  habit  of  reading 
newspapers  descended  the  social  ladder, 
the  coffee  house  acquired  a  new  lease  of 
life.     Sir  Walter  Besant  observes: 

They  were  then  frequented  by  men  who  came, 
not  to  talk,  but  to  read ;  the  smaller  tradesmen 

and  the  better  class  of  mechanic  now  came  to 
the  cofifee-house.  called  for  a  cup  of  cofifee,  and 
with  it  the  daily  paper,  which  they  could  not 
afford  to  take  in.  Every  cofifee-house  took  three 
or  four  papers ;  there  seems  to  have  been  in  this 
latter  phase  of  the  once  social  institution  no 
general  conversation.  The  cofifee-house  as  a 
place  of  resort  and  conversation  gradually  de- 
clined ;  one  can  hardly  say  why,  except  that  all 
human  institutions  do  decay.  Perhaps  manners 
declined;  the  leaders  in  literature  ceased  to  be 
seen  there;  the  city  clerk  began  to  crowd  in; 
the  tavern  and  the  club  drew  men  from  the  cof- 

A  few  houses  survived  until  the  early 
years  of  the  nineteenth  century,  but  the 
social  side  had  disappeared.  As  tea  and 
coffee  entered  the  homes,  and  the  exclusive 
club  house  succeeded  the  democratic  coffee 
forum,  the  coffee  houses  became  taverns 
or  chop  houses,  or,  convinced  that  they  had 
outlived  their  usefulness,  just  ceased  to  be. 

Pen  Pictures  of  Coffee-House  Life 

From  the  writings  of  Addison  in  the 
Spectator,  Steele  in  the  Tatler,  Mackay  in 
his  Journey  Through  England,  Macaulay 
in  his  history,  and  others,  it  is  possible  to 
draw  a  fairly  accurate  pen-picture  of  life 
in  the  old  London  coffee  house. 

In  the  seventeenth  century  the  coffee 
room  usually  opened  off  the  street.  At 
first  only  tables  and  chairs  were  spread 
about  on  a  sanded  floor.  Later,  this  ar- 
rangement was  succeeded  by  the  boxes,  or 
booths,  such  as  appear  in  the  Rowlandson 
caricatures,  the  picture  of  the  interior  of 
Lloyds,  etc. 

The  walls  were  decorated  with  handbills 
and  posters  advertising  the  quack  medi- 
cines, pills,  tinctures,  salves,  and  electu- 
aries of  the  period,  all  of  which  might  be 
purchased  at  the  bar  near  the  entrance, 
presided  over  by  a  prototype  of  the  mod- 
ern English  barmaid.  There  were  also 
bills  of  the  play,  auction  notices,  etc.,  de- 
pending upon  the  character  of  the  place. 

Then,  as  now,  the  barmaids  were  made 
much  of  by  patrons.  Tom  Brown  refers 
to  them  as  charming  "Phillises  who  invite 
you  by  their  amorous  glances  into  their 
smoaky  territories." 

Messages  were  left  and  letters  received 
at  the  bar  for  regular  customers.  Stella 
was  instructed  to  address  her  letters  to 
Swift,  "under  cover  to  Addison  at  the  St. 
James's  coffee  house."    Says  Macaulay: 

Foreigners  remarked  that  it  was  the  coffee 
house  which  specially  distinguished  London  from 
all  other  cities;  that  the  coffee  house  was  the 





jondoner's  home,  and  that  those  who  wished  to 

ind  a  gentleman  commonly  asked,  not  whether 

the  lived  in  Fleet  Street  or  Chancery  Lane,  but 

j-whether  he  frequented  the  Grecian  or  the  Rain- 


So  every  man  of  the  upper  or  middle 
classes  went  daily  to  his  coffee  house  to 
learn  the  news  and  to  discuss  it.  The  better 
class  houses  were  the  meeting  places  of  the 
most  substantial  men  in  the  community. 
Every  coffee  house  had  its  orator,  who  be- 
came to  his  admirers  a  kind  of  "fourth 
estate  of  the  realm. ' ' 

Macaulay  gives  us  the  following  picture 
of  the  coffee  house  of  1685 : 

Nobody  was  excluded  from  these  places  who 
laid  down  his  penny  at  the  bar.  Yet  every 
rank  and  profession,  and  every  shade  of  reli- 
gious and  political  opinion  had  its  own  head- 

There  were  houses  near  St.  James'  Park, 
where  fops  congregated,  their  heads  and  shoul- 
ders covered  with  black  or  flaxen  wigs,  not  less 
ample  than  those  which  are  now  worn  by  the 
Chancellor  and  by  the  Speaker  of  the  House  of 
Commons.  The  atmosphere  was  like  that  of  a 
perfumer's  shop.  Tobacco  in  any  form  than 
that  of  richly  scented  snuff  was  held  in  abom- 
ination. If  any  clown,  ignorant  of  the  usages 
(if  the  house,  called  for  a  pipe,  the  sneers  of  the 
whole  assembly  and  the  short  answers  of  the 
waiters  soon  convinced  him  that  he  had  better 
go  somewhere  else. 

Nor,  indeed,  would  he  have  far  to  go.  For,  in 
general,  the  coffee-houses  reeked  with  tobacco 
like  a  guard  room.  Nowhere  was  the  smoking 
more  constant  than  at  Will's.  That  celebrated 
house,  situated  between  Covent  Garden  and  Bow 
street,  was  sacred  to  polite  letters.  There  the 
talk  was  about  poetical  justice  and  the  unities 
of  place  and  time.  Under  no  roof  was  a  great- 
er variety  of  figures  to  be  seen.  There  were 
earls  in  stars  and  garters,  clergymen  in  cas- 
socks and  bands,  pert  Templars,  sheepish  lads 
from  universities,  translators  and  index  makers 
in  ragged  coats  of  frieze.  The  great  press  was 
to  get  near  the  chair  where  John  Dryden  sate. 
In  winter  that  chair  was  always  in  the  warmest 
nook  by  the  fire ;  in  summer  it  stood  in  the  bal- 
cony. To  bow  to  the  Laureate,  and  to  hear  his 
opinion  of  Racine's  last  tragedy,  or  of  Bossu's 
treatise  on  epic  poetry,  was  thought  a  privilege 
A  pinch  from  his  snuff-box  was  an  honour  suffl- 
cient  to  turn  the  head  of  a  young  enthusiast. 

There  were  coffee-houses  where  the  first  medi- 
cal men  might  be  consulted.  Dr.  John  Rad- 
cliffe.  who,  in  the  year  1685,  rose  to  the  largest 
practice  in  London,  came  daily,  at  the  hour 
when  the  Exchange  was  full,  from  his  house  in 
Bow  street,  then  a  fashionable  part  of  the  capi- 
tal, to  Garraway's,  and  was  to  be  found,  sur- 
rounded by  surgeons  and  apothecaries,  at  a  par- 
ticular table. 

There  were  Puritan  coffee-houses  where  no 
oath  was  heard,  and  where  lank-haired  men 
discussed  election  and  reprobation  through  their 
Boses;  Jew  coffee-houses,  where  dark-eyed 
money  changers  from  Venice  and  Amsterdam 
greeted  each  other;   and  Popish  coffee-houses. 


where,  as  good  Protestan^j  believed,  Jesuits 
planned  over  their  cups  another  great  fire,  and 
cast  silver  bullets  to  shoot  the  King. 

Ned  Ward  gives  us  this  picture  of  the 
coffee  house  of  the  seventeenth  century. 
He  is  describing  Old  Man's,  Scotland 

We  now  ascended  a  pair  of  stairs,  which 
brought  us  into  an  old-fashioned  room,  where  a 
gaudy  crowd  of  odoriferous  Tom-Essences  were 
walking  backwards  and  forwards,  with  their 
hats  in  their  hands,  not  daring  to  convert  them 
to  their  intended  use  lest  it  should  put  the  fore 
tops  of  their  wigs  into  some  disorder.  We 
squeezed  through  till  we  got  to  the  end  of  the 
room,  where,  at  a  small  table,  we  sat  down, 
and  observed  that  it  was  as  great  a  rarity  to 
hear  anybody  call  for  a  dish  of  politicians  por- 
ridge, or  any  other  liquor,  as  it  is  to  hear  a 
beau  call  for  a  pipe  of  tobacco;  their  whole 
exercise  being  to  charge  and  discharge  their 
nostrils  and  keep  the  curls  of  their  i)eriwigs  in 
their  proper  order.  The  clashing  of  their  snush- 
box  lids,  in  opening  and  shutting,  made  more 
noise  than  their  tongues.  Bows  and  cringes  of 
the  newest  mode  were  here  exchanged  'twixt 
friend  and  friend  with  wonderful  exactness. 
They  made  a  humming  like  so  many  hornets  in 
a  country  chimney,  not  with  their  talking,  but 
with  their  whispering  over  their  new  Minuets 
and  Bories,  with  the  hands  in  their  pockets,  if 
only  freed  from  their  snush-box.  We  now  began 
to  be  thoughtful  of  a  pipe  of  tobacco,  where- 
upon we  ventured  to  call  for  some  instruments 
of  evaporation,  which  were  accordingly  brought 
us,  but  with  such  a  kind  of  unwillingness,  as  if 
they  would  much  rather  been  rid  of  our  com- 
pany ;  for  their  tables  were  so  very  neat,  and 
shined  with  rubbing  like  the  upper-leathers  of 
an  alderman's  shoes,  and  as  brown  as  the  top 
of  a  country  house-wife's  cupboard.  The  floor 
was  as, clean  swept  as  a  Sir  Courtly's  dining 
room,  which  made  us  look  round  to  see  if  there 
were  no  orders  hung  up  to  impose  the  forfeiture 
of  so  much  mop-money  upon  any  person  that 
should  spit  out  of  the  chimney-corner.  Not- 
withstanding we  wanted  an  example  to  en- 
courage us  in  our  porterly  rudeness,  we  ordered 
them  to  light  the  wax  candle,  by  which  we 
ignifled  our  pipes  and  blew  about  our  whiffs ; 
at  which  several  Sir  Foplins  drew  their  faces 
into  as  many  peevish  wrinkles  as  the  beaux  at 
the  Bow  Street  Coffee-house,  near  Covent 
Garden,  did  when  the  gentleman  in  masquerade 
came  in  amongst  them,  with  his  oyster-barrel 
muff  and  turnip-buttons,  to  ridicule  their  fop- 

In  A  Brief  and  Merry  History  of  Great 
Britain  we  read: 

There  is  a  prodigious  number  of  Cofifee- 
Houses  in  London,  after  the  manner  I  have 
seen  some  in  Constantinople.  These  Coffee- 
Houses  are  the  constant  Rendezvous  for  Men 
of  Business  as  well  as  the  idle  People.  Besides 
Coffee,  there  are  many  other  Liquors,  which 
People  cannot  well  relish  at  first.  They  smoak 
Tobacco,  game  and  read  Papers  of  Intelligence; 
here  they  treat  of  Matters  of  State,  make 
Leagues  with  Foreign  Princes,  break  them  again, 



White's  and  Brookes',  St.  James's  Street 

and  transact  Affairs  of  the  last  Consequence  to 
the  whole  World.  They  represent  these  Coffee- 
Houses  as  the  most  agreeable  things  in  London, 
and  they  are,  in  my  Opinion,  very  proper  Places 
to  find  People  that  a  Man  has  Business  with, 
or  to  pass  away  the  Time  a  little  more  agree- 
ably than  he  can  do  at  home;  but  in  other  re- 
spects they  are  loathsome,  full  of  smoak,  like 
a  Guard-Room,  and  as  much  crowded.  I  be- 
lieve 'tis  these  Places  that  furnish  the  Inhabi- 
tants with  Slander,  for  there  one  hears  exact 
Account  of  everything  done  in  Town,  as  if  it 
were  but  a  Village. 

At  those  Coffee-Houses,  near  the  Courts,  called 
White's,  St.  James's,  Williams's,  the  Conversa- 
tion turns  chiefly  upon  the  Equipages,  Essence, 
Horse-Matches,  Tupees,  Modes  and  Mortgages ; 
the  Cocoa-Tree  upon  Bribery  and  Corruption, 
Evil  ministers,  Errors  and  Mistakes  in  Govern- 
ment :  the  Scotch  Coflfee-Houses  towards  Char- 
ing Cross,  on  Places  and  Pensions ;  the  Tiltyard 
and  Young  Man's  on  Affronts,  Honour,  Satisfac- 
tion, Duels  and  Rencounters.  I  was  informed 
that  the  latter  happen  so  frequently,  in  this  part 
of  the  Town,  that  a  Surgeon  and  a  Sollicitor  are 
kept  constantly  in  waiting ;  the  one  to  dress  and 
heal  such  Wounds  as  may  be  given,  and  the 
other  in  case  of  Death  to  bring  off  the  Survivor 
with  a  Verdict  of  Se  Devendendo  or  Man- 
slaughter. In  those  Coffee-Houses  about  the 
Temple  the  Subjects  are  generally  on  Causes, 
Costs,  Demurrers,  Rejoinders  and  Exceptions; 
Daniel's  the  Welch  Coffee-House  in  Fleet  Street, 
on  Births,  Pedigrees  and  Descents;  Child's  and 
the  Chapter  upon  Glebes,  Tithes,  Advowsons. 
Rectories  and  Lectureships ;  North's  Undue 
Elections,  False  Polling,  Scrutinies,  etc. ;  Ham- 
lin's, Infant-Baptism,  Lay-Ordination,  Free- 
will, Election  and  Reprobation ;  Batson's,  the 
Prices  of  Pepper.  Indigo  and  Salt-Petre;  and 
all  those  about  the  Exchange,  where  the  Mer- 
chants meet  to  transact  their  Affairs,  are  in  a 
perpetual  hurry  about  Stock-Jobbing,  Lying, 
Cheating,  Tricking  Widows  and  Orphans,  and 
committing  Spoil  and  Rapine  on  the  Publick. 

In  the  eighteenth  century  beer  and  wine 
were  commonly  sold  at  the  coffee  houses 
in  addition  to  tea  and  chocolate.  Daniel 
Defoe,  writing  of  his  visit  to  Shrewsbury 

in  1724,  says,  "I  found  there  the  most 
coffee  houses  around  the  Town  Hall  that 
ever  I  saw  in  any  town,  but  when  you 
come  into  them  they  are  but  ale  houses, 
only  they  think  that  the  name  coffee  house 
gives  a  better  air." 

Speaking  of  the  coffee  houses  of  the  city, 
Besant  says: 

Rich  merchants  alone  ventured  to  enter  cer- 
tain of  the  coffee  houses,  where  they  transacted 
business  more  privately  and  more  expeditiously 
than  on  the  Exchange.  There  were  coffee  houses 
where  officers  of  the  army  alone  were  found ; 
where  the  city  shopkeeper  met  his  chums ;  where 
actors  congregated;  where  only  divines,  only 
lawyers,  only  physicians,  only  wits  and  those 
who  came  to  hear  them  were  found.  In  all 
alike  the  visitor  put  down  his  penny  and  went 
in,  taking  his  own  seat  if  he  was  an  habitue; 
he  called  for  a  cup  of  tea  or  coffee  and  paid  his 
twopence  for  it ;  he  could  call  also,  if  he  pleased, 
for  a  cordial:  he  was  expected  to  talk  with  his 
neighbour  whether  he  knew  him  or  not.  Men 
went  to  certain  coffee  houses  in  order  to  meet 
the  well-known  poets  and  writers  who  were  to 
be  found  there,  as  Pope  went  in  search  of  Dry- 
den.  The  daily  papers  and  the  pamphlets  of 
the  day  were  taken  in.  Some  of  the  coffee 
houses,  but  not  the  more  respectable,  allowed 
the  use  of  tobacco. 

Coffee  House  Politicians  of  the  Seventeenth 



The  Great  Fair  on  the  Frozen  Tpiames — 1683 
From  a  broadside  entitled  Wonders  on  the  Deep.     Figure  2  is  the  Duke  of  York's  Coffee  House 

Mackay,  in  his  Journey  Through  Eng- 
land (1724),  says: 

We  rise  by  nine,  and  those  that  frequent  great 
men's  levees  find  entertainment  at  them  till 
eleven,  or,  as  in  Holland,  go  to  tea-tables ;  about 
twelve  the  heau  monde  assemble  in  several  cof- 
fee or  chocolate  houses ;  the  best  of  which  are 
the  Cocoatree  and  White's  chocolate  houses,  St. 
James',  the  Smyrna,  Mrs.  Rochford's  and  the 
British  coffee  houses ;  and  all  these  so  near  one 
another  that  in  less  than  an  hour  you  see  the 
company  of  them  all.  We  are  carried  to  these 
places  in  chairs  (or  sedans),  which  are  here 
very  cheap,  a  guinea  a  week,  or  a  shilling  per 
hour,  and  your  chairmen  serve  you  for  porters 
to  run  on  errands,  as  your  gondolierg  do  at 

If  it  be  fine  weather  we  take  a  turn  into  the 
park  till  two,  when  we  go  to  dinner;  and  if  it 
be  dirty,  you  are  entertained  at  piequet  or 
basset  at  White's,  or  you  may  talk  politics  at 
the  Smyrna  or  St.  James'.  I  must  not  forget  to 
tell  you  that  the  parties  have  their  different 
places,  where,  however,  a  stranger  is  always 
well  received;  but  a  Whig  will  no  more  go  to 
the  Ck)coatree  than  a  Tory  will  be  seen  at  the 
Coffee  House,  St.  James'. 

The  Scots  go  generally  to  the  British,  and  a 
mixture  of  all  sorts  go  to  the  Smyrna.  There 
are  other  little  coffee  houses  much  frequented 
in  this  neighborhood — Young  Man's  for  officers ; 
Old  Man's  for  stock  jobbers,  paymasters  and 
courtiers,    and    Little    Man's    for    sharpers.     I 

never  was  so  confounded  in  my  life  as  when  I 
entered  into  this  last.  I  saw  two  or  three 
tables  full  at  faro,  and  was  surrounded  by  a 
set  of  sharp  faces  that  I  was  afraid  would  have 
devoured  me  with  their  eyes.  I  was  glad  to 
drop  two  or  three  half  crowns  at  faro  to  get 
off  with  a  clear  skin,  and  was  overjoyed  I  so- 
got  rid  of  them. 

At  two  we  generally  go  to  dinner;  ordinaries 
are  not  so  common  here  as  abroad,  yet  the 
French  have  set  up  two  or  three  good  ones  for 
the  convenience  of  foreigners  in  Suffolk  street, 
where  one  is  tolerably  well  served ;  but  the  gen- 
eral way  here  is  to  make  a  party  at  the  coffee 
house  to  go  to  dine  at  the  tavern,  where  we  sit 
till  six,  when  we  go  to  the  play,  except  you  are 
invited  to  the  table  of  some  great  man,  which 
strangers  are  always  courted  to  and  nobly  en- 

Mackay  writes  that  "in  all  the  coffee 
houses  you  have  not  only  the  foreign  prints 
but  several  English  ones  with  foreign  oc- 
currences, besides  papers  of  morality  and 
party  disputes." 

"After  the  play,"  writes  Defoe,  "the 
best  company  generally  go  to  Tom's  and 
Will's  coffee  houses,  near  adjoining,  where 
there  is  playing  at  piequet  and  the  best  of 
conversation  till  midnight.  Here  you  will 
see  blue  and  green  ribons  and  stars  sitting 
familiarly  and  talking  with  the  same  free- 



dom  as  if  they  had  left  their  equality  and 
degrees  of  distance  at  home." 

Before  entering  the  coffee  house  every 
one  was  recommended  by  the  Tatler  to 
prepare  his  body  with  three  dishes  of 
bohea  and  to  purge  his  brains  with  two 
pinches  of  snuff.  Men  had  their  coffee 
houses  as  now  they  have  their  clubs  — 
sometimes  contented  with  one,  sometimes 
belonging  to  three  or  four.  Johnson,  for 
instance,  was  connected  with  St.  James's, 
the  Turk's  Head,  the  Bedford,  Peele's,  be- 
sides the  taverns  which  he  frequented.  Ad- 
dison   and    Steele    used    Button's;    Swift, 

The   Lion's  Head  at  Button's   Coffee  House 

Designed  by  Hogarth,   and  put  up   by  Addison,    1713 

From    a   water    color   by    T.    H.    Shepherd 

Button's,  the  Smyrna,  and  St.  James's; 
Dryden,  Will's;  Pope,  Will's  and  Button's; 
Goldsmith,  the  St.  James's  and  the  Chap- 
ter; Fielding,  the  Bedford;  Hogarth,  the 
Bedford  and  Slaughter's;  Sheridan,  the 
Piazza;  Thurlow,  Nando 's.  | 

Some  Famous  Coffee  Houses  i 

Among  the  famous  English  coffee  houses 
of  the  seventeenth  -  eighteenth  century 
period  were  St.  James's,  Will's,  Garra- 
way's.  White's,   Slaughter's,  the  Grecian, 

Button's,  Lloyd's,  Tom's,  and  Don  Sal- 
tero  's. 

St.  James's  was  a  Whig  house  frequented 
by  members  of  Parliament,  with  a  fair 
sprinkling  of  literary  stars.  Garra way's 
catered  to  the  gentry  of  the  period,  many 
of  whom  naturally  had  Tory  proclivities. 

One  of  the  notable  coffee  houses  of 
Queen  Anne's  reign  was  Button's.  Here 
Addison  could  be  found  almost  every  after- 
noon and  evening,  along  with  Steele,  Dave- 
nant,  Carey,  Philips,  and  other  kindred 
minds.  Pope  was  a  member  of  the  same 
coffee  house  club  for  a  year,  but  his  inborn 
irascibility  eventually  led  him  to  drop  out 
of  it. 

At  Button's  a  lion's  head,  designed  by 
Hogarth  after  the  Lion  of  Venice,  **a 
proper  emblem  of  knowledge  and  action, 
being  all  head  and  paws,"  was  set  up  to 
receive  letters  and  papers  for  the  Guard- 
ian". The  Tatler  and  the  Spectator  were 
born  in  the  coffee  house,  and  probably 
English  prose  would  never  have  received 
the  impetus  given  it  by  the  essays  of  Addi- 
son and  Steele  had  it  not  been  for  coffee 
house  associations. 

Pope's  famous  Rape  of  the  Lock  grew 
out  of  coffee-house  gossip.  The  poem  itself 
contains  one  charming  passage  on  coffee." 

Another  frequenter  of  the  coffee  houses 
of  London,  when  he  had  the  money  to  do 
so,  was  Daniel  Defoe,  whose  Rohinson  Cru- 
soe was  the  precursor  of  the  English  novel. 
Henry  Fielding,  one  of  the  greatest  of  all 
English  novelists,  loved  the  life  of  the 
more  bohemian  coffee  houses,  and  was,  in 
fact,  induced  to  write  his  first  great  novel, 
Joseph  Andrews,  through  coffee-house  criti- 
cisms of  Richardson's  Pamela. 

Other  frequenters  of  the  coffee  houses 
of  the  period  were  Thomas  Gray  and  Rich- 
ard Brinsley  Sheridan.  Garri.^k  was  often 
to  be  seen  at  Tom's  in  Birchin  Lane,  where 
also  Chatterton  might  have  been  found  on 
many  an  evening  before  his  untimely  death. 

The  London  Pleasure  Gardens 

The  second  half  of  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury was  covered  by  the  reigns  of  the 
Georges.  The  coffee  houses  were  still  an 
important  factor  in  London  life,  but  were 
influenced  somewhat  by  the  development 
of  gardens  in  which  were  served  tea,  choc- 
olate, and  other  drinks,  as  well  as  coffee. 
At  the  coffee  houses  themselves,  while  cof- 

"  More  fully  described  in  chapter  XXXII. 
"  See  chapter  XXXII. 




Jrom  {!)(  orcgiAal   dra^wing   hy  HOCARTH  in.  ilt  ColUdion.   ofSam.  .frdaTii  . 

A  Trio  of  Notables  at  Button's  in  1730 

The  figure  in  the  cloak  is  Count  Viviani;  of  the  figures    facing    the    reader,    the    draughts   player   is   Dr. 
Arbuthnot,    and    the    figure    standing    is    assumed    to    be    Pope 

^fee  remained  the  favorite  beverage,  the 
proprietors,  in  the  hope  of  increasing  their 
patronage,  began  to  serve  wine,  ale,  and 
other  liquors.  This  seems  to  have  been  the 
first  step  toward  the  decay  of  the  coffee 

The  coffee  houses,  however,  continued  to 
be  the  centers  of  intellectual  life.  When 
Samuel  Johnson  and  David  Garrick  came 
together  to  London,  literature  was  tempo- 
rarily in  a  bad  way,  and  the  hack  writers 
of  the  time  dwelt  in  Grub  Street. 

It  was  not  until  after  Johnson  had  met 
with  some  success,  and  had  established  the 
first  of  his  coffee-house  clubs  at  the  Turk's 
Head,  that  literature  again  became  a  fash- 
ionable profession. 

This  really  famous  literary  club  met  at 
the  Turk's  Head  from  1763  to  1783. 
Among  the  most  notable  members  were 
Johnson,  the  arbiter  of  English  prose; 
Oliver  Goldsmith;  Boswell,  the  biographer; 
Burke,  the  orator;  Garrick,  the  actor;  and 

Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  the  painter.  Among 
the  later  members  were  Gibbon,  the  his- 
torian; and  Adam  Smith,  the  political 

Certain  it  is  that  during  the  sway  of  the 
English  coffee  house,  and  at  least  partly 
through  its  influence,  England  produced 
a  better  prose  literature,  as  embodied  alike 
in  her  essays,  literary  criticisms,  and  nov- 
els, than  she  ever  had  produced  before. 

The  advent  of  the  pleasure  gaiden 
brought  coffee  out  into  the  open  in  Eng- 
land; and  one  of  the  reasons  why  gardens, 
such  as  Ranelagh  and  Vauxhall,  began  to 
be  more  frequented  than  the  coffee  houses 
:was  that  they  were  popular  resorts  for 
women  as  well  as  for  men.  All  kinds  of 
beverages  were  served  in  them;  and  soon 
the  women  began  to  favor  tea  as  an  after- 
noon drink.  At  least,  the  great  develop- 
ment in  the  use  of  tea  dates  from  this 
period;  and  many  of  these  resorts  called 
themselves  tea  gardens. 



The  use  of  coffee  by  thip.  time,  however, 
was  well  established  in  the  homes  as  a 
breakfast  and  dinner  beverage,  and  such 
consumption  more  than  made  up  for  any 
loss  sustained  through  the  gradual  de- 
cadence of  the  coffee  house.  Yet  signs  of 
the  change  in  national  taste  that  arrived 
with  the  Georges  were  not  wanting ;  for  the 
active  propaganda  of  the  British  East  In- 
dia Company  was  fairly  well  launched 
during  Queen  Anne's  reign. 

The  London  pleasure  gardens  of  the 
eighteenth  century  were  unique.  At  one 
time  there  was  a  "mighty  maze"  of  them. 
Their  season  extended  from  April  or  May 
to  August  or  September.  At  first  there 
was  no  charge  for  admission,  but  Warwick 
Wroth"  tells  us  that  visitors  usually  pur- 
chased cheese  cakes,  syllabubs,  tea,  coffee 
and  ale. 

The  four  best-known  London  gardens 
were  Vauxhall ;  Marylebone ;  Cuper  's, 
where  the  charge  for  admission  subse- 
quently was  fixed;  at  not  less  than  a  shill- 
ing; and  Ranelagh,  where  the  charge  of 
half  a  crown  included  "the  Elegant  Ee- 
gale"  of  tea,  coffee,  and  bread  and  butter. 

18  Wroth,  Warwick.     The.  London  Pleasure  Oardena 
of  the   18th  Century.     London,   1896. 

The  pleasure  gardens  provided  walks, 
rooms  for  dancing,  skittle  grounds,  bowl- 
ing greens,  variety  entertainments,  and 
promenade  concerts;  and  not  a  few  places 
were  given  over  to  fashionable  gambling 
and  racing. 

The  Vauxhall  Gardens,  one  of  the  most 
favored  resorts  of  pleasure-seeking  Lon- 
doners, were  located  on  the  Surrey  side  of 
the  Thames,  a  short  distance  east  of  Vaux- 
hall Bridge.  They  were  originally  known 
as  the  New  Spring  Gardens  (1661),  to  dis- 
tinguish them  from  the  old  Spring  Gar- 
dens at  Charing  Cross.  They  became  fa- 
mous in  the  reign  of  Charles  II.  Vauxhall 
was  celebrated  for  its  walks,  lit  with  thou- 
sands of  lamps,  its  musical  and  other  per- 
formances, suppers,  and  fireworks.  High 
and  low  were  to  be  found  there,  and  the 
drinking  of  tea  and  coffee  in  the  arbors 
was  a  feature.  The  illustration  shows  the 
garden  brightly  illuminated  by  lanterns 
and  lamps  on  some  festival  occasion.  Cof- 
fee and  tea  were  served  in  the  arbors. 

The  Ranelagh,  "a  place  of  public  enter- 
tainment," erected  at  Chelsea  in  1742,  was 
a  kind  of  Vauxhall  under  cover.  The 
principal  room,  known  as  the  Rotunda,  was 
circular  in  shape,  150  feet  in  diameter,  and 

Vauxhall  Gardens  on  a  Gala  Night 




The  Kotunda  ix  Kaxelagh  Gardens  With  the  Company  at  Breakfast  — 1751 

had  an  orchestra  in  the  center  and  tiers 
of  boxes  all  around.  Promenading  and 
taking  refreshments  in  the  boxes  were  the 
principal  divertisements.  Except  on  gala 
nights  of  masquerades  and  fireworks,  only 
tea,  coffee,  bread  and  butter  were  to  be 
had  at  Ranelagh. 

In  the  group  of  gardens  connected  with 
mineral  springs  was  the  Dog  and  Duck 
(St.  George's  Spa),  which  became  at  last 
a  tea  garden  and  a  dancing  saloon  of 
doubtful  repute. 

Still  another  division,  recognized  by 
Wroth,  consisted  mainly  of  tea  gardens, 
among  them  Highbury  Barn,  The  Canon- 
bury  House,  Hornsey  and  Copenhagen 
House,  Bagnigge  Wells,  and  White  Con- 
duit House.  The  two  last  named  were  the 
classic  tea  gardens  of  the  period.  Both 
were  provided  with  "long  rooms"  in  case 
of  rain,  and  for  indoor  promenades  with 
organ  music.  Then  there  were  the  Adam 
and  Eve  tea  gardens,  with  arbors  for  tea- 
drinking  parties,  which  subsequently  be- 
came the  Adam  and  Eve  Tavern  and  Cof- 
fee House.  Well  known  were  the  Bays- 
water  Tea  Gardens  and  the  Jews  Harp 
House  and  Tea  Gardens.  All  these  were 
provided  with  neat,  "genteel"  boxes,   let 

into  the  hedges  and  alcoves,  for  tea  and 
coffee  drinkers. 

Locating  the  Notable  Coffee  Houses 

Garraw'ay's,  3  'Change  Alley,  Cornhill, 
was  a  place  for  great  mercantile  transac- 
tions. Thomas  Garway,  the  original  pro- 
prietor, was  a  tobacconist  and  coffee  man, 
who  claimed  to  be  the  first  that  sold  tea 
in  England,  although  not  at  this  address. 
The  later  Garra way's  was  long  famous  as 
a  sandwich  and  drinking  room  for  sherry% 
pale  ale,  and  punch,  in  addition  to  tea  and 
coffee.  It  is  said  that  the  sandwich-maker 
was  occupied  two  hours  in  cutting  and  ar- 
ranging the  sandwiches  for  the  day's  con- 
sumption. After  the  "great  fire"  of  1666 
Garra  way's  moved  into  the  same  place  in 
Exchange  Alley  where  Elford  had  been 
before  the  fire.  Here  he  claimed  to  have 
the  oldest  coffee  house  in  London ;  but  the 
ground  on  which  Bowman's  had  stood 
was  occupied  later  by  the  Virginia  and  the 
Jamaica  coffee  houses.  The  latter  was 
damaged  by  the  fire  of  1748  which  con- 
sumed Garraway's  and  Elford 's  (see  map 
of  the  1748  fire). 

Will's,  the  predecessor  of  Button's, 
first  had  the  title  of  the  Red  Cow,  then  of 



Gakraway's  Coffee  House  in  'Change  Alley 

Garway   (or  Garraway)   claimed  to  have  been  first 

to  sell  Tea  in  England 

the  Rose.  It  was  kept  by  William  Urwin, 
and  was  on  the  north  side  of  Russell  Street 
at  the  corner  of  Bow  Street.  "It  was  Dry- 
den  who  made  Will's  coffee  house  the  great 
resort  of  the  wits  of  his  time."  {Pope  and 
Spence.)  The  room  in  which  the  poet  was 
accustomed  to  sit  was  on  the  first  floor ;  and 
his  place  was  the  place  of  honor  by  the 
fireside  in  the  winter,  and  at  the  corner  of 
the  balcony,  looking  over  the  street,  in  fine 
weather;  he  called  the  two  places  his  win- 
ter and  his  summer  seat.  This  was  called 
the  dining-room  floor.  The  company  did 
not  sit  in  boxes  as  subsequently,  but  at 
various  tables  which  were  dispersed  through 
the  room.  Smoking  was  permitted  in  the 
public  room ;  it  was  then  so  much  in  vogue 
that  it  does  not  seem  to  have  been  consid- 
ered a  nuisance.  Here,  as  in  other  similar 
places  of  meeting,  the  visitors  divided 
themselves  into  parties;  and  we  are  told 
by  Ward  that  the  young  beaux  and  wits, 
who  seldom  approached  the  principal 
table,  thought  it  a  great  honor  to  have  a 
pinch  out  of  Dryden's  snuff-box.  After 
Dry  den's  death  Will's  was  transferred 
to  a  house  opposite,  and  became  Button  "s, 

"over  against  Thomas's  in  Covent  Gar- 
den." Thither  also  Addison  transferred 
much  company  from  Thomas's.  Here 
Swift  first  saw  Addison.  Hither  also  came 
"Steele,  Arbuthnot  and  many  other  wits 
of  the  time. ' '  Button  's  continued  in  vogue 
until  Addison's  death  and  Steele's  retire- 
ment into  Wales,  after  which  the  coffee 
drinkers  went  to  the  Bedford,  dinner  par- 
ties to  the  Shakespeare.  Button's  was 
subsequently  known  as  the  Caledonien. 
Slaughter's,  famous  as  the  resort  of 
painters  and  sculptors  in  the  eighteenth 
century,  was  situated  at  the  upper  end  of 
the  west  side  of  St.  Martin's  Lane.  Its 
first  landlord  was  Thomas  Slaughter,  1692. 
A  second  Slaughter's  (New  Slaugh- 
ter's) was  established  in  the  same  street 
in  1760,  when  the  original  Slaughter's 
adopted  the  name  of  Old  Slaughter's.  It 
was  torn  down  in  1843  -  44.  Among  the 
notables  who  frequented  it  were  Hogarth ; 
young  Gainsborough ;  Cipriani ;  Haydon  ; 
Roubiliac ;  Hudson,  w^ho  painted  the  Dilet- 
tanti portraits;  M'Ardell,  the  mezzotinto- 

BuTTOx's  Coffee  House,  Great  Russell  Street 
Afterward  it  became  the  Caledonien 
From  a  water  color  by  T.  H.  Shepherd 




Taper;  Luke  Sullivan,  the  engraver; 
Gardell,  the  portrait  painter;  and  Parry, 
the  Welsh  harper. 

Tom  s,  in  Birchin  Lane,  Cornhill,  though 
in  the  main  a  mercantile  resort,  acquired 
some  celebrity  from  having  been  frequented 
by  Garrick,  Tom's  was  also  frequented 
by  Chatterton,  as  a  place  "of  the  best  re- 
sort." Then  there  was  Tom's  in  Devereux 
Court,  Strand,  and  Tom  's  at  17  Great  Rus- 
sell Street,  Covent  Garden,  opposite  But- 
ton's, a  celebrated  resort  during  the  reign 
of  Queen  Anne  and  for  more  than  a  cen- 
tury^  after. 

The  Grecian,  Devereux  Court,  Strand, 
was  originally  kept  by  one  Constantine,  a 
Greek.  From  this  hou^e  Steele  proposed 
to  date  his  learned  articles  in  the  Tatler; 
it  is  mentioned  in  No.  1  of  the  Spectator, 
and  it  was  much  frequented  by  Goldsmith. 
The  Grecian  was  Foote's  morning  lounge. 
In  1843f  the  premises  became  the  Grecian 
Chambers,  with  a  bust  of  Lord  Devereux, 
earl  of  Essex,  over  the  door, 

Lloyd's,  Royal  Exchange,  celebrated  for 
its  priority  of  shipping  intelligence  and 
its  marine  insurance,  originated  with  Ed- 

Slaughter's  Coffee  House.  St.  Martin's  Lane 

It  was  taken  down  in  1843 

From  a  water  color  by  T.  H.  Shepherd,  1841 

Tom's  Coffee  House,  17  Great  Russell  Street 

Used  as  a  coffee  house  until  1804  and  razed  in  1865 

From  a  water  color  by  T.  H.   Shepherd 

ward  Lloyd,  who  about  1688  kept  a  coffee 
house  in  Tower  Street,  later  in  Lombard 
Street  corner  of  Abchurch  Lane.  It  was 
a  modest  place  of  refreshment  for  sea- 
farers and  merchants.  As  a  matter  of  con- 
venience, Edward  Lloyd  prepared  "ships' 
lists"  for  the  guidance  of  the  frequenters 
of  the  coffee  house.  "These  lists,  which 
were  written  by  hand,  contained,."  accord- 
ing to  Andrew  Scott,  "an  account  of  ves- 
aeh  which  the  underwriters  who  met  there 
were  likely  to  have  offered  them  for  in- 
surance." Such  was  the  beginning  of  two 
institutions  that  have  since  exercised  a 
dominant  influence  on  the  sea-carrying 
trade  of  the  whole  world  —  the  Royal  Ex- 
change Lloyd's,  the  greatest  insurance  in- 
stitution in  the  world,  and  Lloyd's  Regis- 
ter of  Shipping.  Lloyd's  now  has  1400 
agents  in  all  parts  of  the  world.  It  re- 
ceives as  many  as  100,000  telegrams  a  year. 
It  records  through  its  intelligence  service 
the  daily  movements  of  11,000  vessels. 

In  the  beginning  one  of  the  apartments 
in  the  Exchange  was  fitted  up  as  Lloyd's 



Lloyd's  Coffee  House  in  the  Royal  Exchange,  Showing  the  Subscrh'tion  Uoom 

coffee  room.  Edward  Lloyd  died  in  1712. 
Subsequently  the  coffee  house  was  in 
Pope's  Head  Alley,  where  it  was  called 
New  Lloyd's  coffee  house,  but  on  Septem- 
ber 14,  1784,  it  was  removed  to  the  north- 
west corner  of  the  Royal  Exchange,  where 
it  remained  until  the  partial  destruction  of 
that  building  by  fire. 

In  rebuilding  the  Exchange  there  were 
provided  the  Subscribers'  or  Underwriters' 
room,  the  Merchants'  room,  and  the  Cap- 
tains' room.  The  City,  second  edition, 
1848,  contains  the  following  description  of 
this  most  famous  rendezvous  of  eminent 
merchants,  shipowners,  underwriters,  in- 
surance, stock  and  exchange  brokers : 

Here    is   obtained    the    earliest    news    of    the 
arrival  and  sailing  of  vessels,  losses  at  sea,  cap-  . 
tures,  recaptures,  engagements  and  other  ship- 
ping intelligence;  and  proprietors  of  ships  and 
freights  are  insured  hy  the  underwriters.     The 
rooms   are  in   the  Venetian  style  with  Roman 
enrichments.     At  the  entrance  of  the  room  are 
exhibited    the    Shipping    Lists,    received    from 
Lloyd's  agents  at  home  and  abroad,  and  afford- 
ing  particulars    of    departures    or    arrivals    of  ' 
vessels,    wrecks,    salvage,    or    sale   of   property  , 
saved,  etc.     To  the  right  and  left  are  "Lloyd's 
Books,"    two    enormous    ledgers.      Right    hand,  ' 
ships  "spoken  with"  or  arrived  at  theii-  destined 
ports;   left   hand,    records   of   wrecks,    fires   or 
severe  collisions,  written  in  a  fine  Roman  han.d 
in  "double  lines."     To  assist  the  underwriters 
in  their  calculations,  at  the  end  of  the  room  is 

an  Anemometer,  which  registers  the  state  of  the 
wind  day  and  night ;  attached  is  a  rain  gauge. 

The  British,  Cockspur  Street,  "long  a 
house  of  call  for  Scotchmen,"  was  fortun- 
ate in  its  landladies.  In  1759  it  was  kept 
by  the  sister  of  Bishop  Douglas,  so  well 
known  for  his  works  against  Lauder  and 
Bower,  which  may  explain  its  Scottish 
fame.  At  another  period  it  was  kept  by 
Mrs.  Anderson,  described  in  Mackenzie's 
Life  of  Home  as  "a  woman  of  uncommon 
talents  and  the  most  agreeable  conversa- 

Don  Saltero's,  18  Cheyne  Walk,  Chel- 
sea, was  opened  by  a  barber  named  Salter 
in  1695.  Sir  Hans  Sloane  contributed  of 
his  own  collection  some  of  the  refuse  gim- 
cracks  that  were  to  be  found  in  Salter's 
"museum."  Vice-Admiral  Munden,  who 
had  been  long  on  the  coast  of  Spain,  where 
he  had  acquired  a  fondness  for  Spanish 
titles,  named  the  keeper  of  the  house  Don 
Saltero,  and  his  coffee  house  and  museum 
D6n  Saltero 's. 

Squire's  was  in  Fulwood's  Rents,  Hol- 
burn,  running  up  to  Gray's  Inn.  It  was 
one' of  the  receiving  houses  of  the  Spectator. 
In  No.  269  the  Spectator  accepts  Sir  Roger 
de  Coverley's  invitation  to  "smoke  a  pipe 
with  him  over  a  dish  of  coffee  at  Squire's. 
As  I  love  the  old  man,  I  take  delight  in 



complying  with  everything  that  is  agree- 
able to  him,  and  accordingly  waited  on  him 
to  the  coffee-house,  where  his  venerable 
figure  drew  upon  us  the  eyes  of  the  whole 
room.  He  had  no  sooner  seated  himself 
at  the  upper  end  of  the  high  table,  but  he 
called  for  a  clean  pipe,  a  paper  of  tobacco, 
a  dish  of  coffee,  a  wax  candle  and  the  '  Sup- 
plement' (a  periodical  paper  of  that  time), 
with  such  an  air  of  cheerfulness  and  good 
humour,  that  all  the  boys  in  the  coffee 
room  (who  seemed  to  take  pleasure  in  serv- 
ing him)  were  at  once  employed  on  his 
several  errands,  insomuch  that  nobody  else 
could  come  at  a  dish  of  tea  until  the  Knight 
had  got  all  his  conveniences  about  him." 
Such  was  the  coffee  room  in  the  Spectator's 

The  Cocoa-Tree  was  originally  a  coffee 
house  on  the  south  side  of  Pall  Malll.  When 
there  grew  up  a  need  for  ''places. of  resort 
of  a  more  elegant  and  refined  character," 
chocolate  houses  came  into  vogue,  and  the 


Interior  of  Dick's  Coffee  House 

From    the    frontispiece    to    "The    Coffee    House- 
dramatick   Piece"    (see   chapter   XXXII) 

The  (tKix  lAX  ('oijkk  iloi  si:.  Devebeux  Coi  ht 
It  was  closed  in  1843.     From  a  drawing  dated  1809 

Cocoa- Tree  was  the  most  famous  of  these. 
It  was  converted  into  a  club  in  1746. 

White's  chocolate  house,  established  by 
Francis  White  about  1693  in  St.  James's 
Street,  originally  open  to  any  one  as  a 
coffee  house,  soon  became  a  private  club, 
composed  of  '*the  most  fashionable  ex- 
quisites of  the  town  and  court."  In  its 
coffee-house  days,  the  entrance  was  six- 
pence, as  compared  with  the  average  penny 
fee  of  the  other  coffee  houses.  Escott  re- 
fers to  White's  as  being  "the  one  speci- 
men of  the  class  to  which  it  belongs,  of 
a  place  at  which,  beneath  almost  the  same 
roof,  and  always  bearing  the  same  name, 
whether  as  coft'ee  house  or  club,  the  same 
class  of  persons  has  congregated  during 
more  than  two  hundred  years." 

Among  hundreds  of  other  coffee  houses 
that  flourished  during  the  seventeenth  and 
eighteenth  centuries  the  following  more 
notable  ones  are  deserving  of  mention: 

Baker's,  58  'Change  Alley,  for  nearly 
half  a  century  noted  for  its  chops  and 
steaks  broiled  in  the  coffee  room  and  eaten 
hot    from   the    gridiron;    the   Baltic,    in 



Don  Saltero's  Coffee  House,  Cheyne  Walk 

From  a  steel  engraving  in  the  British  Museum 

Threadneedle  Street,  the  rendezvous  of 
brokers  and  merchants  connected  with  the 
Russian  trade;  the  Bedford,  "under  the 
Piazza,  in  Covent  Garden,"  crowded  every 
night  with  men  of  parts  and  "signalized 
for  many  years  as  the  emporium  of  wit, 
the  seat  of  criticism  and  the  standard  of 
taste";  the  Chapter,  in  Paternoster  Row, 
frequented  by  Chatterton  and  Goldsmith; 
Child's,  in  St.  Paul's  Churchyard,  one  of 
the  Spectator's  houses,  and  much  fre- 
quented by  the  clergy  and  fellows  of  the 
Royal  Society;  Dick's,  in  Fleet  Street, 
frequented  by  Cowper,  and  the  scene  of 
Rousseau's  comedietta,  entitled  The  Coffee 
House;  St.  James's,  in  St.  James's  Street, 
frequented  by  Swift,  Goldsmith,  and  Gar- 
rick;  Jerusalem,  in  Cowper 's  Court,  Corn- 
hill,  frequented  by  merchants  and  captains 
connected  with  the  commerce  of  China, 
India,  and  Australia;  Jonathan's,  in 
'Change  Alley,  described  by  the  Tatler  as 
"the  general  mart  of  stock  jobbers";  the 
London,  in  Ludgate  Hill,  noted  for  its 
publishers'  sales  of  stock  and  copyrights; 

Man's,  in  Scotland  Yard,  which  took  its. 
name  from  the  proprietor,  Alexander  Man, 
and  was  sometimes  known  as  Old  Man's, 
or  the  Royal,  to  distinguish  it  from  Young 
Man's,  Little  Man's,  New  Man's,  etc., 
minor  establishments  in  the  neighborhood  ;'* 
Nando 's,  in  Fleet  Street,  the  favorite 
haunt  of  Lord  Thurlow  and  many  profes- 
sional loungers,  attracted  by  the  fame  of 
the  punch  and  the  charms  of  the  land- 
lady; New  England  and  North  and 
SouTPi  American,  in  Threadneedle  Street, 
having  on  its  subscription  list  representa- 
tives of  Barings,  Rothschilds,  and  other 
wealthy  establishments;  Peele's,  in  Fleet 
Street,  having  a  portrait  of  Dr.  Johnson 
said  to  have  been  painted  by  Sir  Joshua 

19  There  were  six  places,  all  told,  bearing  the  name 
"Man's".  Alexander  Man  was  coffee  maker  to 
William   III. 

'V\\\z  ItiMTisii  Coffee  House 

FN  CbcKSPTjR  Street 

Prom  a  print  published  in  1770 




The  French   Coffee  House  in   London,  Second  Half  of  the  Eighteenth   Century 

From   the  original  water-color  drawing  by  Thomas  Rowlandson 

Reynolds;  the  Percy,  in  Oxford  Street, 
the  inspiration  for  the  Percy  Anecdotes; 
the  Piazza,  in  Covent  Garden,  where 
Macklin  fitted  up  a  large  coffee  room,  or 
theater,  for  oratory,  and  Fielding  and 
Foote  poked  fun  at  him;  the  Rainbow,  in 
Fleet  Street,  the  second  coffee  house  opened 
in  London,  having  its  token  money;  the 
Smyrna,  in  Pall  Mall,  a  "place  to  talk 
politics,"    and    frequented    by    Prior    and 

Swift;  Tom  King's,  one  of  the  old  night 
houses  of  Covent  Garden  Market,  "well 
known  to  all  gentlemen  to  whom  beds  are 
unknown";  the  Turk's  Head,  'Change 
Alley,  which  also  had  its  tokens;  the 
Turk's  Head,  in  the  Strand,  which  was  a 
favorite  supping  house  for  Dr.  Johnson 
and  Boswell;  the  Folly,  a  coffee  house  on 
a  houseboat  on  the  Thames,  which  became 
quite  notorious  during  Queen  Anne's  reign. 



Chapter    XI 



The  introduction  of  coffee  into  Paris  by  Thevenot  in  1657  —  How 
Soliman  Aga  established  the  custom  of  coffee  drinking  at  the  court 
of  Louis  XIV  —  Opening  the  first  coffee  houses  —  How  the  French 
adaptation  of  the  Oriental  coffee  house  first  appeared  in  the  real 
French  cafe  of  Frangois  Procope  —  The  important  part  played  by 
the  coffee  houses  in  the  development  of  French  literature  and  the 
stage  —  Their  association  with  the  Revolution  and  the  founding  of 
the  Republic  —  Quaint  customs  and  patrons  —  Historic  Parisian 

IF  we  are  to  accept  the  authority  of  Jean 
La  Roque,  "before  the  year  1669  coffee 
had  scarcely  been  seen  in  Paris,  except 
at  M.  Thevenot 's  and  at  the  homes  of  some 
of  his  friends.  Nor  had  it  been  heard  of 
except  in  the  writings  of  travelers." 

As  noted  in  chapter  V,  Jean  de  Thevenot 
brought  coffee  into  Paris  in  1657.  One  ac- 
count says  that  a  decoction,  supposed  to 
have  been  coffee,  was  sold  by  a  Levantine 
in  the  Petit  Chatelet  under  the  name  of 
cohove  or  cahoue  during  the  reign  of  Louis 
XIII,  but  this  lacks  confirmation.  Louis 
XIV  is  said  to  have  been  served  with  coffee 
for  the  first  time  in  1664. 

Soon  after  the  arrival,  in  July,  1669,  of 
the  Turkish  ambassador,  Soliman  Aga,  it 
became  noised  abroad  that  he  had  brought 
with  him  for  his  own  use,  and  that  of  his 
retinue,  great  quantities  of  coffee.  He 
"treated  several  persons  with  it,  both  in 
the  court  and  the  city."  At  length  "many 
accustomed  themselves  to  it  with  sugar, 
and  others  who  found  benefit  by  it  could 
not  leave  it  off." 

Within  six  months  all  Paris  was  talking 
of  the  sumptuous  coffee  functions  of  the 
ambassador  from  Mohammed  IV  to  the 
court  of  Louis  XIV. 

Isaac  D  'Israeli  best  describes  them  in  his 
Curiosities  of  Literature: 

On  bended  knee,  the  black  slaves  of  the  Am- 
bassador, arrayed  in  the  most  gorgeous  Orien- 
tal costumes,  served  the  choicest  Mocha  coffee 
in  tiny  cups  of  egg-shell  porcelain,  hot.  strong 
and  fragrant,  poured  out  in  saucers  of  gold  and 
silver,  placed  on  embroidered  silk  doylies  fringed 
with  gold  bullion,  to  the  grand  dames,  who  flut- 
tered their  fans  with  many  grimaces,  bending 
their  piquant  faces — ^be-rouged,  be-powdered 
and  be-patched  —  over  the  new  and  steaming 

It  was  in  1669  or  1672  that  Madame  de 
Sevigne  (Marie  de  Rabutin-Chantal ; 
1626-96),  the  celebrated  French  letter- 
writer,  is  said  to  have  made  that  famous 
prophecy,  "There  are  two  things  French- 
men will  never  swallow  —  coffee  and  Ra- 
cine 's  poetry, ' '  sometimes  abbreviated  into, 
"Racine  and  coffee  will  pass."  "What  Ma- 
dame really  said,  according  to  one  author- 
ity, was  that  Racine  was  writing  for 
Champmesle,  the  actress,  and  not  for  pos- 
terity; again,  of  coffee  she  said,  "s'en 
degoi'derait  comme)  d'un  indigne  favori 
(People  will  become  disgusted  with  it  as 
with  an  unworthy  favorite). 

Larousse  says  the  double  judgment  was 
wrongly  attributed  to  Mme.  de  S6vign6. 
The  celebrated  aphorism,  like  many  others, 
was  forged  later.  Mme.  de  S6vign6  said, 
"Racine  made  his  comedies  for  the  Champ- 
mesle—  not  for  the  ages  to  come."  This 
was  in  1672.    Four  years  later,  she  said  to 




Coffee  Was  First  Sold  and  Served  Publicly  in 

THE  Fair  of  St.-Germain 

From   a   Seventeenth-Century   Print 

her  daughter,  "You  have  done  well  to  quit 
coffee.    Mile,  de  Mere  has  also  given  it  up. " 

However  it  may  have  been,  the  amiable 
letter-writer  was  destined  to  live  to  see 
Frenchmen  yielding  at  once  to  the  lure  of 
coffee  and  to  the  poetical  artifices  of  the 
greatest   dramatic   craftsman    of   his   day. 

While  it  is  recorded  that  coffee  made 
slow  progress  with  the  court  of  Louis  XIV, 
the  next  king,  Louis  XV,  to  please  his 
mistress,  du  Barry,  gave  it  a  tremendous 
vogue.  It  is  related  that  he  spent  $15,000 
a  year  for  coffee  for  his  daughters. 

Meanwhile,  in  1672,  one  Pascal,  an 
Armenian,  first  sold  coffee  publicly  in  Paris. 
Pascal,  who,  according  to  one  account,  was 
brought  to  Paris  by  Soliman  Aga,  offered 
the  beverage  for  sale  from  a  tent,  which 
was  also  a  kind  of  booth,  in  the  fair  of  St.- 
Germain,  supplemented  by  the  service  of 

Turkish  waiter  boys,  who  peddled  it  among 
the  crowds  from  small  cups  on  trays.  The 
fair  was  held  during  the  first  two  months 
of  spring,  in  a  large  open  plot  Just  inside 
the  walls  of  Paris  and  near  the  Latin 
Quarter.  As  Pascal's  waiter  boys  circu- 
lated through  the  crowds  on  those  chilly 
days  the  fragrant  odor  of  freshly  made 
coffee  brought  many  ready  sales  of  the 
steaming  beverage;  and  soon  visitors  to 
the  fair  learned  to  look  for  the  "little 
black"  cupful  of  cheer,  or  petit  noir,  a 
name  that  still  endures. 

When  the  fair  closed,  Pascal  opened  a 
small  coffee  shop  on  the  Quai  de  I'ficole, 
near  the  Pont  Neuf;  but  his  frequenters 
were  of  a  type  who  preferred  the  beers  and 
wines  of  the  day,  and  coffee  languished. 
Pascal  continued,  however,  to  send  his 
waiter  boys  with  their  large  'coffee  jugs, 
that  were  heated  by  lamps,  through  the 
streets  of  Paris  and  from  door  to  door. 
Their  cheery  cry  of  "cafe!  cafe!'^  became 
a  welcome  call  to  many  a  Parisian,  who 
later  missed  his  petit  noir  w^hen  Pascal  gave 
up  and  moved  on  to  London,  where  coffee 
drinking  was  then  in  high  favor. 

Lacking  favor  at  court,  coffee's  progress 
was  slow.  The  French  smart  set  clung  to 
its  light  wines  and  beers.    In  1672,  Maliban, 

Street  Coffee  Vender  of  Paris  ■ —  Period,  1GT2 

TO  1689  —  Two  Sous  per  Dish,  Sugar 




mother  Armenian,  opened  a  coffee  house  in 
|he  rue  Bussy,  next  to  the  Metz  tennis  court 
lear  St.-Germain's  abbey.  He  supplied 
)bacco  also  to  his  customers.  Later  he 
rent  to  Holland,  leaving  his  servant  and 
>artner,  Gregory,  a  Persian,  in  charge, 
rregory  moved  to  the  rue  Mazarine,  to  be 
lear  the  Comedie  Franqaise.  He  was  suc- 
^eded  in  the  business  by  Makara,  another 
*ersian,  who  later  returned  to  Ispahan, 
Saving  the  coffee  house  to  one  Le  Gantois, 

About  this  period  there  was  a  cripple 

^oy  from  Candia,  known  as  le  Candiot,  who 

^egan  to  cry  "coffee!"  in  the  streets  of 

*aris.     He  carried  with  him  a  coffee  pot 

|if  generous  size,  a  chafing-dish,  cups,  and 

11  other  implements  necessary  to  his  trade. 

le  sold  his  coffee  from  door  to  door  at  two 

)us  per  dish,  sugar  included. 

A    Levantine    named    Joseph    also    sold 

)ffee  in  the  streets,  and  later  had  several 

)ffee  shops  of  his  own.      Stephen,   from 

^\leppo,  next  opened  a  coffee  house  on  Pont 

lu    Change,    moving,    when    his    business 

.Many  ok  the  Early  Parisian  Coffee  Houses 

Followed   Pascal's    Lead   and   Abfected 

Armenian  Decohations 

From  a  Seventeenth-Century  Print 

A  Corner  of  the  Historic  CafS  de  Procope 

Showing  Voltaire  and  Diderot  in  Debate 

From   a   rare   water   color 

prospered,  to  more  pretentious  quarters  in 
the  rue  St.-Andre,  facing  St. -Michael's 

All  these,  and  others,  were  essentially  the 
Oriental  style  of  coffee  house  of  the  lower 
order,  and  they  appealed  principally  to  the 
poorer  classes  and  to  foreigners.  "Gentle- 
men and  people  of  fashion"  did  not  care 
to  be  seen  in  this  type  of  public  house. 
But  when  the  French  merchants  began  to 
set  up,  first  at  St.-Germain's  fair,  "spa- 
cious apartments  in  an  elegant  manner, 
ornamented  with  tapestries,  large  mirrors, 
pictures,  marble  tables,  branches  for 
candles,  magnificent  lustres,  and  serving 
coffee,  tea,  chocolate,  and  other  refresh- 
ments", they  were  soon  crowded  with  peo- 
ple of  fashion  and  men  of  letters. 

In  this  way  coffee  drinking  in  public 
acquired  a  badge  of  respectability.  Pres- 
ently there  were  some  three  hundred  coffee 
houses  in  Paris.  The  principal  coffee  men, 
in  addition  to  plying  their  trade  in  the  city, 
maintained  coffee  rooms  in  St.-Germain's 
and  St. -Laurence's  fairs.  These  were  fre- 
quented by  women  as  well  as  men. 



The  Progenitor  of  the  Real  Parisian  Cafe 

It  was  not  until  1689,  that  there  appeared 
in  Paris  a  real  French  adaptation  of  the 
Oriental  coffee  house.  This  was  the  Cafe 
de  Procope,  opened  by  Frangois  Procope 
(Procopio  Cultelli,  or  Cotelli)  who  came 
from  Florence  or  Palermo.  Procope  was  a 
limonadier  (lemonade  vender)  who  had  a 
royal  license  to  sell  spices,  ices,  barley 
water,  lemonade,  and  other  such  refresh- 
ments. He  early  added  coffee  to  the  list, 
and  attracted  a  large  and  distinguished 

Procope,  a  keen-witted  merchant,  made 
his  appeal  to  a  higher  class  of  patrons  than 
did  Pascal  and  those  who  first  followed  him. 
He  established  his  caf6  directly  opposite 
the  newly  opened  Com6die  Frangaise,  in 
the  street  then  known  as  the  rue  des 
Fosses-St.-Germain,  but  now  the  rue  de 
I'Ancienne  Comedie.  A  writer  of  the  period 
has  left  this  description  of  the  place :  ' '  The 
Cafe  de  Procope  .  .  .  was  also  called 
the.Antre  [cavern]  de  Procope,  because  it 
was  very  dark  even  in  full  day,  and 
ill-lighted  in  the  evenings ;  and  because  you 
often  saw  there  a  set  of  lank,  sallow  poets, 
who  had  somewhat  the  air  of  apparitions. ' ' 

Because  of  its  location,  the  Cafe  de 
Procope  became  the  gathering  place  of 
many  noted  French  actors,  authors,  dram- 
atists, and  musicians  of  the  eighteenth 
century.  It  was  a  veritable  literary  salon. 
Voltaire  was  a  constant  patron;  and  until 
the  close  of  the  historic  cafe,  after  an  exist- 
ence of  more  than  two  centuries,  his  marble 
table  and  chair  were  among  the  precious 
relics  of  the  coffee  house.  His  favorite 
drink  is  said  to  have  been  a  mixture  of 
coffee  and  chocolate.  Eousseau,  author  and 
philosopher;  Beaumarchais,  dramatist  and 
financier;  Diderot,  the  encyclopedist;  Ste.- 
Foix,  the  abbe  of  Voisenon;  de  Belloy, 
author  of  the  Siege  of  Callais;  licmierre, 
author  of  Artaxerce;  Crebillon;  Piron;  La 
Chaussee;  Fontenelle;  Condorcet;  and  a 
host  of  lesser  lights  in  the  French  arts,  were 
habitues  of  Francois  Procope 's  modest 
coffee  saloon  near  the  Comedie  Frangaise. 

Naturally,  the  name  of  Benjamin  Frank- 
lin, recognized  in  Europe  as  one  of  the 
world's  foremost  thinkers  in  the  days  of  the 
American  Revolution,  was  often  spoken  over 
the  coffee  cups  of  Cafe  de  Procope;  and 
when  the  distinguished  American  died  in 
1790,  this  French  coffee  house  went  into 
deep  mourning  "for  the  great  friend  of 

republicanism."  The  walls,  inside  and  out, 
were  swathed  in  black  bunting,  and  the 
statesmanship  and  scientific  attainments  of 
Franklin  were  acclaimed  by  all  frequenters. 

The  Caf6  de  Procope  looms  large  in  the 
annals  of  the  French  Revolution.  During 
the  turbulent  days  of  1789  one  could  find 
at  the  tables,  drinking  coffee  or  stronger 
beverages,  and  engaged  in  debate  over  the 
burning  questions  of  the  hour,  such  char- 
acters as  Marat,  Robespierre,  Danton, 
Hebert,  and  Desmoulins.  Napoleon  Bona- 
parte, then  a  poor  artillery  officer  seeking 
a  commission,  was  also  there.  He  busied 
himself  largely  in  playing  chess,  a  favorite 
recreation  of  the  early  Parisian  coffee- 
house patrons.  It  is  related  that  Franqois 
Procope  once  compelled  young  Bonaparte 
to  leave  his  hat  for  security  while  he  sought 
money  to  pay  his  coffee  score. 

After  the  Revolution,  the  Cafe  de  Pro- 
cope lost  its  literary  prestige  and  sank  to 
the  level  of  an  ordinary  restaurant.  During 
the  last  half  of  the  nineteenth  century, 
Paul  Verlaine,  bohemian,  poet,  and  leader 
of  the  symbolists,  made  the  Cafe  de  Procope 
his  haunt ;  and  for  a  time  it  regained  some 
of  its  lost  popularity.  The  Restaurant  Pro- 
cope still  survives  at  13  rue  de  I'Ancienne 

History  records  that,  with  the  opening  of 
the  Caf^  de  Procope,  coffee  became  firmly 
established  in  Paris.  In  the  reign  of  Louis 
XV  there  were  600  cafes  in  Paris.  At  the 
close  of  the  eighteenth  century  there  were 
more  than  800.  By  1843  the  number  had 
increased  to  more  than  3000. 

The  Development  of  the  Cafes 

Coffee's  vogue  spread  rapidly,  and  many 
cabarets  and  famous  eating  houses  began 
to  add  it  to  their  menus.  Among  these 
was  the  Tour  d'Argent  (silver  tower), 
which  had  been  opened  on  the  Qua!  de  la 
Tournelle  in  1582,  and  speedily  became 
Paris 's  most  fashionable  restaurant.  It 
still  is  one  of  the  chief  attractions  for  the 
epicure,  retaining  the  reputation  for  its 
cooking  that  drew  a  host  of  world  leaders, 
from  Napoleon  to  Edward  VII,  to  its  quaint 

Another  tavern  that  took  up  coffee  after 
Procope,  was  the  Royal  Drummer,  which 
Jean  Ramponaux  established  at  the  Cour- 
tille  des  Porcherons  and  which  followed 
Magny's.  His  hostelry  rightly  belongs  to- 
the   tavern    class,    although    coffee    had    sli 




From  an  engraving  by  Bosredon 



The    Cashier's    Counter    in    a    Paris    Coffee 

House  of  1782 

From  a   drawing,'  by   Retif  tie  la  Bretonne 

prominent  place  on  its  menu.  It  became 
notorious  for  excesses  and  low-class  vices 
during  the  reign  of  Louis  XV,  who  was  a 
frequent  visitor.  Low  and  high  were  to  be 
found  in  Ramponaux's  cellar,  particularly 
when  some  especially  wild  revelry  was  in 
prospect.  Marie  Antoinette  once  declared 
«he  had  her  most  enjoyable  time  at  a  wild 
farandole  in  the  Royal  Drummer.  Ram- 
ponaux  was  taken  to  its  heart  by  fashion- 
able Paris;  and  his  name  was  used  as  a 
trade  mark  on  furniture,  clothes,  and  foods. 
The  popularity  of  Ramponaux's  Royal 
Drummer  is  attested  by  an  inscription  on 
an  early  print  showing  the  interior  of  the 
cafe.     Translated,  it  reads : 

The  pleasures  of  ease  untroubled  to  taste, 

The  leisure  of  home  to  enjoy  without  haste, 
Perhaps 'a  few  hours  at  Magny's  to  waste, 

Ah,  that  was  the  old-fashioned  way ! 
Today  all  our  laborers,  everyone  knows. 

Go   running  away   ere   the   working   hours 
And   why?     Tliey   must  be   at  Monsieur   Ram- 
ponaux' ! 

Behold,  the  new  style  of  cafe! 

When  coffee  houses  began  to  crop  up 
rapidly  in  Paris,  the  majority  centered  in 
the  Palais  Royal,  "that  garden  spot  of 
beauty,  enclosed  on  three  sides  by  three 
tiers  of  galleries,"  which  Richelieu  had 
erected  in  1636,  under  the  name  of  Palais 
Cardinal,  in  the  reign  of  Louis  XIII.  It 
became  known  as  the  Palais  Royal  in  1643 ; 
and  soon  after  the  opening  of  the  Cafe  de 
Procope,  it  began  to  blossom  out  with  many 
attractive  coffee  stalls,  or  rooms,  sprinkled 
among  the  other  shops  that  occupied  the 
galleries  overlooking  the  gardens. 

Life  In  The  Early  Coffee  Houses 

Diderot  tells  in  1760,  in  his  Bameau's 
Nephew,  of  the  life  and  frequenters  of  one 
of  the  Palais  Royal  coffee  houses,  the 
Regency  {Cafe  de  la  Regence)  : 

In  all  weathers,  wet  or  fine,  it  is  my  practice 
to  go  toward  live  o'clock  in  the  evening  to  take 
a  turn  in  the  Palais  Roj^al.  ...  If  the  weather 
is  too  cold  or  too  wet  I  take  shelter  in  the 
Regency  coffee  house.  There  I  amuse  myself 
by  looking  on  while  they  play  chess.  No  where 
in  the  world  do  they  play  chess  as  skillfully  as 
in  Paris  and  nowhere  in  Paris  as  they  do  a' 
tliis  coffee  house ;  'tis  here  you  see  Legal  the 
profound,  Philidor  the  subtle.  Mayot  the  solid  ; 
here  you  see  the  most  astounding  moves,  and 
listen  to  the  sorriest  talk,  for  if  a  man  be  at 
once  a  wit  and  a  great  chess  player,  like  L'5gal, 
he  may  also  be  a  great  chess  player  and  a  sad 
simpleton,  like  Joubert  and  Mayot. 

The  beginnings  of  the  Regency  coffee 
house  are  associated  with  the  legend  that 
Lefevre,  a  Parisian,  began  peddling  coft'ee 
in  the  streets  of  Paris  about  the  time  Pro- 
cope  opened  his  cafe  in  1689.  The  story 
has  it  that  Lefevre  later  opened  a  cafe  near 
the  Palais  Royal,  selling  it  in  1718  to  one 
Leclerc,  who  named  it  the  Cafe  de  la 
Regence,  in  honor  of  the  regent  of  Orleans, 
a  name  that  still  endures  on  a  broad  sign 
over  its  doors.  The  nobility  had  their 
rendezvous  there  after  having  paid  their 
court  to  the  regent. 

To  name  the  patrons  of  the  Cafe  de  la 
Regence  in  its  long  career  would  be  to 
outline  a  history  of  French  literature  for 
more  than  two  centuries.  There  was  Phili- 
dor the  "greatest  theoretician  of  the  eigh- 
teenth century,  better  known  for  his  chess 
than  his  music ' ' ;  Robespierre,  of  the  Revo- 
lution, who  once  played  chess  with  a  girl  — 
disguised  as  a  boy  —  for  the  life  of  her 
lover;  Napoleon,  who  was  then  noted  more 
for  his  chess  than  his  empire-building  pro- 
pensities; and  Gambetta,  whose  loud  voice, 
generally  raised  in  debate,  disturbed  one, 




From  an  engraving  by  Bosredon 



chess  player  so  much  that  he  protested 
because  he  could  not  follow  his  game. 
Voltaire,  Alfred  de  Musset,  Victor  Hugo, 
Th6ophile  Gautier,  J.  J.  Rousseau,  the 
Duke  of  Richelieu,  Marshall  Saxe,  Buffon, 
Rivarol,  Fontenelle,  Franklin,  and  Henry 
Murger  are  names  still  associated  with 
memories  of  this  historic  cafe.  Marmontel 
and  Philidor  played  there  at  their  favorite 
game  of  chess.  Diderot  tells  in  his  Memoirs 
that  his  wife  gave  him  every  day  nine  sous 
to  get  his  coffee  there.  It  was  in  this 
establishment  that  he  worked  on  his  Encyc- 

Chess  is  today  still  in  favor  at  the 
Regenee,  although  the  players  are  not,  as 
were  the  earlier  patrons,  obliged  to  pay  by 
the  hour  for  their  tables  with  extra  charges 
for  candles  placed  by  the  chess-boards. 
The  present  Cafe  de  la  Regenee  is  in  the 
rue  St.-Honore,  but  retains  in  large  meas- 
ure its  aspect  of  olden  days. 

Michelet,  the  historian,  has  given  us  a 
rhapsodic  pen  picture  of  the  Parisian  cafes 
under  the  regency : 

Paris  became  one  vast  cafe.  Conversation  in 
France  was  at  its  zenitli.  Tliere  were  less 
eloquence  and  rhetoric  than  in  '89.  With  the 
exception  of  Rousseau,  there  was  no  orator  to 
cite.  The  intangible  flow  of  wit  was  as  spon- 
taneous as  possible.  For  this  sparkling  out- 
burst there  is  no  doubt  that  honor  should  be 
ascribed  in  part  to  the  auspicious  revolution 
of  the  times,  to  the  great  event  which  created 
new  customs,  and  even  modified  human  tempera- 
ment —  the  advent   of  coffee. 

Its  effect  was  immeasurable,  not  being  weak- 
ened and  neutralized  as  it  is  today  by  the 
brutalizing  influence  of  tobacco.  They  took 
snuff,  but  did  not  smoke.  Tlie  cabaret  was  de- 
throned, the  ignoble  cabaret,  where,  during  the 
reign  of  Louis  XIV.  the  youth  of  the  city  rioted 
amid  wine-casks  in  the  company  of  light  women. 
The  night  was  less  thronged  with  chariots. 
Fewer  lords  found  a  resting  place  in  the  gutter. 
The  elegant  shop,  where  conversation  flowed,  a 
salon  rather  than  a  shop,  changed  and  ennobled 
its  customs.  The  reign  of  coffee  is  that  of  tem- 
perance. Coffee,  the  beverage  of  sobriety,  a  pow- 
erful mental  stimulant,  which,  unlike  spirituous 
liquors,  increases  clearness  and  lucidity ;  coffee, 
which  suppresses  the  vague,  heavy  fantasies  of 
the  imagination,  which  from  the  perception  of 
reality  brings  forth  the  sparkle  and  sunlight  of 
truth ;   coffee  anti-erotic.  .  .  . 

The  three  ages  of  coffee  are  those  of  modern 
thought;  they  mark  the  serious  moments  of 
the  brilliant  epoch  of  the  soul. 

Arabian  coffee  is  the  pioneer,  even  before  1700. 
The  beautiful  ladies  that  you  see  in  the  fash- 
ionable rooms  of  Bonnard.  sipping  from  their 
tiny  cups  —  they  are  enjoying  the  aroma  of 
the  finest  coffee  of  Arabia.  And  of  what  are 
they  chatting?  Of  the  seraglio,  of  Chardin,  of 
the  Sultana's  coiffure,  of  the  Thousand  and  One 

Nights  (1704).  They  compare  the  ennui  of 
Versailles  with  the  paradise  of  the  Orient. 

Very  soon,  in  1710  -  1720.  commences  the  reign 
of  Indian  coffee,  abundant,  popular,  compara- 
tively cheap.  Bourbon,  our  Indian  island,  where 
coffee  was  transplanted,  suddenly  realizes  un- 
heard-of happiness.  This  coffee  of  volcanic 
lands  acts  as  an  explosive  on  the  Regency  and 
the  new  spirit  of  things.  This  sudden  cheer, 
this  laughter  of  the  old  world,  these  overwhelm- 
ing flashes  of  wit,  of  which  the  sparkling  verse 
of  Voltaire,  the  Persian  Letters,  give  us  a  faint 
idea !  Even  the  most  brilliant  books  have  not 
succeeded  in  catching  on  the  wing  this  airy 
chatter,  which  comes,  goes,  flies  elusively.  This 
is  that  spirit  of  ethereal  nature  which,  in  the 
Thousand  and  One  Nights,  the  enchanter  con- 
fined in  his  bottle.  But  what  phial  would  have 
withstood  that  pressure? 

The  lava  of  Bourbon,  like  the  Arabian  sand, 
was  unequal  to  the  demand.  The  Regent  rec- 
ognized this  and  had  coffee  transported  to  the 
fertile  soil  of  our  Antilles.  T"lie  strong  coffee 
of  Santo  Domingo,  full,  coarse,  nourishing  as 
well  as  stimulating,  sustained  the  adult  popu- 
lation of  that  period,  the  strong  age  of  the  en- 
cyclopedia. It  was  drunk  by  Buffon,  Diderot, 
Rousseau,  added  its  glow  to  glowing  souls,  its 
light  to  the  penetrating  vision  of  the  prophets 
gathered  in  the  cave  of  Procope.  who  saw  at 
the  bottom  of  the  black  beverage  the  future  rays 
of  '89.  Danton,  the  terrible  Danton.  took  sev- 
eral cups  of  coffee  before  mounting  the  tribune. 
'The  horse  must  have  its  oats,'  he  said. 

The  vogue  of  coffee  popularized  the  use 
of  sugar,  which  was  then  bought  by  the 
ounce  at  the  apothecary's  shop.  Dufour 
says  that  in  Paris  they  used  to  put  so  much 
sugar  in  the  coffee  that  "it  was  nothing 
but  a  syrup  of  blackened  water."  The 
ladies  were  wont  to  have  their  carriages 
stop  in  front  of  the  Paris  cafes  and  to  have 
their  coffee  served  to  them  by  the  porter 
on  saucers  of  silver. 

Every  year  saw  new  cafes  opened.  When 
they  became  so  numerous,  and  competition 
grew  so  keen,  it  was  necessary  to  invent 
new  attractions  for  customers.  Then  was. 
born  the  cafe  chantant,  where  songs,  mono- 
logues, dances,  little  plays  and  farces  (not 
always  in  the  best  taste),  were  provided  to 
amuse  the  frequenters.  Many  of  these 
cafes  chantants  were  in  the  open  air  along 
the  Champs-Elysees.  In  bad  weather,  Paris 
provided  the  pleasure-seeker  with  the 
Eldorado,  Alcazar  d'Hiver,  Scala,  Gaiete, 
Concert  du  XIX^^  Si^cle,  Folies  Bobino, 
Rambuteau,  Concert  Europeen,  and  count- 
less other  meeting  places  where  one  could 
be  served  with  a  cup  of  coffee. 

As  in  London,  certain  cafes  were  noted 
for  particular  followings,  like  the  military, 
students,    artists,    merchants.      The    politi 



From  an  engraving  by  Bosredon 



eians    had    their    favorite    resorts.     Says 
Salvandy : 

These  were  senates  in  miniature ;  here  miglity 
political  questions  were  discussed ;  here  peace 
and  war  were  decided  upon ;  here  generals  were 
brought  to  the  bar  of  justice  .  .  .distinguished 
orators  were  victoriously  refuted,  ministers 
heckled  upon  their  ignorance,  their  incapacity, 
their  perfidy,  their  corruption.  The  cafe  is  in 
reality  a  French  institution ;  in  them  we  find 
all  these  agitations  and  movements  of  men,  the 
like  of  which  is  unknown  in  the  English  tavern. 
No  government  can  go  against  the  sentiment  of 
the  caf6s.  The  Revolution  took  place  because 
they  were  for  the  Revolution.  Napoleon  reigned 
because  they  were  for  glory.  Tlae  Restoration 
was  shattered,  because  they  understood  the 
Charter  in  a  different  manner. 

In  1700  appeared  the  Portefeuille  Galant, 
containing  conversations  of  the  caf6s. 

The  Cafes  in  the  French  Revolution 

The  Palais  Royal  coffee  houses  were 
centers  of  activity  in  the  days  preceding 
and  following  the  Revolution.  A  picture 
of  them  in  the  July  days  of  1789  has  been 
left  by  Arthur  Young,  who  was  visiting 
Paris  at  that  time : 

The  coffee  houses  present  yet  more  singular 
and  astounding  spectacles;  they  are  not  only 
crowded  within,  but  other  expectant  crowds  are 
at  the  doors  and  windows,  listening  d  gorge 
d4plogec  to  certain  orators  who  from  chairs  or 
tables  harangue  each  his  little  audience;  the 
eagerness  with  which  they  are  heard,  and  the 
thunder  of  applause  they  receive  for  every 
sentiment  of  more  than  common  hardiness  or 
violence  against  the  government,  cannot  easily 
be  imagined. 

The  Palais  Royal  teemed  with  excited 
Frenchmen  on  the  fateful  Sunday  of  July 
12,  1789.  The  moment  was  a  tense  one, 
when,  coming  out  of  the  Cafe  Foy,  Camille 
Desmoulins,  a  youthful  journalist,  mounted 
a  table  and  began  the  harangue  that  pre- 
cipitated the  first  overt  act  of  the  French 
Revolution.  Blazing  with  a  white  hot 
frenzy,  he  so  played  upon  the  passions  of 
the  mob  that  at  the  conclusion  of  his  speech 
he  and  his  followers  "marched  away  from 
the  Cafe  on  their  errand  of  Revolution." 
The  Bastille  fell  two  days  later. 

As  if  abashed  by  its  reputation  as  the 
starting  point  of  the  mob  spirit  of  the 
Revolution,  Cafe  Foy  became  in  after  years 
a  sedate  gathering-place  of  artists  and 
literati.  Up  to  its  close  it  was  distinguished 
among  other  famous  Parisian  cafes  for  its 
exclusiveness  and  strictly  enforced  rule  of 
"no  smoking." 

1  Salvandy,  Naroissp-Achille.  Influence  des  Caf48 
sur  lea  Moeurs  PoUtiqtiea. 

Even  from  the  first  the  Parisian  cafes 
catered  to  all  classes  of  society ;  and,  unlike 
the  London  coffee  houses,  they  retained  this 
distinctive  characteristic.  A  number  of 
them  early  added  other  liquid  and  substan- 
tial refreshments,  many  becoming  out-and- 
out  restaurants. 

Coffee-House  Customs  and  Patrons 

Coffee's  effect  on  Parisians  is  thus 
decribed  by  a  writer  of  the  latter  part  of 
the  eighteenth  century: 

I  think  I  may  safely  assert  that  it  is  to  tlie 
establishment  of  so  many  cafes  in  Paris  that  is 
due  the  urbanity  and  mildness  discernible  upon 
most  faces.  Before  they  existed,  nearly  every- 
body passed  his  time  at  the  cabaret,  where  even 
business  matters  were  discussed.  Since  their 
establishment,  people  assemble  to  hear  what  is 
going  on,  drinking  and  playing  only  in  modera- 
tion, and  the  consequence  is  that  they  are  more 
civil  and  polite,  at  least  in  appearance. 

Montesquieu's  satirical  pen  pictured  in 
his  Persian  Letters  the  earliest  cafes  as 
follows : 

In  some  of  these  liouses  they  talk  news ;  in 
others,  they  play  draughts.  There  is  one  where 
they  prepare  the  coffee  in  such  a  manner  that 
it  inspires  the  drinkers  of  it  with  wit ;  at  least, 
of  all  those  who  frequent  it,  there  is  not  one 
person  in  four  who  does  not  think  he  has  more 
wit  after  he  has  entered  that  house.  But  what 
offends  me  in  these  wits  is  that  they  do  not 
make  themselves  useful  to  their  country. 

Montesquieu  encountered  a  geometrician 
outside  a  coffee  house  on  the  Pont  Neuf, 
and  accompanied  him  inside.  He  describes 
the  incident  in  this  manner: 

I  observe  that  our  geometrician  was  received 
there  with  the  utmost  ofRciousness,  and  that  the 
coffee  house  boys  paid  him  much  more  respect 
than  two  musqueteers  who  were  in  a  corner  of 
the  room.  As  for  him,  he  seemed  as  if  he 
thought  himself  in  an  agreeable  place ;  for  he 
unwrinkled  his  brows  a  little  and  laughed,  as  if 
he  had  not  the  least  tincture  of  geometrician  in 
him.  .  .  .  He  was  offended  at  every  start  of  wit, 
as  a  tender  eye  is  by  too  strong  a  light.  ...  At 
last  I  saw  an  old  man  enter,  pale  and  thin, 
whom  I  knew  to  be  a  coffee  house  politician 
before  he  sat  down ;  he  was  not  one  of  those 
who  are  never  to  be  intimidated  by  disasters, 
but  always  prophesy  of  victories  and  success; 
he  was  one  of  those  timorous  wretches  who  are 
always  boding  ill. 

Cafe  Momus  and  Caf6  Rotonde  figure 
conspicuously  in  the  record  of  French 
bohemianism.  The  Momus  stood  near  the 
right  bank  of  the  River  Seine  in  rue  des 
Pretres  St.-Germain,  and  was  known  as  the 
home  of  the  bohemians.  The  Rotonde  stood 
on  the  left  bank  at  the  corner  of  the  rue  de 



THE  CAFfi  DE  PARIS  IN  1843 

From  an  engraving  by  Bosredon 



rficole  de  Medecine  and  the  rue  Haute- 

Alexandre  Schanne  has  given  us  a 
glimpse  of  bohemian  life  in  the  early  cafes. 
He  lays  his  scene  in  the  Cafe  ]Rotonde,  and 
tells  how  a  number  of  poor  students  were 
wont  to  make  one  cup  of  coffee  last  the 
coterie  a  full  evening  by  using  it  to  flavor 
and  to  color  the  one  glass  of  water  shared 
in  common.    He  says : 

Every  evening,  the  first  comer  at  the  waiter's 
inquiry,  "What  will  you  talie,  sir?"  never  failed 
to  reply,  "Nothing  just  at  present,  I  am  waiting 
for  a  friend."  The  friend  arrived,  to  be  assailed 
by  the  brutal  question,  "Have  you  any  money?" 
He  would  make  a  despairing  gesture  in  the  nega- 
tive, and  then  add,  loud  enough  to  be  heard  by 
the  dame  clu  comptoir,  "By  Jove,  no ;  only  fancy, 
I  left  my  purse  on  my  console-table,  with  gilt 
feet,  in  the  purest  Louis  XV  style.  Ah !  what  a 
thing  it  is  to  be  forgetful."  He  would  sit  down, 
and  the  waiter  would  wipe  the  table  as  if  he 
had  something  to  do.  A  third  would  come,  who 
was  sometimes  able  to  reply,  "Yes,  I  have  ten 
sous."  "Good !"  we  would  reply ;  "order  a  cup 
of  coffee,  a  glass  and  a  water  bottle ;  pay  and 
give  two  sous  to  the  waiter  to  secure  his 
silence."  Tliis  would  be  done.  Others  would 
come  and  take  their  places  beside  us,  repeating 
to  the  waiter  the  same  chorus,  "We  are  with 
this  gentleman."  Frequently  we  would  be  eight 
or  nine  sitting  at  the  same  table,  and  only  one 
customer.  Whilst  smoking  and  reading  the 
papers  we  would,  however,  pass  the  glass  and 
bottle.  When  the  water  began  to  run  short,  as 
on  a  ship  in  distress,  one  of  us  would  have  the 
impudence  to  call  out,  "Waiter,  some  water !" 
The  master  of  the  establishment,  who  understood 
our  situation,  had  no  doubt  given  orders  for  us 
to  be  left  alone,  and  made  his  fortune  without 
our  help.  He  was  a  good  fellow  and  an  intel- 
ligent one,  having  subscribed  to  all  the  scientific 
journals  of  Europe,  which  brought  him  the  cus- 
tom of  foreign  students. 

Another  cafe  perpetuating  the  best  tradi- 
tions of  the  Latin  Quarter  was  the  Vaehette, 
which  survived  until  the  death  of  Jean 
Moreas  in  1911.  The  Vaehette  is  usually 
cited  by  antiquarians  as  a  model  of  circum- 
spection as  compared  with  the  scores  of 
cafes  in  the  Quarter  that  were  given  up  to 
debaucheries.  One  writer  puts  it:  "The 
Vaehette  traditions  leaned  more  to  scholar- 
ship than  sensuality." 

In  the  late  seventeenth  and  early  eigh- 
teenth centuries  the  Parisian  cafe  was  truly 
a  coffee  house ;  but  as  many  of  the  patrons 
began  to  while  away  most  of  their  waking 
hours  in  them,  the  proprietors  added  other 
beverages  and  food  to  hold  their  patron- 
age. Consequently,  we  find  listed  among 
the  cafes  of  Paris  some  houses  that  are 
more  accurately  described  as  restaurants, 

although    they    may    have    started    their 
careers  as  coffee  houses. 

Historic  Parisian  Cafes 

Some  of  the  historic  cafes  are  still  thriv- 
ing in  their  original  locations,  although  the 
majority  have  now  passed  into  oblivion. 
Glimpses  of  the  more  famous  houses  are  to 
be  found  in  the  novels,  poetry,  an'd  essays 
written  by  the  French  literati  who  patron- 
ized them.  These  first-hand  accounts  give 
insights  that  are  sometimes  stirring,  often 
amusing,  and  frequently  revolting  —  such 
as  the  assassination  of  St.-Fargeau  in 
Fevrier's  low- vaulted  cellar  cafe  in  the 
Palais  Royal. 

There  is  Magny  's,  originally  the  haunt  of 
such  literary  men  as  Gautier,  Taine,  Saint- 
Victor,  Turguenieff,  de  Goncourt,  Soulie, 
Renan,  Edmond.  In  recent  years  the  old 
Magny 's  was  razed,  and  on  its  site  was  built 
the  modem  restaurant  of  the  same  name, 
but  in  a  style  that  has  no  resemblance  to  its 
predecessor.  Even  the  name  of  the  street 
has  been  changed,  from  rue  Contrescarpe  to 
the  rue  Mazet. 

Meot's,  the  Very,  Beauvilliers',  Mass^'s, 
the  Cafe  Chartres,  the  Troi  Freres  Proven- 
qaux,  and  the  du  Grand  Commun,  all  situ- 
ated in  the  Palais  Royal,  are  cafes  that 
figured  conspicuously  in  the  French  Revolu- 
tion, and  are  closely  identified  with  the 
French  stage  and  literature.  Meot's  and 
Masse 's  were  the  trysting  places  of  the 
Royalists  in  the  days  preceding  the  out- 
break, but  welcomed  the  Revolutionists 
after  they  came  in  power.  The  Chartres 
was  notorious  as  the  gathering  place  of 
young  aristocrats  who  escaped  the  guillo- 
tine, and,  thus  made  bold,  often  called  their 
like  from  adjoining  caf6s  to  partake  in  some 
of  their  plans  for  restoration  of  the  empire. 
The  Trois  Freres  Provengaux,  well  known 
for  its  excellent  and  costl/  dinners,  is  men- 
tioned by  Balzac,  Lord  Lytton,  and  Alfred 
de  Musset  in  some  of  their  novels.  The 
Cafe  du  Grand  Commun  appears  in 
Rousseau's  Confessions  in  connection  with 
the  play  Devin  du  Village. 

Among  the  most  famous  of  the  cafes  on 
the  Rue  St.  Honore  were  Venua's,  patron- 
ized by  Robespierre  and  his  companions  of 
the  Revolution,  and  perhaps  the  scene  of 
the  inhuman  murder  of  Berthier  and  its 
revolting  aftermath ;  the  Mapinot,  which  has 
gone  down  in  cafe  history  as  the  scene  of 
the  banquet  to  Archibald  Alison,  the  22- 



Interior  of  a  Typical  Parisian  CAFfi  of  the  Early  Nineteenth  Century 

year-old  historian;  and  Voisin's  cafe, 
around  which  still  cling  traditions  of  such 
literary  lights  as  Zola,  Alphonse  Daudet, 
and  Jules  de  Goncourt. 

Perhaps  the  boulevard  des  Italiens  had, 
and  still  has,  more  fashionable  cafes  than 
any  other  section  of  the  French  capital. 
The  Tortoni,  opened  in  the  early  days  of 
the  Empire  by  Velloni,  an  Italian  lemonade 
vender,  was  the  most  popular  of  the  boule- 
vard caf^s,  and  was  generally  thronged 
with  fashionables  from  all  parts  of  Europe. 
Here  Louis  Blanc,  historian  of  the  Revolu- 
tion, spent  many  hours  in  the  early  days  of 
his  fame.  Talleyrand ;  Rossini,  the  musi- 
cian ;  Alfred  Stevens  and  Edouard  Manet, 
artists,  are  some  of  the  names  still  linked 
with  the  traditions  of  the  Tortoni.  Farther 
down  the  boulevard  were  the  Cafe  Riche, 
Maison  Doree,  Cafe  Anglais,  and  the  Cafe 
de  Paris.  The  Riche  and  the  Doree,  stand- 
ing side  by  side,  were  both  high-priced  and 
noted  for  their  revelries.  The  Anglais, 
which  came  into  existence  after  the  snuffing 
out  of  the  Empire,  was  also  distinguished 
for  its  high  prices,  but  in  return  gave  an 
excellent  dinner  and  fine  wines.  It  is  told 
that  even  during  the  siege  of  Paris  the 
Anglais  offered  its  patrons  "such  luxuries 
as  ass,  mule,  peas,  fried  potatoes,  and  cham- 

Probably  the  Cafe  de  Paris,  which  came 
into  existence  in  1822,  in  the  former  home 
of  the  Russian  Prince  Demidoff,  was  the 
most  richly  equipped  and  elegantly  con- 
ducted of  any  cafe  in  Paris  in  the  nine- 
teenth century,  Alfred  de  Musset,  a  fre- 
quenter, said,  ' '  you  could  not  open  its  doors 
for  less  than  15  francs." 

The  Cafe  Litteraire,  opened  on  boulevard 
Bonne  Nouvelle  late  in  the  nineteenth 
century,  made  a  direct  appeal  to  literary 
men  for  patronage,  printing  this  footnote 
on  its  menu :  ' '  Every  customer  spending  a 
franc  in  this  establishment  is  entitled  to 
one  volume  of  any  work  to  be  selected  from 
our  vast  collection. ' ' 

The  names  of  Parisian  cafes  once  more  or 
less  famous  are  legion.    Some  of  them  are : 

The  Cafe  Laurent,  which  Rousseau  was 
forced  to  leave  after  writing  an  especially 
bitter  satire;  the  English  cafe,  in  which 
eccentric  Lord  Wharton  made  merry  with 
the  Whig  habitues;  the  Dutch  cafe,  the 
haunt  of  Jacobites;  Terre's,  in  the  rue 
Neuve  des  Pet  its  Champs,  which  Thackeray 
described  in  The  Ballad  of  Bouillahaisse; 
Maire's,  in  the  boulevard  St.-Denis,  which 
dates  back  beyond  1850;  the  Caf6  Madrid, 
in  the  boulevard  Montmartre,  of  which 
Carjat,  the  Spanish  lyric  poet,  was  an 
attraction;   the   Caf6   de   la   Paix,   in   the 



boulevard  des  Capucines,  the  resort  of  Sec- 
ond Empire  Imperialists  and  their  spies ; 
the  Caf6  Durand,  in  the  place  de  la  Made- 
leine, which  started  on  a  plane  with  the 
high-priced  Riche,  and  ended  its  career 
early  in  the  twentieth  century;  the  Rocher 
de  Cancale,  memorable  for  its  feasts  and 
high-living  patrons  from  all  over  Europe ; 

the  Cafe  Guerbois,  near  the  .rug,  d^e,  St. 
Petersbourg,  where  Manet,  the  impres- 
sionist, after  many  vicissitudes,  won  fame 
for  his  paintings  and  held  court  for  many 
years ;  the  Chat  Noir,  on  the  rue  Victor 
Masse  at  Montmartre,  a  blend  of  cafe  and 
concert  hall,  which  has  since  been  imitated 
widely,  both  in  name  and  feature. 

Chess  Has  Been  a  Favorite 
Pastime  at  the  CafS;  de  la 
rfigence  for  t\vo  hundred  years 


A  I.  L     ABOUT     COFFEE 



Showing  the  Berry  in  its  Various  Ripening  Stages  from  Flower  to  CiiKituY 

(luset:  1,  green  bean;  2,  silver  skin;  i?,  parohment ;  4,  fruit  pulj).) 

Painted  from  life  by  Blendon  Campbell 

Chapter    XII 


Captain  John  Smith,  founder  of  the  Colony  of  Virginia,  is  the  first 
to  bring  to  North  America  a  knowledge  of  coffee  in  1607  —  The 
coffee  grinder  on  the  Mayflower  —  Coffee  drinking  in  1668  —  Wil- 
liam Penn's  coffee  purchase  in  1683  — Coffee  in  colonial  New  Eng- 
land—  The  psychology  of  the  Boston  "tea  party,"  and  why  the 
United  States  became  a  nation  of  coffee  drinkers  instead  of  ti  i 
drinkers,  like  England  —  The  first  coffee  license  to  Dorothy  Jones  i 
1670  —  The  first  coffee  house  in  New  England  —  Notable  coffi  ? 
houses  of  old  Boston  —  A  sky-scraper  coffee  house 


UNDOUBTEDLY  the  first  to  bring  a 
knowledge  of  coffee  to  North  Amer- 
ica was  Captain  John  Smith,  who 
founded  the  Colony  of  Virgmia  at  James- 
town in  1607.  Captain  Smith  became  fa- 
miliar with  coffee  in  his  travels  in  Turkey. 

Although  the  Dutch  also  had  early  knowl- 
edge  of  coffee,  it  does  not  appear  that  the 
Dutch  West  India  Company  brought  any 
of  it  to  the  first  permanent  settlement  on 
Manhattan  Island  (1624).  Nor  is  there 
any  record  of  coffee  in  the  cargo  of  the 
Mayflower  (1620),  although  it  included  a 
wooden  mortar  and  pestle,  later  used  to 
make  "coffee  powder." 

In  the  period  when  New  Yo^T^  ^^^^  T>Jp-«zl 

AmstPrdanij     and     ^^^n^(^r■    Dnfpli     r>r>mipanny 

(1624-64),  it  is  possible  that  coffee  ma^v 
have  bppn  import^H  from  Holland,  where 
it  was  being  sold  on  the  Amsterdam  market 
as  early  as  1640,  and  where  regular  sup- 
plies of  the  green  bean  were  being  received 
from  Mocha  in  1663;  but  positive  proof  is 
lacking.  The  Dutch  appear  to  have  brought 
tea  across  the  Atlantic  from  Holland  before 
coffee.  The  English  may  have  introduced 
the  coffee  drink  into  the  New  York  colony 
between  1664  and  1673.  The  earliest  refer- 
ence to  coffee  in  America  is  1668  \  at  which 

•  Singleton,  Esther. 
1909.      (p.  132.) 

Dutch  New  York.     New  York, 

time  a  beverage  made  from  the  roasted 
beans,  and  flavored  with  sugar  or  honey, 
and  cinnamon,  was  being  drunk  ii  New 

,^Coffee  first  appears  in  the  official  lecords 
oFthe  New  England  colony  in  ifiTfL,  in 
1683,  the  year  following  William  Penn's 
settlement  on  the  Delaware,  we  find  him 
buying  supplies  of  coffee  in  the  New  York 
market  and  paying  for  them  at  the  rate  of 
eighteen  shillings  and  nine  pence  per 

Coffee  houses  patterned  after  the  English 
and  Continental  prototypes  were  soon  estab- 
lished in  all  the  colonies.  Those  of  New- 
York  and  Philadelphia  are  described  in 
separate  chapters.  The  Boston  houses  are 
described  at  the  end  of  this  chapter. 

Norfolk,  Chicago,  St.  Louis,  and  New 
Orleans  also  had  them.  Conrad  Leonhard  's 
coffee  /house  at  320  Market  Street.  St. 
Louis,  was  famous  for  its  coffee  and  coffee 
cake,  from  1844  to  1905,  when  it  became  a 
bakery  and  lunch  room,  removing  in  1919 
to  Eighth  and  Pine  Streets. 

In  the  pioneer  days  of  the  great  west, 
coffee  and  tea  were  hard  to  get;  and,  in- 
stead of  them,  teas  were  often  made  from 
garden    herbs,    spicewood,    sassafras-roots^ 

^  Bishop,  J.  Leander.  A  History  of  American  Manu- 
factures, 1608  to  IfdO.  New  York,  1804.  (Vol.  1;  p. 




and  other  shrubs,  taken  from  the  thickets '. 
In  1839,  in  the  city  of  Chicago,  one  of  the 
minor  taverns  was  known  as  the  Lake  Street 
coffee  house.  It  was  situated  at  the  corner 
of  Lake  and  Wells  Streets.  A  number  of 
hotels,  which  in  the  English  sense  might 
more  appropriately  be  called  inns,  met  a 
demand  for  modest  accommodation  *.  Two 
coffee  houses  were  listed   in  the   Chicago 

Types  of  Colonial  Coffee  Roasters 

The  cylinder  at  the  top  of  the  picture  was  revolved 
by  hand  in  the  fireplace;  the  skillets  were  set  in 
the  smouldering  ashes 

directories  for  1843  and  1845,  the  Wash- 
ington coffee  house,  83  Lake  Street;  and 
the  Exchange  coffee  house,  Clarke  Street 
between  La  Salle  and  South  Water  Streets. 
The  oldtime  coffee  houses  of  New  Orleans 
W'Cre  situated  within  the  original  area  of  the 
city,  the  section  bounded  by  the  river,  Canal 
Street,  Esplanade  Avenue  and  Rampart 
Street.  In  the  early  days  most  of  the  big 
business  of  the  city  was  transacted  in  the 
coffee  houses.  The  brideau,  coffee  with 
orange  juice,  orange  peel,  and  sugar,  wdth 
cognac  burned  and  mixed  in  it,  originated 
in  the  New  Orleans  coffee  house,  and  led  to 
its  gradual  evolution  into  the  saloon. 

How  the  United  States  Became  a  Nation 
of  Coffee  Drinkers 

Coffee,  tea,  and  chocolate  were  introduced 
into  North  America  almost  simultaneously 
in  the  latter  part  of  the  seventeenth  century. 
In  the  first  half  of  the  eighteenth  century, 
tea  had  made  such  progress  in  England, 
thanks  to  the  propaganda  of  the  British 
East  India  Company,  that,  being  moved  to 
extend  its  use  in  the  colonies,  the  directors 
turned  their  eyes  first  in  the  direction  of 
North  America.  Here,  however,  King 
George  spoiled  their  well-laid  plans  by  his 

« Patterson,  Robert  W.     Early  Society  in  Southern 
Illinois.     Chicago,   1881. 

*  Andreas,    A.    T.      History    of    Chicago.      Chicago, 

unfortunate  stamp  act  of  1765,  which 
caused  the  colonists  to  raise  the  cry  of  "no 
taxation  without  representation." 

Although  the  act  was  repealed  in  1766, 
the  right  to  tax  was  asserted,  and  in  1767 
was  again  used,  duties  being  laid  on  paints, 
oils,  lead,  glass,  and  tea.  Once  more  the 
colonists  resisted ;  and,  by  refusing  to  im- 
port any  goods  of  English  make,  so  dis- 
tressed the  English  manufacturers  that 
Parliament  repealed  every  tax  save  that  on 
tea.  Despite  the  growing  fondness  for  the 
beverage  in  America,  the  colonists  preferred 
to  get  their  tea  elsewhere  to  sacrificing  their 
principles  and  buying  it  from  England.  A 
brisk  trade  in  smuggling  tea  from  Holland 
was  started. 

In  a  panic  at  the  loss  of  the  most  promis- 
ing of  its  colonial  markets,  the  British  East 
India  Company  appealed  to  Parliament  for 
aid,  and  was  permitted  to  export  tea,  a 
privilege  it  had  never  before  enjoyed. 
Cargoes  were  sent  on  consignment  to 
selected  commissioners  in  Boston,  New 
York,  Philadelphia,  and  Charleston.  The 
story  of  the  subsequent  happenings  proper- 
ly belongs  in  a  book  on  tea.  It  is  sufficient 
here  to  refer  to  the  climax  of  the  agitation 
against  the  fateful  tea  tax,  because  it  is 
undoubtedly  responsible  for  our  becoming 
a  nation  of  coffee  drinkers  instead  of  one 
of  tea  drinkers,  like  England. 

The  Boston  "tea  party"  of  1773,  when 
citizens  of  Boston,  disguised  as  Indians, 
boarded  the  English  ships  lying  in  Boston 
harbor  and  threw  their  tea  cargoes  into  the 

' "  X 


f                                       I 

An   Early  Family  Coffee   Roaster 
This    machine,    known    in    Holland    as    a    "Coffee 
Burner,"  was  used  late  in  the  18th  century  in 
New  England.    It  hung  in  the  fireplace  or  stood 
in   the   embers 



Historical  Relics  Associated  With  the   Early  Days  of  Coffee  in  New  England 

These  exhibits  are  in  the  Museum  of  the  Maine  Historical  Society  at  Portland.  On  the  left  is  Kenrick's 
Patent  coffee  mill.  In  the  center  is  a  Britannia  urn  with  an  iron  bar  for  heating  the  liquid.  The 
bar  was  encased  in  a  tin  receptacle  that  hung  inside  the  cover.  On  the  right  is  a  wall  type  of  coffee 
or  spice   grinder 

ay,  cast  the  die  for  coffee;  for  there  and 
then  originated  a  subtle  prejudice  against 
"the  cup  that  cheers",  which  one  hundred 
and  fifty  years  have  failed  entirely  to  over- 
come. ^Meanwhile,  the  change  wrought  in 
our  social  customs  by  this  act,  and  those  of 
like  nature  following  it,  in  the  New  York, 
Pennsylvania,  and  Charleston  colonies, 
caused  coffee  to  be  crowned  "king  of  the 
American  breakfast  tahl^"^  and  the  sover- 
eign drmir^f  the  American  ppopTp"         ^ 

Coffee  in  Colonial  New  England 

The  history  of  coffee  in  colonial  New 
England  is  so  closely  interwoven  with  the 
story  of  the  inns  and  taverns  that  it  is 
difficult  to  distinguish  the  genuine  coffee 
house,  as  it  was  known  in  England,  from 
the  public  house  where  lodgings  and  liquors 
were  to  be  had.  The  coffee  drink  had 
strong  competition  from  the  heady  wines, 
the  liquors,  and  imported  teas,  and  conse- 
quently it  did  not  attain  the  vogue  among 
the  colonial  New  Englanders  that  it  did 
among  Londoners  of  the  late  seventeenth 
and  early  eighteenth  centuries. 

Although  New  England  had  its  coffee 
houses,  these  were  actually  taverns  where 
coffee  was  only  one  of  the  beverages  served 
to  patrons.  "They  were'^  gay«  Rnhinson. 
"generally  meeting  pla^ces_of_those_whQj^£re 
conservative  in — ffieir^  views  ref^'arding 
church  and~slate7"^5emg_frignds  of  therul- 
ing— a:difrinistration.'     Sucir~persons    were 

terms  'Courtiers'  by  their  adversaries,  the 
Dissenters  and  Republicans." 

Most  of  the  coffee  houses  were  estab- 
lished in  Boston,  the  metropolis  of  the 
Massachusetts  Colony,  and  the  social  center 
of  New  England.  While  Plymouth,  Salem, 
Chelsea,  and  Providence  had  taverns  that 
served  coffee,  they  did  not  achieve  the 
name  and  fame  of  some  of  the  more  cele- 
brated coffee  houses  in  Boston 

It  is  not  definitely  known  when  the  first 
coffee  was  brought  in ;  but  it  is  reasonable 
to  suppose  that  it  came  as  part  of  the 
household  supplies  of  some  settler  (prob- 
ably between  1660  and  1670) ,  who  had  be- 
come acquainted  with  it  before  leaving 
England.  Or  it  may  have  been  introduced 
by  some  British  officer,  who  in  London  had 
made  the  rounds  of  the  more  celebrated 
coffee  houses  of  the  latter  half  of  the  seven- 
teenth century. 

The  First  Coffee  License 

According  to  early  town  records  of  Bos- 
ton, Dorothy  Jones  was  the  first  to  be 
licensed  to  sell  "coffee  and  cuchaletto," 
the  latter  being  the  seventeenth-century 
spelling  for  chocolate  or  cocoa.  This  license 
is  dated  1670,  and  is  said  to  be  the  first 
written  reference  to  coffee  in  the  Massa- 
chusetts Colony.  It  is  not  stated  whether 
Dorothy  Jones  was  a  vender  of  the  coffee 
drink  or  of  "coffee  powder,"  as  ground 
coffee  was  known  in  the  early  days. 



The  Mayflowek  "Coffee  Grinder" 

Mortar  and  pestle  for  "braying"  coffee  to  make 
coffee  powder,  brought  over  in  the  Mayflower 
by  tiie  parents  of  Peregrine  White 

There  is  some  question  as  to  whether 
Dorothy  Jones  was  the  first  to  sell  coffee 
as  a  beverage  in  Boston.  Londoners  had 
known  and  drunk  coffee  for  eighteen  years 
before  Dorothy  Jones  got  her  coffee  license. 
British  government  officials  were  frequent- 
ly taking  ship  from  London  to  the  Massa- 
chusetts Colony,  and  it  is  likely  that  they 
brought  tidings  and  samples  of  the  coffee 
the  English  gentry  had  lately  taken  up. 
No  doubt  they  also  told  about  the  new-style 
coffee  houses  that  were  becoming  popular 
in  all  parts  of  London.  And  it  may  be 
assumed  that  their  tales  caused  the  land- 
lords of  the  inns  and  taverns  of  colonial 
Boston  to  add  coffee  to  their  lists  of  bever- 

New  England's  First  Coffee  House 

The  name  coffee  house  did  not  come  into 
use  in  New  England  until  late  in  the  seven- 
teenth century.  Early  colonial  records  do 
not  make  it  clear  whether  the  London  coffee 
house  or  the  Gutteridge  coffee  house  was  the 
first  to  be  opened  in  Boston  with  that  dis- 
tinctive title.  In  all  likelihood  the  London 
is  entitled  to  the  honor,  for  Samuel  Gardner 
Drake  in  his  History  and  Antiquities  of  the 
City  of  Boston,  published  in  1854,  says  that 
*'Benj.  Harris  sold  books  there  in  1689." 
Drake  seems  to  be  the  only  historian  of 
early  Boston  to  mention  the  London  coffee 

Granting  that  the  London  coffee  house 
was  the  first  in  Boston,  then  the  Gutteridge 
coffee  house  was  the  second.     The  latter 

stood  on  the  north  side  of  State  Street,  be- 
tM'een  Exchange  and  Washington  Streets, 
and  was  named  after  Robert  Gutteridge, 
who  took  out  an  innkeeper's  license  in  1691. 
Twenty-seven  years  later,  his  widow,  Mary 
Gutteridge,  petitioned  the  town  for  a  re- 
newal of  her  late  husband's  permit  to  keep 
a  public  coffee  house. 

The  British  coffee  house,  which  became 
the  American  coffee  house  when  the  crowm 
officers  and  all  things  British  became  ob- 
noxious to  the  colonists,  also  began  its 
career  about  the  time  Gutteridge  took  out 
his  license.  It  stood  on  the  site  that  is  now 
Q&  State  Street,  and  became  one  of  the  most 
widely  known  coffee  houses  in  colonial  New 

Of  course,  there  were  several  inns  and 
taverns  in  existence  in  Boston  long  before 
coffee  and  coffee  houses  came  to  the  New 
England  metropolis.  Some  of  these  taverns 
took  up  coffee  when  it  became  fashionable 
in  the  colony,  and  served  it  to  those  patrons 
who  did  not  care  for  the  stronger  drinks. 

The  earliest  known  inn  was  set  up  by 
Samuel  Cole  in  Washington  Street,  midway 
between  Faneuil  Hall  and  State  Street. 
Cole  was  licensed  as  a  "comfit  maker"  in 
1634,  four  years  after  the  founding  of 
Boston ;  and  two  years  later,  his  inn  was  the 


The  Crown   Coffee   House,   Boston 

One  of  the  first  in  New  England  to  bear  the  dis- 
tinctive name  of  coffee  house;  opened  in  1711 
and  burned  down  in  1780 





Coffee    Making   and    Serving    Devices    Used    in    the   ^NlA.s^iAenLsEirs    Colony 

hese  exhibits  are  in  the  Museum  of  the  Essex  Institute  at  Salem,  Mass.  Top  row,  left  and  right, 
Britannia  serving  pots;  center,  Britannia  table  urn;  bottom  row,  left  end,  tin  coffee  making  pot; 
center,  Britannia  serving  pots;  right  end,  tin  French  drip  pot 

temporary  abiding  place  of  the  Indian  chief 
Miantonomoh  and  his  red  warriors,  who 
came  to  visit  Governor  Vane.  In  the  fol- 
lowing year,  the  Earl  of  Marlborough  found 
that  Cole's  inn  was  so  "exceedingly  well 
governed,"  and  afforded  so  desirable  pri- 
vacy, that  he  refused  the  hospitality  of 
Governor  Winthrop  at  the  governor's  man- 

Another  popular  inn  of  the  day  was  the 
Red  Lyon,  which  was  opened  in  1637  by 
Nicholas  Upshall,  the  Quaker,  who  later 
was  hanged  for  trying  to  bribe  a  jailer  to 
pass  some  food  into  the  jail  to  two 
Quakeresses  who  were  starving  within. 

Ship  tavern,  erected  in  1650,  at  the 
corner  of  North  and  Clark  Streets,  then  on 
the  waterfront,  was  a  haunt  of  British 
government  officials.  The  father  of  Gover- 
nor Hutchinson  was  the  first  landlord,  to 
be  succeeded  in  1663  by  John  Vyal.  Here 
lived  the  four  commissioners  who  were  sent 
to  these  shores  by  King  Charles  II  to  settle 
the  disputes  then  beginning  between  the 
colonies  and  England. 

Another  lodging  and  eating  place  for  the 
gentlemen  of  quality  in  the  first  days  of 
Boston  was  the  Blue  Anchor,  in  Cornhill, 
which  was  conducted  in  1664  by  Robert 

Turner.  Here  gathered  members  of  the 
government,  visiting  officials,  jurists,  and 
the  clergy,  summoned  into  synod  by  the 
Massachusetts  General  Court.  It  is  assumed 
that  the  clergy  confined  their  drinking  to 
coffee  and  other  moderate  beverages,  leav- 
ing the  wines  and  liquors  to  their  con- 

Some  Notable  Boston  Coffee  Houses 

In  the  last  quarter  of  the  seventeenth 
century  quite  a  number  of  taverns  and 
inns  sprang  up.  Among  the  most  notable 
that  have  obtained  recognition  in  Boston's 
historical  records  were  the  King's  Head,  at 
the  corner  of  Fleet  and  North  Streets;  the 
Indian  Queen,  on  a  passageway  leading 
from  Washington  Street  to  Hawley  Street ; 
the  Sun,  in  Faneuil  Hall  Square,  and  the 
Green  Dragon,  which  became  one  of  the 
most  celebrated  coffee-house  taverns. 

The  King's  Head,  opened  in  1691,  early 
became  a  rendezvous  of  crown  officers  and 
the  citizens  in  the  higher  strata  of  colonial 

The  Indian  Queen  also  became  a  favorite 
resort  of  the  crown  officers  from  Province 
House.  Started  by  Nathaniel  Bishop  about 
1673,  it  stood  for  more  than  145  years  as 



Coffee  Devices  that  Figured  in  the  Pioneering  of  the  Great  West 

Photographed  for  this  work  in  the  Museum  of  the  State  Historical  Society  of  Wisconsin.  Left  to  right, 
English  decorated  tin  pot;  coffee  and  spice  mill  from  Lexington,  Mass.;  Globe  roaster  built  by  Rays 
&  Wilcox  Co.,  Berlin,  Conn.,  under  Wood's  patent;  sheet  brass  coffee  mill  from  Lexington,  Mass.; 
John  Luther's  coffee  mill,  Warren,  R.  I.;   cast  iron  hopper  mill 

the  Indian  Queen,  and  then  was  replaced 
by  the  Washington  cotfee  house,  which  be- 
came noted  throughout  New  England  as  the 
starting  place  for  the  Roxbury  "hourlies,'' 
the  stage  coaches  that  ran  every  hour  from 
Boston  to  nearby  Roxbury. 

The  Sun  tavern  lived  a  longer  life  than 
any  other  Boston  inn.  Started  in  1690  in 
Faneuil  Hall  Square,  it  was  still  standing 
in  1902,  according  to  Henry  R.  Blaney ;  but 
has  since  been  razed  to  make  way  for  a 
modern  skyscraper. 

New-Emj^mid's  Most  Famous  Coffee  House 

The  Green  Dragon,  the  last  of  the  inns 
that  were  popular  at  the  close  of  the  seven- 
teenth century,  was  the  most  celebrated  of 
Boston's  coffee-house  taverns.  It  stood  on 
Union  Street,  in  the  heart  of  the  town's 
business  center,  for  135  years,  from  1697 
to  1832,  and  figured  in  practically  all  the 
important  local  and  national  events  during 

its  long  career.  Red-coated  British  soldiers, 
colonial  governors,  bewigged  crown  ofificers, 
earls  and  dukes,  citizens  of  high  estate,  plot- 
ting revolutionists  of  lesser  degree,  con- 
spirators in  the  Boston  Tea  Party,  patriots 
and  generals  of  the  Revolution  —  all  these 
were  wont  to  gather  at  the  Green  Dragon 
to  discuss  their  various  interests  over  their 
cups  of  coffee,  and  stronger  drinks.  In  the 
words  of  Daniel  Webster,  this  famous 
coffee-house  tavern  was  the  "headquarters 
of  the  Revolution."  It  was  here  that 
Warren,  John  Adams,  J ames  Otis,_aiid-P aul 
ReveT'e  met  as  a  "wd>s  ancTmeans  com- 
'        "'  to  se^rnre-f^eedtmiliiJiJlie^miHcau 

mi  __ 

ftnlohies.  HereT  too,  came  members  of  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  Masons  to  hold  their  meet- 
ings under  the  guidance  of  Warren,  who 
was  the  first  grand  master  of  the  first 
Masonic  lodge  in  Boston.  The  site  of  the 
old  tavern,  now  occupied  by  a  business 
block,  is  still  the  property  of  the  St.  An- 

Metal  and  China  Coffee  Pots  Used  in  New   England's  Colonial  Days 
From  the  collection  in  the  Museum  of  the  Pocumtuck  Valley  Memorial  Association,  Deerfleld,  Mass. 



The  Green  Dragon,  the  Center  of  Social  and  Political  Life  in  Boston  for  135  Years 

This  tavern  figured  in  practically  all  the  important  national  affairs  from   1697  to  1832,  and,  according  to 
Daniel   Webster,   was   the   "headquarters   of   the  Revolution" 

drew 's  Lodge  of  Free  Masons.  •  The  old 
tavern  was  a  two-storied  brick  structure 
with  a  sharply  pitched  roof.  Over  its  en- 
trance hungr  a  sign  bearing  the  figure  of  a 
green  dragon. 

Patrons  of  the  Green  Dragon  and  the 
British  coffee  house  were  decidedly  opposed 
in  their  views  on  the  questions  of  the  day. 
While  the  Green  Dragon  was  the  gathering 
piaf>Aj2^f  t^Q  pflt^^'^t^^  "^^"^inls^  thp_  British 
was  the  rendezvous  of  the  loyalists,  and 
frequent  were  the  encounters  hetwppn  thp 
patrons  ol  these  two  celebrated  taverns.  It 
was  in  Llie  British  coft'ee  house  that  James 
Otis  was  so  badly  pummeled,  after  being 
lured  there  by  political  enemies,  that  he 
never  regained  his  former  brilliancy  as  an 

It  was  there,  in  1750,  that  some  British 
red  coats  staged  the  first  theatrical  enter- 
tainment given  in  Boston,  playing  Otway's 
Orphan.  There,  the  first  organization  of 
citizens  to  take  the  name  of  a  club  formed 
the  Merchants'  Club  in  1751.  The  member- 
ship included  ofiicers  of  the  king,  colonial 
governors  and  lesser  officials,  military  and 
naval  leaders,  and  members  of  the  bar,  with 
a  sprinkling  of  high-ranking  citizens  who 
were  staunch  friends  of  the  crown.  How- 
ever, the  British  became  so  generally  dis- 

liked that  as  soon  as  the  king's  troops 
evacuated  Boston  in  the  Revolution,  the 
name  of  the  coffee  house  was  changed  to  the 

The  Bunch  of  Grapes,  that  Francis 
Holmes  presided  over  as  early  as  1712,  was 
another  hot-bed  of  politicians.  Like  the 
Green  Dragon  over  the  way,  its  paJtjrous 
included  unconditional  freedom  ^<^e^--Qvg^ 
many  coming  from  the  British  coffee  house 
when  things  became  too  hot  for  them  in  that 
Tory  atmosphere.  The  Bunch  of  Grapes 
became  the  center  of  a  stirring  celebration 
in  1776,  w^hen  a  delegate  from  Philadelphia 
read  the  Declaration  of  Independence  from 
the  balcony  of  the  inn  to  the  crowd 
assembled  in  the  street  below.  So  enthus- 
iastic did  the  Bostonians  become  that,  in 
the  excitement  that  followed,  the  inn  was 
nearly  destroyed  when  one  enthusiast  built 
a  bonfire  too  close  to  its  walls.  Another 
anecdote  told  of  the  Bunch  of  Grapes  con- 
cerns Sir  "William  Phipps,  governor  of 
Massachusetts  from  1692  -  94,  who  was 
noted  for  his  irascibility.  He  had  his 
favorite  chair  and  window  in  the  inn,  and 
in  the  accounts  of  the  period  it  is  written 
that  on  any  fine  afternoon  his  glowering 
countenance  could  be  seen  at  the  window 
by  the  passersby  on  State  Street. 



After  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth 
century  the  title  of  coffee  house  was  applied 
to  a  number  of  hostelries  opened  in  Boston. 
One  of  these  was  the  Crown,  which  was 
opened  in  the  ' '  first  house  on  Lon^g  Wharf ' ' 
in  1711  by  Jonathan  Belcher,  who  later  be- 
came governor  of  Massachusetts,  and  still 
later  of  New  Jersey.  The  first  landlord  of 
the  Crown  was  Thomas  Selby,  who  by  trade 
was  a  periwig  maker,  but  probably  found 
the  selling  of  strong  drink  and  coffee  more 
profitable.  Selby 's  coffee  house  was  also 
used  as  an  auction  room.  The  Crown  stood 
until  1780,  when  it  was  destroyed  in  a  fire 
that  swept  the  Long  Wharf.  On  its  site 
now  stands  the  Fidelity  Trust  Company  at 
148  State  Street. 

Another  early  Boston  coffee  house  on 
Statef  Street  was  the  Royal  Exchange.  How 
long  it  had  been  standing  before  it  was  first 
mentioned  in  colonial  records  in  1711  is 
unknown.  It  occupied  an  ancient  two-story 
building,  and  was  kept  in  1711  by  Benjamin 
Johns.  This  coffee  house  became  thp  start- 
ing  place  for  stage  coaches  running  between 
Boston  and  New  York._the  first  one  leaving 
SepJ-pmher  7,  'ITT^^'^Tn  fhe  ColumFian 
Centinel  of  January  1,  1800,  appeared  an 
advertisement  in  which  it  was  said:  ''New 
York  and  Providence  Mail  Stage  leaves 
Major    Hatches'    Royal    Exchange    Coffee 

House  in  State  Street  every  morning  at  8 

In  the  latter  half  of  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury the  North-End  coffee  house  was  cele- 
brated as  the  highest-class  coffee  house  in 
Boston.  It  occupied  the  three-storied  brick 
mansion  which  had  been  built  about  1740 
by  Edward  Hutchinson,  brother  of  the 
noted  governor.  It  stood  on  the  west  side 
of  North  Street,  between  Sun  Court  and 
Fleet  Street,  and  was  one  of  the  most 
pretentious  of  its  kind.  An  eighteenth 
century  writer,  in  describing  this  coffee- 
house mansion,  made  much  of  the  fact  that 
it  had  forty-five  windows  and  was  valued  at 
$4,500,  a  large  sum  for  those  days.  During 
the  Revolution,  Captain  David  Porter, 
father  of  Admiral  David  D.  Porter,  was  the 
landlord,  and  under  him  it  became  cele- 
brated throughout  the  city  as  a  high-grade 
eating  place.  The  advertisements  of  the 
North-End  coffee  house  featured  its  "din- 
ners and  suppers  —  small  and  retired  rooms 
for  small  company  — ' oyster  suppers  in  the 
nicest  manner." 

A  "Skyscraper"  Coffee  House 

The  Boston  coffee-house  period  reached 
its  height  in  1808,  when  the  doors  of  the 
Exchange  coffee  house  were  thrown  open 
after  three  years  of  building.     This  struc- 

Metai.   Coffee   Pots   Used   in   the   New   York    Colony 
Left,  tin  coffee  pot,  dark  brown,  with  "love  apple"  decoration    In    red,    New    Jersey    Historical    Society, 
Newark;  right,  weighted  bottom  tin  pot  with  rose  decoration,  private  owner 



Exchange    Coffee   House,    Boston,   1808,   Probably  the 'Largest  and  Most  Costly  in  the  World 

Juilt  of  stone,  marble  and  brick,  it  stood  seven  stories  high  and  cost  $500,000.     It  was  patterned  after 
Lloyd's  of  London,   and  was  the  center  of  marine  intelligence  In  Boston 

ire,  situated  on  Congress  Street  near  State 
Street,  was  the  skyscraper  of  its  day,  and 
probably  was  the  most  ambitious  coffee- 
house project  the  world  has  known.  Built 
of  stone,  marble,  and  brick,  it  stood  seven 
stories  high,  and  cost  a  half-million  dollars. 
Charles  Bulfinch,  America's  most  noted 
architect  of  that  period,  was  the  designer. 
Like  Lloyd's  coffee  house  in  London,  the 
Exchange  was  the  center  of  marine  intelli- 
gence, and  its  public  rooms  were  thronged 
all  day  and  evening  with  mariners,  naval 
officers,  ship  and  insurance  brokers,  who  had 
come  to  talk  shop  or  to  consult  the  records 
of  ship  arrivals  and  departures,  manifests, 

charters,  and  other  marine  papers.  The 
first  floor  of  the  Exchange  was  devoted  to 
trading.  On  the  next  floor  was  the  large 
dining  room,  where  many  sumptuous  ban- 
quets were  given,  notably  the  one  to  Presi- 
dent Monroe  in  July,  1817,  which  was  at- 
tended by  former  President  John  Adams, 
and  by  many  generals,  commodores,  gover- 
nors, and  judges.  The  other  floors  were 
given  over  to  living  and  sleeping  rooms,  of 
which  there  were  more  than  200.  The  Ex- 
change coffee  house  was  destroyed  by  firf" 
in  1818;  and  on  its  site  was  erected  an- 
other, bearing  the  same  name,  but  having 
slight  resemblance  to  its  predecessor. 



Chapter   XIII 

HISTORY    OF     COFFEE     IX     OLD     XEW     YORK 


The  burghers  of  Neiv  Amsterdam  begin  to  substitute  coffee  for 
"must,"  or  beer,  at  breakfast  in  1668  —  William  Penn  makes  his 
first  purchase  of  coffee  in  the  green  bean  from  New  York  merchants 
in  1683  —  The  King's  Arms,  the  first  coffee  house  —  The  historic 
Merchants,  sometimes  called  the  "Birth-place  of  our  Union"  —  The 
coffee  house  as  a  civic  forum  —  The  Exchange,  Whitehall,  Burns, 
Tontine,  and  other  celebrated  coffee  houses  —  The  Vauxhall  ayid 
Ranelagh  pleasure  gardens 

THE  Dutch  founders  of  New  York 
seem  to  have  introduced  tea  into  New 
Amsterdam  before  they  brought  in 
coffee.  This  was  somewhere  about  the 
middle  of  the  seventeenth  century.  We  find 
it  recorded  that  about  1668  the  burghers 
succumbed  to  coffee '.  Coffee  made  its  way 
slowly,  first  in  the  homes,  where  it  replaced 
the  "must",  or  beer,  at  breakfast.  Choco- 
late came  about  the  same  time,  but  was 
more  of  a  luxury  than  tea  or  coffee. 

After  the  surrender  of  New  York  to  the 
British  in  1674,  English  manners  and  cus- 
toms were  rapidly  introduced.  First  tea, 
and  later  coffee,  were  favorite  beverages 
in  the  homes.  By  1683  New  York  had  be- 
come so  central  a  market  for  the  green 
bean,  that  William  Penn,  as  soon  as  he 
found  himself  comfortably  settled  in  the 
Pennsylvania  Colony,  sent  over  to  New 
York  for  his  coft'ee  supplies  ^  It  was  not 
long  before  a  social  need  arose  that  only 
the  London  style  of  coffee  house  could  fill. 

The  coffee  houses  of  early  New  York, 
like  their  prototypes  in  London,  Paris,  and 
other  old  world  capitals,  were  the  centers 
of  the  business,  political  and,  to  some  ex- 
tent, of  the  social  life  of  the  city.  But  they 
never  became  the  forcing-beds  of  literature 

*  Singleton,  Esther. 

'  Bishop,  J.  Leander. 
ufacture8,  1608  to  1860. 

Dutch  New  York.      1909.      (p. 

A  History  of  American  Man- 
New  York. 

that  the  French  and  English  houses  were, 
principally  because  the  colonists  had  no 
professional  writers  of  note. 

There  is  one  outstanding  feature  of  the 
early  American  coffee  houses,  particularly 
of  those  opened  in  New  York,  that  is  not 
distinctive  of  the  European  houses.  The 
colonists  sometimes  held  court  trials  in  the 
long,  or  assembly,  room  of  the  early  coffee 
houses;  and  often  held  their  general  as- 
sembly and  council  meetings  there. 

TJie  Coffee  House  as  a  Civic  Forum 

The  early  coffee  house  was  an  important 
factor  in  New  York  life.  What  the  per- 
petuation of  this  public  gathering  place 
meant  to  the  citizens  is  shown  by  a  com- 
plaint (evidently  designed  to  revive  the 
declining  fortunes  of  the  historic  Merchants 
coffee  house)  in  the  New  York  Journal  of 
October  19,  1775,  which,  in  part,  said: 
To  the  Inhabitants  of  New  York  : 

It  gives  me  concern,  in  this  time  of  public 
difficulty  and  danger,  to  find  we  have  in  tliis 
city  no  place  of  daily  general  meeting,  where  we 
might  hear  and  communicate  intelligence  from 
every  quarter  and  freely  confer  with  one  another 
on  every  matter  that  concerns  us.  Such  a  place 
of  general  meeting  is  of  very  great  advantage 
in  many  respects,  especially  at  such  a  time  as 
this,  besides  the  satisfaction  it  affords  and  the 
sociable  disposition  it  has  a  tendency  to  keep  up 
among  us,  which  was  never  more  wanted  than 
at  this  time.  To  answer  all  these  and  many 
other  good   and   useful  purposes,  coffee  houses 




have  been  universally  deemed  the  most  conve- 
nient places  of  resort,  because,  at  a  small  ex- 
pense of  time  or  money,  persons  wanted  may 
be  found  and  spoke  with,  appointments  may  be 
made,  current  news  heard,  and  whatever  it  most 
concerns  us  to  know.  In  all  cities,  therefore, 
and  large  towns  that  I  have  seen  in  the  British 
dominions,  sufficient  encouragement  has  been 
given  to  support  one  or  more  coffee  houses  in  a 
genteel  manner.  How  comes  it  then  that  New 
York,  the  most  central,  and  one  of  the  largest 
and  most  prosperous  cities  in  British  America, 
cannot  support  one  coffee  house?  It  is  a  scandal 
to  the  city  and  its  inhabitants  to  be  destitute 
of  such  a  convenience  for  want  of  due  encour- 
agement. A  coffee  house,  indeed,  there  is,  a 
very  good  and  comfortable  one,  extremely  well 
tended  and  accommodated,  but  it  is  frequented 
but  by  an  inconsiderable  number  of  people ;  and 
I  have  observed  with  surprise,  that  but  a  small 
part  of  those  who  do  frequent  it,  contribute  any- 
thing at  all  to  the  expense  of  it,  but  come  in 
and  go  out  without  calling  for  or  paying  any- 
thing to  the  house.  In  all  the  coffee  houses  in 
London,  it  is  customary  for  every  one  that  comes 
in  to  call  for  at  least  a  dish  of  coffee,  or  leave 
the  value  of  one,  which  is  but  reasonable,  be- 
cause when  the  keepers  of  these  houses  have 
been  at  the  expense  of  setting  them  up  and  pro- 
viding all  necessaries  for  the  accommodation  of 

company,  every  one  that  comes  to  receive  the 
benefit  of  these  conveniences  ought  to  contribute 
something  towards  the  expense  of  them. 

A  Friend  to  the  City. 

New  York's  First  Coffee  House 

Some  chroniclers  of  New  York's  early 
days  are  confident  that  the  first  cofi'ee  house 
in  America  was  opened  in  New  York;  but 
the  earliest  authenticated  record  they  have 
presented  is  that  on  November  1, 1696,  John 
Hutchins  bought  a  lot  on  Broadway,  be- 
tween Trinity  churchyard  and  what  is  now 
Cedar  Street,  and  there  built  a  house,  nam- 
ing it  the  King's  Arms.  Against  this  rec- 
ord, Boston  can  present  the  statement  in 
Samuel  Gardner  Drake's  History  and  An- 
tiquities of  the  City  of  Boston  that  Benj. 
Harris  sold  books  at  the  "London  Coffee 
House"  in  1689. 

The  King's  Arms  was  built  of  wood,  and 
had  a  front  of  yellow  brick,  said  to  have 
been  brought  from  Holland.  The  building 
was  tM^o  stories  high,  and  on  the  roof  was 
an  "observatory,"  arranged  with  seats,  and 

New    York's    Pioneer    Coffee    House,    the    King's    Arms,    Opened    in    1696 
This  view  shows  the  garden  side  of  the  historic  old  house  as  It  was  conducted  by  John  Hutchins,  near 
Trinity  Church,  on  Broadway.     The  observatory  may  have  been  added  later 



BuRXS   Coffee   House   as    It    Appeared   About   the    Middle   of   the    Nineteenth    Century 

It  stood  for  many  years  on  Broadway,  opposite  Bowling  Green,   in   the  old  De  Lancey  House,   becoming 
known  in  1763  as  the  King's  Arms,  and  later  the  Atlantic  Garden  House 

commanding  a  fine  view  of  the  bay,  the 
river,  and  the  city.  Here  the  coffee-house 
visitors  frequently  sat  in  the  afternoons.  It 
is  not  shown  in  the  illustration. 

The  sides  of  the  main  room  on  the  lower 
floor  were  lined  with  booths,  which,  for  the 
sake  of  greater  privacy,  were  screened  with 
green  curtains.  There  a  patron  could  sip 
his  coffee,  or  a  more  stimulating  drink,  and 
look  over  his  mail  in  the  same  exclusiveness 
affected  by  the  Londoner  of  the  time. 

The  rooms  on  the  second  floor  were  used 
for  special  meetings  of  merchants,  colonial 
magistrates  and  overseers,  or  similar  public 
and  private  business. 

The  meeting  room,  as  above  described, 
seems  to  have  been  one  of  the  chief  features 
distinguishing  a  coffee  house  from  a  tavern. 
Although  both  types  of  houses  had  rooms 
for  guests,  and  served  meals,  the  coffee 
house  was  used  for  business  purposes  by 
permanent  customers,  while  the  tavern  was 
patronized  more  by  transients.  Men  met  at 
the  coffee  house  daily  to  carry  on  business, 
and  went  to  the  tavern  for  convivial  pur- 
poses or  lodgings.     Before  the  front  door 

hung  the  sign  of  "the  lion  and  the  unicorn 
fighting  for  the  crown." 

For  many  years  the  King's  Arms  was  the 
only  coffee  house  in  the  city ;  or  at  least  no 
other  seems  of  sufficient  importance  to  have 
been  mentioned  in  colonial  records.  For  this 
reason  it  w^s  more  frequently  designated  as 
"the"  coffee  house  than  the  King's  Arms. 
Contemporary  records  of  the  arrest  of  John 
Hutchins  of  the  King's  Arms,  and  of  Roger 
Baker,  for  speaking  disrespectfully  of  King 
George,  mention  the  King's  Head,  of  which 
Baker  was  proprietor.  But  it  is  generally 
believed  that  this  public  house  was  a  tavern 
and  not  rightfully  to  be  considered  as  a 
coffee  house.  The  White  Lion,  mentioned 
about  1700,  was  also  a  tavern,  or  inn. 

The  New  Coifee  House 

Under  date  of  September  22,  1709,  the 
Journal  of  the  General  Assembly  of  the 
Colony  of  New  York  refers  to  a  conference 
held  in  the  "New  Coffee  House." 
About  this  date  the  business  section  of  the 
city  had  begun  to  drift  eastward  from 
Broadway  to  the  waterfront ;  and  from  this 




fact  it  is  assumed  that  the  name  "New 
Coffee  House"  indicates  that  the  King's 
Arms  had  been  removed  from  its  original 
location  near  Cedar  Street,  or  that  it  may 
have  lost  favor  and  have  been  superseded 
in  popularity  by  a  newer  coffee  house.  The 
Journal  does  not  give  the  location  of  the 
"New"  coffee  house.  Whatever  the  case 
may  be,  the  name  of  the  King's  Arms  does 
not  again  appear  in  the  records  until  1763, 
and  then  it  had  more  the  character  of  a 
tavern,  or  roadhouse. 

The  public  records  from  1709  up  to  1729 
are  silent  in  regard  to  coffee  houses  in  New 
York.  In  1725  the  pioneer  newspaper  in 
the  city,  the  New  York  Gazette,  came  into 
existence ;  and  four  years  later,  1729,  there 
appeared  in  it  an  advertisement  stating 
that ' '  a  competent  bookkeeper  may  be  heard 
of"  at  the  "Coffee  House."  In  1730  an- 
other advertisement  in  the  same  journal 
tells  of  a  sale  of  land  by  public  vendue 
(auction)  to  be  held  at  the  Exchange  coffee 

The  Exchange  Coffee  House 

By  reason  of  its  name,  the  Exchange 
Coffee  House  is  thought  to  have  been  lo- 
cated at  the  foot  of  Broad  Street,  abutting 
the  sea-wall  and  near  the  Long  Bridge  of 
of  that  day.  At  that  time  this  section  was 
the  business  center  of  the  city,  and  here 
was  a  trading  exchange. 

That  the  Exchange  coffee  house  was  the 
only  one  of  its  kind  in  New  York  in  1732 
is  inferred  from  the  announcement  in  that 
year  of  a  meeting  of  the  conference  com- 
mittee of  the  Council  and  Assembly  ' '  at  the 
Coffee  House."  In  seeming  confirmation  of 
this  conclusion,  is  the  advertisement  in  1733 
in  the  New  York  Gazette  requesting  the 
return  of  "lost  sleeve  buttons  to  Mr.  Todd, 
next  door  to  the  Coffee  House."  The  records 
of  the  day  show  that  a  Robert  Todd  kept  the 
famous  Black  Horse  tavern  which  was 
located  in  this  part  of  the  city. 

Again  we  hear  of  the  Exchange  coffee 
house  in  1737,  and  apparently  in  the  same 
location,  where  it  is  mentioned  in  an  ac- 
count of  the  "Negro  plot"  as  being  next 
door  to  the  Fighting  Cocks  tavern  by  the 
Long  Bridge,  at  the  foot  of  Broad  Street. 
Also  in  this  same  year  it  is  named  as  the 
place  of  public  vendue  of  land  situated  on 

By  this  time  the  Exchange  coffee  house 
had  virtually  become  the  city's  official  auc- 
tion room,  as  well  as  the  place  to  buy  and 

to  drink  coffee.  Commodities  of  many 
kinds  were  also  bought  and  sold  there,  both 
within  the  house  and  on  the  sidewalk  be- 
fore it. 

The  Mercha7its  Coffee  House 

In  the  year  1750,  the  Exchange  coffee 
house  had  begun  to  lose  its  long-held 
prestige,  and  its  name  was  changed  to  the 
Gentlemen's  Exchange  coffee  house  and 
tavern.  A  year  later  it  had  migrated  to 
Broadway  under  the  name  of  the  Gentle- 
mens'  coffee  house  and  tavern.  In  1753  it 
was  moved  again,  to  Hunter's  Quay,  which 
was  situated  on  what  is  now  Front  Street, 
somewhere  between  the  present  Old  Slip 
and  Wall  Street.  The  famous  old  coffee 
house  seems  to  have  gone  out  of  existence 
about  this  time,  its  passing  hastened,  no 
doubt,  by  the  newer  enterprise,  the  Mer- 
chants coffee  house,  which  was  to  become 
the  most  celebrated  in  New  York,  and,  ac- 
cording to  some  writers,  the  most  historic 
in  America. 

It  is  not  certain  just  when  the  Merchants 
coffee  house  was  first  opened.  As  near  as 
can  be  determined,  Daniel  Bloom,  a  mariner, 
in  1737  bought  the  Jamaica  Pilot  Boat 
tavern  from  John  Dunks  and  named  it  the 
Merchants  coffee  house.  The  building  was 
situated  on  the  northwest  corner  of  the 
present  Wall  Street  and  Water  (then 
Queen)  Street;  and  Bloom  was  its  landlord 
until  his  death,  soon  after  the  year  1750. 
He  was  succeeded  by  Captain  James  Ack- 
land,  who  shortly  sold  it  to  Luke  Roome. 
The  latter  disposed  of  the  building  in  1758 
to  Dr.  Charles  Arding.  The  doctor  leased 
it  to  Mrs.  Mary  Ferrari,  who  continued  as 
its  proprietor  until  she  moved,  in  1772,  to 
the  newer  building  diagonally  across  the 
street,  built  by  William  Brownejohn,  on  the 
southeast  corner  of  Wall  and  Water  Streets. 
Mrs.  Ferrari  took  with  her  the  patronage 
and  the  name  of  the  Merchants  coffee  house, 
and  the  old  building  was  not  used  again  as 
a  coffee  house. 

The  building  housing  the  original  Mer- 
chants coffee  house  was  a  two-story  struc- 
ture, wdth  a  balcony  on  the  roof,  which  was 
typical  of  the  middle  eighteenth  century 
architecture  in  New  York.  On  the  first 
floor  were  the  coffee  bar  and  booths  de- 
scribed in  connection  with  the  King's  Arms 
coffee  house.  The  second  floor  had  the 
typical  long  room  for  public  assembly. 

During  Bloom's  proprietorship  the  Mer- 
chants coffee  house  had  a  long,  hard  struggle 



Merchants  Ck)FFEE  House  (at  the  Right)  as  It  Appeared  from  1772  to  1804 

The  original  coffee  house  of  this  name  was  opened  on  the  northwest  corner  of  Wall  and  Water  Streets 
about  1737,  the  business  being  moved  to  the  southeast  corner  in  1772 

to  win  the  patronage  away  from  the  Ex- 
change coffee  house,  which  was  flourishing 
at  that  time.  But,  being  located  near  the 
Meal  Market,  where  the  merchants  were 
wont  to  gather  for  trading  purposes,  it 
gradually  became  the  meeting  place  of  the 
city,  at  the  expense  of  the  Exchange  coffee 
house,  farther  down  the  waterfront. 

Widow  Ferrari  presided  over  the  original 
Merchants  coffee  house  for  fourteen  years, 
until  she  moved  across  the  street.  She  was 
a,  keen  business  woman.  Just  before  she 
was  ready  to  open  the  new  coffee  house  she 
announced  to  her  old  patrons  that  she 
would  give  a  house-warming,  at  which 
arrack,  punch,  wine,  cold  ham,  tongue,  and 
other  delicacies  of  the  day  would  be  served. 
The  event  was  duly  noted  in  the  news- 
papers, one  stating  that  ''the  agreeable 
situation  and  the  elegance  of  the  new  house 
liad  occasioned  a  great  resort  of  company 
to  it." 

]\Irs.  Ferrari  continued  in  charge  until 
May  1,  1776,  when  Cornelius  Bradford  bo- 
came  proprietor  and  sought  to  build  up  the 
patronage,  that  had  dwindled  somewhat 
during  the  stirring  days  immediately  pre- 
ceding the  Revolution.  In  his  announce- 
ment of  the  change  of  ownership,  he  said, 
""Interesting  intelligence  will  be  carefully 

collected  and  the  greatest  attention  will  be 
given  to  the  arrival  of  vessels,  when  trade 
and  navigation  shall  resume  their  former 
channels."  He  referred  to  the  complete 
embargo  of  trade  to  Europe  which  the 
colonists  were  enduring.  When  the  Amer- 
ican troops  withdrew  from  the  city  during 
the  Revolution,  Bradford  went  also,  to 
Rhinebeck  on  the  Hudson. 

During  the  British  occupation,  the  Mer- 
chants coffee  house  was  a  place  of  great 
activity.  As  before,  it  was  the  center  of 
trading,  and  under  the  British  regime  it 
became  also  the  place  where  the  prize  ships 
were  sold.  The  Chamber  of  Commerce 
resumed  its  sessions  in  the  upper  long  room 
in  1779,  having  been  suspended  since  1775. 
The  Chamber  paid  fifty  pounds  rent  per 
annum  for  the  use  of  the  room  to  Mrs. 
Smith,  the  landlady  at  the  time. 

In  1781  John  Stachan,  then  proprietor 
of  the  Queen's  Head  tavern,  became  land- 
lord of  the  Merchants  coffee  house,  and  he 
promised  in  a  public  announcement  *'to 
pay  attention  not  only  as  a  Coffee  House, 
but  as  a  tavern,  in  the  truest;  and  to  dis- 
tinguish the  same  as  the  City  Tavern  and 
Coffee  House,  with  constant  and  best  at- 
tendance. Breakfast  from  seven  to  eleven ; 
soups  and  relishes  from  eleven  to  half-past 



one.  Tea,  coffee,  etc.,  in  the  afternoon,  as 
in  England."  But  when  he  began  charging 
sixpence  for  receiving  and  dispatching  let- 
ters by  man-o'-war  to  England,  he  brought 
a  storm  about  his  ears,  and  was  forced  to 
give  up  the  practise.  He  continued  in 
charge  until  peace  came,  and  Cornelius 
Bradford  came  with  it  to  resume  pro- 
prietorship of  the  coffee  house. 

Bradford  changed  the  name  to  the  New 
York  coffee  house,  but  the  public  continued 
to  call  it  by  its  original  name,  and  the  land- 
lord soon  gave  in.  He  kept  a  marine  list, 
giving  the  names  of  vessels  arriving  and 
departing,  recording  their  ports  of  sailing. 
He  also  opened  a  register  of  returning  citi- 
zens, "where  any  gentleman  now  resident 
in  the  city,"  his  advertisement  stated, 
"may  insert  their  names  and  place  of 
residence."  This  seems  to  have  been  the 
first  attempt  at  a  city  directory.  By  his 
energy  Bradford  soon  made  the  Merchants 
coffee  house  again  the  business  center  of  the 
city.  When  he  died,  in  1786,  he  was 
mourned  as  one  of  the  leading  citizens. 
His  funeral  was  held  at  the  coffee  house 
over  M^iich  he  had  fjresided  so  well. 

The  Merchants  coffee  house  continued 
to  be  the  principal  public  gathering  place 
until  it  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  1804.  Dur- 
ing its  existence  it  had  figured  prominently 
in  many  of  the  local  and  national  historic 
events,  too  numerous  to  record  here  in  de- 

Some  of  the  famous  events  were :  The 
reading  of  the  order  to  the  citizens,  in  1765, 
warning  them  to  stop  rioting  against  the 
Stamp  Act;  the  debates  on  the  subject  of 
not  accepting  consignments  of  goods  from 
Great  Britain ;  the  demonstration  by  the 
Sons  of  Liberty,  sometimes  called  the  "Lib- 
erty Boys,"  made  before  Captain  Lockyer 
of  the  tea  ship  Nancy  which  had  been 
turned  away  from  Boston  and  sought  to 
land  its  cargo  in  New  York  in  1774;  the 
general  meeting  of  citizens  on  May  19, 
1774,  to  discuss  a  means  of  communicat- 
ing with  the  Massachusetts  colony  to  ob- 
tain co-ordinated  effort  in  resisting  Eng- 
land's oppression,  out  of  which  came  the 
letter  suggesting  a  congress  of  deputies 
from  the  colonies  and  calling  for  a  "vir- 
tuous and  spirited  Union ; ' '  the  mass  meet- 
ing of  citizens  in  the  days  immediately  fol- 
lowing the  battles  at  Concord  and  Lexing- 
ton in  Massachusetts;  and  the  forming  of 
the  Committee  of  One  Hundred  to  admin- 

ister the  public  business,  making  the  Mer- 
chants coffee  house  virtually  the  seat  of 

When  the  American  Army  held  the  city 
in  1776,  the  coffee  house  became  the  resort 
of  army  and  navy  officers.  Its  culminating 
glory  came  on  April  23,  1789,  when  Wash- 
ington, the  recently  elected  first  presi- 
dent of  the  United  States,  was  officially 
greeted  at  the  coffee  house  by  the  governor 
of  the  State,  the  mayor  of  the  city,  and  the 
lesser  municipal  officers. 

As  a  meeting  place  for  societies  and 
lodges  the  Merchants  coffee  house  was  long 
distinguished.  In  addition  to  the  purely 
commercial  organizations  that  gathered  in 
its  long  room,  these  bodies  regularly  met 
there  in  their  early  days:  The  Society  of 
Arts,  Agriculture  and  Economy;  Knights 
of  Corsica ;  New  York  Committee  of  Cor- 
respondence; New  Yori?:  Marine  Society; 
Chamber  of  Commerce  of  the  State  of  New 
York;  Lodge  169,  Free  and  Accepted  Ma- 
sons; Whig  Society;  Society  of  the  New 
York  Hospital;  St.  Andrew's  Society;  So- 
ciety of  the  Cincinnati ;  Society  of  the  Sons 
of  St.  Patrick;  Society  for  Promoting  the 
Manumission  of  Slaves ;  Society  for  the  Re- 
lief of  Distressed  Debtors;  Black  Friars 
Society ;  Independent  Rangers ;  and  Federal 

Here  also  came  the  men  who,  in  1784,. 
formed  the  Bank  of  New  York,  the  first 
financial  institution  in  the  city;  and  here 
was  held,  in  1790,  the  first  public  sale  of 
stocks  by  sworn  brokers.  Here,  too,  was 
held  the  organization  meeting  of  subscrib- 
ers to  the  Tontine  coffee  house,  which  in  a 
few  years  was  to  prove  a  worthy  rival. 

Some  Lesser  Known  Coffee  Houses 

Before  taking  up  the  story  of  the  famous 
Tontine  coffee  house  it  should  be  noted 
that  the  Merchants  coffee  house  had  some 
prior  measure  of  competition.  For  four 
years  the  Exchange  coffee  room  sought  toi 
cater  to  the  wants  of  the  merchants  around 
the  foot  of  Broad  Street.  It  was  located 
in  the  Royal  Exchange,  which  had  beea 
erected  in  1752  in  place  of  the  old  Ex- 
change, and  until  1754  had  been  used  a» 
a  store.  Then  William  Keen  and  Alex- 
ander Lightfoot  got  control  and  started 
their  coffee  room,  with  a  ball  room  at- 
tached. The  partnership  split  up  in  1756^ 
Lightfoot  continuing  operations  until  he 
died  the  next  year,  when  his  widow  tried  t& 



The  Toxtine   Coffee   House    (Second   Building  at   the   Left),   Opened   in   1792 

This  is  the  original  structure,  northwest  corner  of  Wall   and   Water   Streets,    which   was   succeeded   about 

1850  by  a  flve-story  building  (see  page  122)  that  in  turn  was  replaced  by  a  modern  office  buildii.g 

carry  it  on.  In  1758  it  had  reverted  into 
its  original  character  of  a  mercantile  estab- 

Then  there  was  the  Whitehall  coffee 
house,  which  two  men,  named  Rogers  and 
Humphreys,  opened  in  1762,  with  the  an- 
nouncement that  "a  correspondence  is  set- 
tled in  London  and  Bristol  to  remit  by 
every  opportunity  all  the  public  prints  and 
pamphlets  as  soon  as  published;  and  there 
will  be  a ,  weekly  supply  of  New  York, 
Boston  and  other  American  newspapers." 
This  enterprise  had  a  short  life. 

The  early  records  of  the  city  infrequent- 
ly mention  the  Burns  coffee  house,  some- 
times calling  it  a  tavern.  It  is  likely  that 
the  place  was  more  an  inn  than  a  coffee 
house.  It  was  kept  for  a  number  of  years 
by  George  Burns,  near  the  Battery,  and 
was  located  in  the  historic  old  De  Lancey 
house,  which  afterward  became  the  City 

Burns  remained  the  proprietor  until 
1762,  when  it  was  taken  over  by  a  Mrs. 
Steele,  who  gave  it  the  name  of  the  King's 
Arms.  Edward  Barden  became  the  land- 
lord in  1768.  In  later  years  it  became 
known  as  the  Atlantic  Garden  house.    Trai- 

tor Benedict  Arnold  is  said  to  have  lodged 
in  the  old  tavern  after  deserting  to  the 

The  Bank  coffee  house  belonged  to  a 
later  generation,  and  had  few  of  the  char- 
acteristics of  the  earlier  coffee  houses.  It 
was  opened  in  1814  by  William  Niblo,  of 
Niblo's  Garden  fame,  and  stood  at  the 
corner  of  William  and  Pine  Streets,  at  the 
rear  of  the  Bank  of  New  York.  The  cof- 
fee house  endured  for  probably  ten  years, 
and  became  the  gathering  place  of  a  co- 
terie of  prominent  merchants,  who  formed 
a  sort  of  club.  The  Bank  coffee  house  be- 
came celebrated  for  its  dinners  and  dinner 

Fraunces'  tavern,  best  known  as  the 
place  where  Washington  bade  farewell  to 
his  army  officers,  was,  as  its  name  states, 
a  tavern,  and  can  not  be  properly  classed 
as  a  coffee  house.  While  coffee  was  served, 
and  there  was  a  long  room  for  gatherings, 
little,  if  any,  business  was  done  there  by 
merchants.  It  was  largely  a  meeting  place 
for  citizens  bent  on  a  "good  time." 

Then  there  was  the  New  England  and 
Quebec  coffee  house,  which  was  also  a 



The  Tontine  Building  of  1850 

Northwest  corner  of  Wall  and  Water  Streets;  an 
omnibus  of  the  Broadway-Wall-Street  Ferry 
line  is  passing 

The  Tontine  Coffee  House 

The  last  of  the  celebrated  coffee  houses 
of  New  York  bore  the  name,  Tontine  cof- 
fee house.  For  several  years  after  the 
burning  of  the  Merchants  coffee  house,  in 
1804,  it  was  the  only  one  of  note  in  the 

Feeling  that  they  should  have  a  more 
commodious  coffee  house  for  carrying  on 
their  various  business  enterprises,  some  150 
merchants  organized,  in  1791,  the  Tontine 
coffee  house.  This  enterprise  was  based' 
on  the  plan  introduced  into  France  in  1653 
by  Lorenzo  Tonti,  with  slight  variations. 
According  to  the  New  York  Tontine  plan, 
each  holder's  share  reverted  automatically 


^  1 

^^H|    ,4 









to  the  surviving  shareholders  in  the  asso- 
ciation, instead  of  to  his  heirs.  There 
were  157  original  shareholders,  and  203 
shares  of  stock  valued  at  £200  each. 

The  directors  bought  the  house  and  lot 
on  the  northwest  corner  of  Wall  and  Water 
Streets,  where  the  original  Merchants  cof- 
fee house  stood,  paying  £1,970.  They  next 
acquired  the  adjoining  lots  on  Wall  and 
Water  Streets,  paying  £2,510  for  the  for- 
mer, and  £1,000  for  the  latter. 

The  cornerstone  of  the  new  coffee  house 
was  laid  June  5,  1792 ;  and  a  year  later  to 
the  day,  120  gentlemen  sat  down  to  a  ban- 
quet in  the  completed  coffee  house  to  cele- 
brate the  event  of  the  year  before.  John 
Hyde  was  the  first  landlord.  The  house 
had  cost  $43,000. 

NiBLo's  Gakden, 

Broadway  and  Pkince  Street, 


Coffee  Kelics  of  Dutch  New  York 

Spice-grinder  boat,   coffee   roaster,   and   coffee  pots 
at  the  Van  Cortlandt  Museum 

A  contemporary  account  of  how  the  Ton- 
tine coffee  house  looked  in  1794  is  supplied 
by  an  Englishman  visiting  New  York  at 
the  time : 

The  Tontine  tavern  and  coffee  house  is  a 
handsome  large  brick  building;  you  ascend  six 
or  eight  steps  under  a  portico,  into  a  large  pub- 
lie  room,  which  is  the  Stock  Exchange  of  New 
York,  where  all  bargains  are  made.  Here  are 
two  books  kept,  as  at  Lloyd's  [in  London]  of 
every  ship's  arrival  and  clearance.  This  house 
was  built  for  the  accommodation  of  the  mer- 
chants by  Tontine  shares  of  two  hundred  pounds 
each.    It  is  kept  by  Mr.  Hyde,  formerly  a  woolen 




.fc*—  :■-  ■  li  aTKMiq^^ 

New  York's  Vauxiiall  Garden  of  1803 
From   an   old   print 

draper  in  London.  You  can  lodge  and  board 
tliere  at  a  common  table,  and  you  pay  ten  shil- 
lin<?s  currency  a  day,  whether  you  dine  out  or 

The  stock  market  made  its  headquarters 
in  the  Tontine  coffee  house  in  1817,  and 
the  early  organization  was  elaborated  and 
became  the  New  York  Stock  and  Exchange 
Board.  It  was  removed  in  1827  to  the 
Merchants  Exchange  Building,  where  it  re- 
mained until  that  place  was  destroyed  by 
fire  in  1835. 

It  was  stipulated  in  the  original  articles 
of  the  Tontine  Association  that  the  house 
was  to  be  kept  and  used  as  a  coffee  house, 
and  this  agreement  was  adhered  to  up  to 
the  year  1834,  when,  by  permission  of  the 
Court  of  Chancery,  the  premises  were  let 
for  general  business-office  purposes.  This 
change  was  due  to  the  competition  offered 
by  the  Merchants  Exchange,  a  short  dis- 
tance up  Wall  Street,  which  had  been 
opened  soon  after  the  completion  of  the 
Tontine  coffee  house  building. 

As  the  city  grew,  the  business-office  quar- 
ters  of  the  original  Tontine  coffee  house  be- 
came inadequate;  and  about  the  year  1850 
a  new  five-story  building,  costing  some  $60,- 
000,  succeeded  it.  By  this  time  the  build- 
ing had  lost  its  old  coffee-house  character- 
istics.    This  new  Tontine  structure  is  said 

to  have  been  the  first  real  office  building  in 
New  York  City.  Today  the  site  is  occu- 
pied by  a  large  modern  office  building, 
which  still  retains  the  name  of  Tontine, 
It  was  owned  by  John  B.  and  Charles  A. 
O'Donohue,  well  known  New  York  coffee 
merchants,  until  1920,  When  it  was  sold 
for  $1,000,000  to  the  Federal  Sugar  Refin- 
ing Company. 

The  Tontine  coffee  house  did  not  figure 
so  prominently  in  the  historic  events  of  the 
nation  and  city  as  did  its  neighbor,  the 
Merchants  coffee  house.  However,  it  be- 
came the  Mecca  for  visitors  from  all  parts 
of  the  country,  who  did  not  consider  their 
sojourn  in  the  city  complete  until  they  had 
at  least  inspected  what  was  then  one  of  the 
most  pretentious  buildings  in  New  York. 
Chroniclers  of  the  Tontine  coffee  house  al- 
ways say  that  most  of  the  leaders  of  the 
nation,  together  with  distinguished  visitors 
from  abroad,  had  foregathered  in  the  large 
room  of  the  old  coffee  house  at  some  time 
during  their  careers. 

It  was  on  the  walls  of  the  Tontine  coffee 
house  that  bulletins  were  posted  on  Hamil- 
ton's  struggle  for  life  after  the  fatal  duel 
forced  on  him  by  Aaron  Burr. 

The  changing  of  the  Tontine  coffee  house 
into  a  purely  mercantile  building  marked 
the   end   of   the   coffee-house   era   in   New 



York.  Exchanges  and  office  buildings  had 
come  into  existence  to  take  the  place  of  the 
business  features  of  the  coffee  houses ;  clubs 
were  organized  to  take  care  of  the  social 
functions;  and  restaurants  and  hotels  had 
sprung  up  to  cater  to  the  needs  for  bever- 
ages and  food. 

New  York's  Pleasure   Gardens 

There  was  a  fairly  successful  attempt 
made  to  introduce  the  London  pleasure- 
garden  idea  into  New  York.  First,  tea 
gardens  were  added  to  several  of  the  tav- 
erns already  provided  with  ball  rooms. 
Then,  on  the  outskirts  of  the  city,  were 
opened  the  Vauxhall  and  the  Eanelagh 
gardens,  so  named  after  their  famous  Lon- 
don prototypes.  The  first  Vauxhall  gar- 
den (there  were  three  of  this  name)  was 
on  Greenwich  Street,  between  "Warren  and 
Chambers  Streets.  It  fronted  on  the  North 
River,  affording  a  beautiful  view  up  the 
Hudson.  Starting  as  the  Bowling  Green 
garden,  it  changed  to  Vauxhall  in  1750. 

Ranelagh  was  on  Broadway,  between  Du- 
ane  and  Worth  Streets,  on  the  site  where 
later  the  New  York  Hospital  was  erected. 
From  advertisements  of  the  period  (1765  - 
69)  we  learn  that  there  were  band  concerts 
twice  a  week  at  the  Ranelagh.  The  gardens 
were  "for  breakfasting  as  well  as  the  eve- 
ning entertainment  of  ladies  and  gentle- 

men." There  was  a  commodious  hall  in 
the  garden  for  dancing.  Ranelagh  lasted 
twenty  years.  Coffee,  tea,  and  hot  rolls 
could  be  had  in  the  pleasure  gardens  at 
any  hour  of  the  day.  Fireworks  were  fea- 
tured at  both  Ranelagh  and  Vauxhall  gar- 
dens. The  second  Vauxhall  was  near  the 
intersection  of  the  present  Mulberry  and 
Grand  Streets,  in  1798;  the  third  was  on 
Bowery  Road,  near  Astor  Place,  in  1803. 
The  Astor  library  was  built  upon  its  site 
in  1853. 

William  Niblo,  previously  proprietor  of 
the  Bank  coffee  house  in  Pine  Street, 
opened,  in  1828,  a  pleasure  garden,  that 
he  named  Sans  Souci,  on  the  site  of  a  circus 
building  called  the  Stadium  at  Broadway 
and  Prince  Street.  In  the  center  of  the 
garden  remained  the  stadium,  which  was 
devoted  to  theatrical  performances  of  "a 
gay  and  attractive  character."  Later,  he 
built  a  more  pretentious  theater  that 
fronted  on  Broadway.  The  interior  of  the 
garden  was  "spacious,  and  adorned  with 
shrubbery  and  walks,  lighted,  with  festoons 
of  lamps."  It  was  generally  known  as 
Niblo 's  garden. 

Among  other  well  known  pleasure  gar- 
dens of  old  New  York  were  Contoit's,  later 
the  New  York  garden,  and  Cherry  gardens, 
on  old  Cherry  Hill. 

Tavern  and  Grocers'   Signs   Used  in   Old  New  York 
Left,  Smith  Richards,  grocer  and  confectioner,  "at  the   sign   of  the   tea  canister  and   two   sugar  loaves" 
(1773)  ;  center,  the  King's  Arms,  originally  Burns  coffee  house   (1767) ;  right,  George  Webster,  Grocer, 
"at  the  sign  of  the  three  sugar  loaves" 

Chapter   XIV 

Ye  Coffee  House,  Philadelphia's  first  coffee  house,  opened  about 
1700  —  The  two  London  coffee  houses  —  The  City  tavern,  or  Mer- 
chants coffee  house  —  How  these,  and  other  celebrated  resorts, 
dominated  the  social,  political,  and  business  life  of  the  Quaker  City 
in  the  eighteenth  century 

WILLIAM  PENN  is  generally  cred- 
ited with  the  introduction  of  coffee 
into  the  Quaker  colony  which  he 
founded  on  the  Delaware  in  1682.  He  also 
brought  to  the  "city  of  brotherly  love" 
that  other  great  drink  of  human  brother- 
hood, tea.  At  first  (1700),  "like  tea,  cof- 
fee was  only  a  drink  for  the  well-to-do, 
except  in  sips. ' "  As  was  the  case  in  the 
other  English  colonies,  coffee  languished 
for  a  time  while  tea  rose  in  favor,  more 
especially  in  the  home. 

Following  the  stamp  act  of  1765,  and 
the  tea  tax  of  1767,  the  Pennsylvania  Col- 
ony joined  hands  with  the  others  in  a 
general  tea  boycott ;  and  coffee  received  the 
same  impetus  as  elsewhere  in  the  colonies 
that  became  the  thirteen  original  states. 

The  coffee  houses  of  early  Philadelphia 
loom  large  in  the  history  of  the  city  and 
the  republic.  Picturesque  in  themselves, 
with  their  distinctive  colonial  architecture, 
their  associations  also  were  romantic.  Many 
a  civic,  sociological,  and  industrial  reform 
came  into  existence  in  the  low-ceilinged, 
sanded-floor  main  rooms  of  the  city's  early 
coffee  houses. 

For  many  years.  Ye  coffee  house,  the  two 
London  coffee  houses,  and  the  City  tavern 
(also  known  as  the  Merchants  coffee  house) 
each  in  its  turn  dominated  the  official  and 
social  life  of  Philadelphia.  The  earlier 
houses  were  the  regular  meeting  places  of 

*  Oberholtzer,  Ellis  Paxson.  Philadelphia ;  a  his- 
tory of  the  city  and  its  people.  Philadelphia,  1912. 
(vol.  i  :  p.  106.) 

Quaker  municipal  officers,  ship  captains, 
and  merchants  who  came  to  transact  pub- 
lic and  private  business.  As  the  outbreak 
of  the  Revolution  drew  near,  fiery  colonials, 
many  in  Quaker  garb,  congregated  there  to 
argue  against  British  oppression  of  the 
colonies.  After  the  Revolution,  the  leading 
citizens  resorted  to  the  coffee  house  to  dine 
and  sup  and  to  hold  their  social  functions. 

When  the  city  was  founded  in  1682,  cof- 
fee cost  too  much  to  admit  of  its  being 
retailed  to  the  general  public  at  coffee 
houses,  William  Penn  wrote  in  his  Ac- 
counts that  in  1683  coffee  in  the  berry 
was  sometimes  procured  in  New  York  at 
a  cost  of  eighteen  shillings  nine  pence  the 
pound,  equal  to  about  $4.68.  He  told  also 
that  meals  were  served  in  the  ordinaries 
at  six  pence  (equal  to  twelve  cents),  to  wit: 
"We  have  seven  ordinaries  for  the  enter- 
tainment of  strangers  and  for  workmen 
that  are  not  housekeepers,  and  a  good  meal 
is  to  be  had  there  for  six  pence  sterling." 
With  green  coffee  costing  $4.68  a  pound, 
making  the  price  of  a  cup  about  seventeen 
cents,  it  is  not  likely  that  coffee  was  on 
the  menus  of  the  ordinaries  serving  meals 
at  twelve  cents  each.  Ale  was  the  common 
meal-time  beverage. 

There  were  four  classes  of  public  houses 
—  inns,  taverns,  ordinaries,  and  coffee 
houses.  The  inn  was  a  modest  hotel  that 
supplied  lodgings,  food,  and  drink,  the  bev- 
erages consisting  mostly  of  ale,  port,  Ja- 
maica rum,  and  Madeira  wine.    The  tavern, 




though  accommodating  guests  with  bed  and 
board,  was  more  of  a  drinking  place  than  a 
lodging  house.  The  ordinary  combined  the 
characteristics  of  a  restaurant  and  a  board- 
ing house.  The  coffee  house  was  a  preten- 
tious tavern,  dispensing,  in  most  cases,  in- 
toxicating drinks  as  well  as  coffee. 

Philadelphia's  First  Coffee  House 

The  first  house  of  public  resort  opened 
in  Philadelphia  bore  the  name  of  the  Blue 
Anchor  tavern,  and  was  probably  estab- 
lished in  1683  or  1684;  colonial  records  do 
not  state  definitely.  As  its  name  indicates, 
this  was  a  tavern.  The  first  coffee  house 
came  into  existence  about  the  year  1700. 
Watson,  in  one  place  in  his  Annals  of  the 
city,  says  1700,  but  in  another  1702.  The 
earlier  date  is  thought  to  be  correct,  and  is 
seemingly  substantiated  by  the  co-authors 
Scharf  and  Westcott  in  their  History  '  of 
the  city,  in  which  they  say,  * '  The  first  pub- 
lic house  designated  as  a  coffee  house  was 
built  in  Penn's  time  [1682-1701]  by 
Samuel  Carpenter,  on  the  east  side  of 
Front  Street,  probably  above  Walnut 
Street.  That  it  was  the  first  of  its  kind  — 
the  only  one  in  fact  for  some  years  — 
seems  to  be  established  beyond  doubt.  It 
was  always  referred  to  in  old  times  as  'Ye 
Coffee  House.'  " 

Carpenter  owned  also  the  Globe  inn, 
which  was  separated  from  Ye  coffee  house 
by  a  public  stairway  running  down  from 
Front  Street  to  Water  Street,  and,  it  is 
supposed,  to  Carpenter's  Wharf.  The  ex- 
act location  of  the  old  house  was  recently 
established  from  the  title  to  the  original 
patentee,  Samuel  Carpenter,  by  a  Phila- 
delphia real-estate  title-guarantee  company, 
as  being  between  Walnut  and  Chestnut 
Streets,  and  occupying  six  and  a  half  feet 
of  what  is  now  No.  137  South  Front  Street 
and  the  whole  of  No,  139. 

How  long  Ye  coffee  house  endured  is  un- 
certain. It  was  last  mentioned  in  colonial 
records  in  a  real  estate  conveyance  from 
Carpenter  to  Samuel  Finney,  dated  April 
26,  1703.  In  that  document  it  is  described 
as  "That  brick  Messuage,  or  Tenement, 
called  Ye  Coffee  House,  in  the  possession 
of  Henry  Flower,  and  situate,  lying  and 
being  upon  or  before  the  bank  of  the  Dela- 
ware River,  containing  in  length  about 
thirty  feet  and  in  breadth  about  twenty- 

The  Henry  Flower  mentioned  as  the  pro- 
prietor of  Philadelphia's  first  coffee  house, 

was  postmaster  of  the  province  for  a  num- 
ber of  years,  and  it  is  believed  that  Ye 
coffee  house  also  did  duty  as  the  post-offiei' 
for  a  time.  Benjamin  Franklin's  Penn- 
sylvania Gazette,  in  an  issue  published  in 
1734,  has  this  advertisement: 

All  persons  who  are  indebted  to  Henry  Flower, 
iQ/te  postmaster  of  Pennsylvania,  for  Postage  of 
Letters  or  otherivise,  are  desir'd  to  pay  the  same 
to  Mm  at  the  old  Coffee  House  in  Philadelphia. 

Flower's,  advertisement  would  indicate 
that  Ye  coffee  house,  then  venerable  enough 
to  be  designated  as  old,  was  still  in  exist- 
ence, and  that  Flower  was  to  be  found 
there.  Franklin  also  seems  to  have  been 
in  the  coffee  business,  for  in  several  issues 
of  the  Gazette  around  the  year  1740  he 
advertised:  "Very  good  coffee  sold  by  the 
Printer. ' ' 

The  First  London  Coffee  House 

Philadelphia's  second  coffee  house  bore 
the  name  of  the  London  coffee  house,  which 
title  was  later  used  for  the  resort  William 
Bradford  opened  in  1754.  The  first  house 
of  this  name  was  built  in  1702,  but  there 
seems  to  be  some  doubt  about  its  location. 
Writing  in  the  American  Historical  Regis- 
ter, Charles  H.  Browning  says:  "William 
Rodney  came  to  Philadelphia  with  Penn  in 
1682,  and  resided  in  Kent  County,  where 
he  died  in  1708 ;  he  built  the  old  London 
coffee  house  at  Front  and  Market  Streets 
in  1702."  Another  chronicler  gives  its  lo- 
cation as  "above  Walnut  Street,  either  on 
the  east  side  of  Water  Street,  or  on  Dela- 
ware Avenue,  or,  as  the  streets  are  very 
close  together,  it  may  have  been  on  both. 
John  Shewbert,  its  proprietor,  was  a  pa- 
rishioner of  Christ  Church,  and  his  estab* 
lishment  was  largely  patronized  by  Church 
of  England  people."  It  was  also  the  gath- 
ering place  of  the  followers  of  Penn  and 
the  Proprietary  party,  while  their  oppo- 
nents, the  political  cohorts  of  Colonel 
Quarry,  frequented  Ye  coffee  house. 

The  first  London  coffee  house  resembled 
a  fashionable  club  house  in  its  later  years, 
suitable  for  the  "genteel"  entertainments 
of  the  well-to-do  Philadelphians.  Ye  cof- 
fee house  was  more  of  a  commercial  or 
public  exchange.  Evidence  of  the  gentility 
of  the  London  is  given  by  John  William 
Wallace : 

The  appointments  of  the  London  Coffee  House, 
if  we  may  infer  what  they  were  from  the  will 
of  Mrs.  Shtitiert  [Shewbert]  dated  November  27, 
1751,    were    genteel.      By    that   instrument    she 



The  Second  London  Coffee  House,  Opened  in  1754  by  William  Bradford,  the  Printer 
Up  to  the  outbreak  of  the  American  Revolution,  it  was    more    frequented    than   any    other    tavern    in    the 
Quaker   city  as  a   place   of  resort  and   entertainment,    and   was   famous   throughout   the   colonies  v.^ 

makes  bequest  of  two  silver  quax't  tankards;  a 
silver  cup ;  a  silver  porringer ;  a  silver  pepper 
pot ;  two  sets  of  silver  castors ;  a  silver  soup 
spoon ;  a  silver  sauce  spoon,  and  numerous 
silver  tablespoons,  and  tea  spoons,  with  a  silver 

One  of  the  many  historic  incidents  con- 
nected with  this  old  house  was  the  visit 
there  by  William  Penn's  eldest  son,  John, 
in  1733,  when  he  entertained  the  General 
Assembly  of  the  province  on  one  day  and 
on  the  next  feasted  the  City  Corporation. 

Roberts'  Coffee  House 

Another  house  with  some  fame  in  the 
middle  of  the  eighteenth  century  was  Rob- 
erts' coffee  house,  which  stood  in  Front 
Street  near  the  first  London  house.  Though 
its  opening  date  is  unknown,  it  is  believed 
to  have  come  into  existence  about  1740. 
In  1744  a  British  army  officer  recruiting 
troops  for  service  in  Jamaica  advertised 
in  the  newspaper  of  the  day  that  he  could 
be  seen  at  the  Widow  Roberts'  coffee  house. 
During  the  French  and  Indian  War,  when 
Philadelphia  was  in  grave  danger  of  attack 
by  French  and  Spanish  privateers,  the  citi- 
zens felt  so  great  relief  when  the  British 
ship  Otter  came  to  the  rescue,  that  they 
proposed  a  public  banquet  in  honor  of  the 
Otter's  captain  to  be  held  at  Roberts'  cof- 

fee house,.-  For  some  unrecorded  reasoii 
the  entertainment  was  not  given ;  probably 
because  the  house  was  too  small  to  accom- 
modate all  the  citizens  desiring  to  attend. 
Widow  Roberts  retired  in  1754. 

The  James  Coffee  House 

Contemporary  with  Roberts '  coffee  house 
w^as  the  resort  run  first  by  Widow  James, 
and  later  by  her  son,  James  James.  It 
was  established  in  1744,  and  occupied  a 
large  wooden  building  on  the  northwest 
corner  of  Front  and  Walnut  Streets.  It 
w^as  patronized  by  Governor  Thomas  and 
many  of  his  political  followers,  and  its 
name  frequently  appeared  in  the  news  and 
advertising  columns  of  the  Pennsylvania 

The  Second  London  Coffee  House 

Probably  the  most  celebrated  coffee  house 
in  Penn's  city  was  the  one  established  by 
William  Bradford,  printer  of  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Journal.  It  was  on  the  southwest 
corner  of  Second  and  Market  Streets,  and 
was  named  the  London  coffee  house,  the 
second  house  in  Philadelphia  to  bear  that 
title.  The  building  had  stood  since  1702, 
when  Charles  Reed,  later  mayor  of  the 
city,  put  it  up  on  land  which  he  bought 



from  Letitia  Penn,  daughter  of  William 
Penn,  the  founder.  Bradford  was  the  first 
to  use  the  structure  for  coffee-house  pur- 
poses, and  he  tells  his  reason  for  entering 
upon  the  business  in  his  petition  to  the  gov- 
ernor for  a  license :  ' '  Having  been  advised 
to  keep  a  Coffee  House  for  the  benefit  of 
merchants  and  traders,  and  as  some  people 
may  at  times  be  desirous  to  be  furnished 
with  other  liquors  besides  coffee,  your  pe- 
titioner apprehends  it  is  necessary  to  have 
the  Governor's  license."  This  would  indi- 
cate that  in  that  day  coffee  was  drunk  as 
a  refreshment  between  meals,  as  were 
spirituous  liquors  for  so  many  years  be- 
fore, and  thereafter  up  to  1920. 

Selling  Slaves  at  the  Old  London  Coffee 

Bradford's  London  coffee  house  seems  to 
have  been  a  joint-stock  enterprise,  for  in 
his  Journal  of  April  11,  1754,  appeared 
this  notice:  "Subscribers  to  a  public  cof- 
fee house  are  invited  to  meet  at  the  Court- 
house on  Friday,  the  19th  instant,  at  3 
o'clock,  to  choose  trustees  agreeably  to  the 
plan  of  subscription." 

The  building  was  a  three-story  wooden 
structure,  with  an  attic  that  some  historians 
count  as  the  fourth  story.  There  was  a 
wooden  awning  one-story  high  extending 
out  to  cover  the  sidewalk  before  the  cof- 
fee house.  The  entrance  was  on  Market 
(then  known  as  High)  Street. 

The  London  coffee  house  was  "the  pul- 
sating heart  of  excitement,  enterprise,  and 
patriotism"  of  the  early  city.  The  most 
active  citizens  congregated  there  —  mer- 
chants, shipmasters,  travelers  from  other 
colonies  and  countries,  crown  and  provin- 
cial officers.  The  governor  and  persons  of 
equal  note  went  there  at  certain  hours  "to 
sip  their  coffee  from  the  hissing  urn,  and 
some  of  those  stately  visitors  had  their 
own  stalls."  It  had  also  the  character  of 
a  mercantile  exchange  —  carriages,  horses, 
foodstuffs,  and  the  like  being  sold  there  at 
auction.  It  is  further  related  that  the  early 
slave-holding  Philadelphians  sold  negro 
men,  women,  and  children  at  vendue,  ex- 
hibiting the  slaves  on  a  platform  set  up 
in  the  street  before  the  coffee  house. 

The  resort  was  the  barometer  of  public 
sentiment.  It  was  in  the  street  before  this 
house  that  a  newspaper  published  in 
Barbados,  bearing  a  stamp  in  accordance 
with  the  provisions  of  the  stamp  act,  was 
publicly  burned  in  1765,  amid  the  cheers 
of  bystanders.  It  was  here  that  Captain 
Wise  of  the  brig  Minerva,  from  Pool,  Eng- 
land, who  brought  news  of  the  repeal  of  the 
act,  was  enthusiastically  greeted  by  the 
crowd  in  May,  1766.  Here,  too,  for  several 
years  the  fishermen  set  up  May  poles. 

Bradford  gave  up  the  coffee  house  when 
he  joined  the  newly  formed  Revolutionary 
army  as  major,  later  becoming  a  colonel. 
When  the  British  entered  the  city  in  Sep- 
tember, 1777,  the  officers  resorted  to  the 
London  coffee  house,  which  was  much  fre- 
quented by  Tory  sympathizers.  After  the 
British  had  evacuated  the  city,  Colonel 
Bradford  resumed  proprietorship ;  but  he 
found  a  change  in  the  public's  attitude 
toward  the  old  resort,  and  thereafter  its 
fortunes  began  to  decline,  probably  hast- 
ened by  the  keen  competition  offered  by  the 
City  tavern,  which  had  been  opened  a  few 
years  before. 

Bradford  gave  up  the  lease  in  1780, 
transferring  the  property  to  John  Pember- 
ton,  who  leased  it  to  Grifford  Dally.  Pem- 
berton  was  a  Friend,  and  his  scruples  about 
gambling  and  other  sins  are  well  exhibited 
in  the  terms  of  the  lease  in  which  said 
Dally  "covenants  and  agrees  and  promises 
that  he  will  exert  his  endeavors  as  a  Chris- 
tian to  preserve  decency  and  order  in  said 
house,  and  to  discourage  the  profanation 
of  the  sacred  name  of  God  Almighty  by 
cursing,  swearing,  etc.,  and  that  the  house 




The  City  Tavern,  Built  i.n    .17i;i.  am>  K.nuwn    as    iiii-:   Mlkciiams   Coiii-h  lluttot 

The  tavern  (at  the  left)  was  regarded  as  the  largest  inn  of  the  colonies  and  stood  next  to  the  Bank  of 
Pennsylvania    (center).     From   a   print   made   from  a  rare  Birch  engraving 


on  the  first  day  of  the  week  shall  always  be 
kept  closed  from  public  use. "  It  is  further 
covenanted  that  "under  a  penalty  of  ilOO 
he  will  not  allow  or  suffer  any  person  to 
use,  or  play  at,  or  divert  themselves  with 
cards,  dice,  back-gammon,  or  any  other  un- 
lawful game." 

It  would  seem  from  the  terms  of  the 
lease  that  what  Pemberton  thought  were 
ungodly  things,  were  countenanced  in  other 
coffee  houses  of  the  day.  Perhaps  the  regu- 
lations were  too  strict ;  for  a  few  years  later 
the  house  had  passed  into  the  hands  of  John 
Stokes,  who  used  it  as  dwelling  and  a  store. 

City  Tavern  or  Merchants  Coffee  House 

The  last  of  the  celebrated  coffee  houses 
in  Philadelphia  was  built  in  1773  under 
the  name  of  the  City  tavern,  which  later 
became  known  as  the  Merchants  coffee 
house,  possibly  after  the  house  of  the  same 
name  that  was  then  famous  in  New  York. 
It  stood  in  Second  Street  near  Walnut 
Street,  and  in  some  respects  was  even  more 
noted  than  Bradford's  London  coffee  house, 
with  which  it  had  to  compete  in  its  early 

The  City  tavern  was  patterned  after  the 
best    London    coffee    houses;    and    when 

opened,  it  was  looked  upon  as  the  finest 
and  largest  of  its  kind  in  America.  It  was 
three  stories  high,  built  of  brick,  and  had 
several  large  club  rooms,  two  of  which  were 
connected  by  a  wide  doorway  that,  when 
open,  made  a  large  dining  room  fifty  feet 

Daniel  Smith  was  the  first  proprietor, 
and  he  opened  it  to  the  public  early  in  1774. 
Before  the  Revolution,  Smith  had  a  hard 
struggle  trying  to  win'  patronage  from 
Bradford's  London  coffee  house,  standing 
only  a  few  blocks  away.  But  during  and 
after  the  war,  the  City  tavern  gradually 
took  the  lead,  and  for  more  than  a  quar- 
ter of  a  century  was  the  principal  gather- 
ing place  of  the  city.  At  first,  the  house 
had  various  names  in  the  public  mind,  some 
calling  it  by  its  proper  title,  the  City  tav- 
ern, other  attaching  the  name  of  the  pro- 
prietor and  designating  it  as  Smith's  tav- 
ern, while  still  others  used  the  title,  the 
New  tavern. 

The  gentlefolk  of  the  city  resorted  to 
the  City  tavern  after  the  Revolution  as 
they  had  to  Bradford's  coffee  house  before. 
However,  before  reaching  this  high  estate, 
it  once  was  near  destruction  at  the  hands 
of  the  Tories,  who  threatened  to  tear  it 



down.  That  was  when  it  was  proposed  to 
hold  a  banquet  there  in  honor  of  Mrs. 
George  Washington,  who  had  stopped  in 
the  city  in  1776  while  on  the  way  to  meet 
her  distinguished  husband,  then  at  Cam- 
bridge in  Massachusetts,  taking  over  com- 
mand of  the  American  army.  Trouble  was 
averted  by  Mrs.  Washington  tactfully  de- 
clining to  appear  at  the  tavern. 

After  peace  came,  the  house  was  the 
scene  of  many  of  the  fashionable  enter- 
tainments of  the  period.  Here  met  the 
City  Dancing  Assembly,  and  here  was  held 
the  brilliant  fete  given  by  M.  Gerard,  first 
accredited  representative  from  France  to 
the  United  States,  in  honor  of  Louis  XVI  's 
birthday.  Washington,  Jefferson,  Hamil- 
ton, and  other  leaders  of  public  thought 
were  more  or  less  frequent  visitors  when 
in  Philadelphia. 

The  exact  date  when  the  City  tavern  be- 
came the  Merchants  coffee  house  is  un- 
known. When  James  Kitchen  became  pro- 
prietor, at  the  beginning  of  the  nineteenth 

century,  it  was  so  called.  In  1806  Kitchen 
turned  the  house  into  a  bourse,  or  mercan- 
tile exchange.  By  that  time  clubs  and 
hotels  had  come  into  fashion,  and  the  cof- 
fee-house idea  was  losing  caste  with  the 
elite  of  the  city. 

In  the  year  1806  William  Renshaw 
planned  to  open  the  Exchange  coffee  house 
in  the  Bingham  mansion  on  Third  Street. 
He  even  solicited  subscriptions  to  the  enter- 
prise, saying  that  he  proposed  to  keep  a 
marine  diary  and  a  registry  of  vessels  for 
sale,  to  receive  and  to  forward  ships'  letter 
bags,  and  to  have  accommodations  for  hold- 
ing auctions.  But  he  was  persuaded  from 
the  idea,  partly  by  the  fact  that  the  Mer- 
chants coffee  house  seemed  to  be  satisfac- 
torily filling  that  particular  niche  in  the 
city  life,  and  partly  because  the  hotel 
business  offered  better  inducements.  He 
abandoned  the  plan,  and  opened  the  Man- 
sion House  hotel  in  the  Bingham  residence 
in  1807. 

Exchange  Coffee  House  Scene  in  "Hamilton" 

In  this  setting  for  the  first  act  of  the  play  by  Mary  P.  Hamlin  and  George  Arliss,  produced  in  1918, 
the  scenic  artist  aimed  to  give  a  true  historical  Background,  and  combined  the  features  of  several 
inns  and  coffee  houses  in  Philadelphia,  Virginia,  and  New  England  as  they  existed  in  Washington's 
first  administration 

Chapter   XV 
HE      BOTANY      OF      THE     COFFEE     PLANT 

Its  complete  classification  hy  class,  sub-class,  order,  family,  genus, 
and  species  —  How  the  Coffea  arahica  groivs,  flowers,  and  hears  — 
Other  species  and  hybrids  described  —  Natural  caffein-free  coffee  — 
Fungoid  diseases  of  coffee 

THE  coffee  tree,  scientifically  known 
as  Coffea  arahica,  is  native  to  Abys- 
sinia and  Ethiopia,  but  grows  well  in 
Java,  Sumatra,  and  other  islands  of  the 
Dutch  East  Indies;  in  India,  Arabia,  equa- 
torial Africa,  the  islands  of  the  Pacific, 
in  Mexico,  Central  and  South  America,  and 
the  AVest  Indies.  The  plant  belongs  to  the 
large  sub-kingdom  of  plants  known  scien- 
tifically as  the  Angiosperms,  or  Angio- 
spermcE,  which  means  that  the  plant  re- 
produces by  seeds  which  are  enclosed  in  a 
box-like  compartment,  known  as  the  ovary, 
at  the  base  of  the  flower.  The  word  Angio- 
sperm  is  derived  from  two  Greek  words, 
sperma,  a  seed,  and  aggeion,  pronounced 
angeion,  a  box,  the  box  referred  to  being 
the  ovary. 

This  large  sub-kingdom  is  subdivided  in- 
to two  classes.  The  basis  for  this  division 
is  the  number  of  leaves  in  the  little  plant 
which  develops  from  the  seed.  The  coffee 
plant,  as  it  develops  from  the  seed,  has  two 
little  leaves,  and  therefore  belongs  to  the 
class  Dicotyledonece.  This  word  dicotyle- 
donece  is  made  up  of  the  two  Greek  words, 
di{s),  two,  and  kotyledon,  cavity  or  socket. 
It  is  not  necessary  to  see  the  young  plant 
that  develops  from  the  seed  in  order  to 
know  that  it  had  two  seed  leaves;  because 
the  mature  plant  always  shows  certain 
characteristics  that  accompany  this  condi- 
tion of  the  seed. 

In  every  plant  having  two  seed  leaves, 
the  mature  leaves  are  netted-veined,  which 
is  a  condition  easily  recognized  even  by  the 
layman;  also  the  parts  of  the  flowers  are 

in  circles  containing  two  or  five  parts,  but 
never  in  threes  or  sixes.  The  stems  of 
plants  of  this  class  always  increase  in  thick- 
ness by  means  of  a  layer  of  cells  known  as 
a  cambium,  which  is  a  tissue  that  continues 
to  divide  throughout  its  whole  existence. 
The  fact  that  this  cambium  divides  as  long 
as  it  lives,  gives  rise  to  a  peculiar  appear- 
ance in  woody  stems  by  which  we  can,  on 
looking  at  the  stem  of  a  tree  of  this  type 
when  it  has  been  sawed  across,  tell  the  age 
of  the  tree. 

In  the  spring  the  cambium  produces 
large  open  cells  through  which  large 
quantities  of  sap  can  run ;  in  the  fall 
it  produces  very  thick-walled  cells,  as  there 
is  not  so  much  sap  to  be  carried.  Because 
these  thin-walled  open  cells  of  one  spring 
are  next  to  the  thick-walled  cells  of  the  last 
autumn,  it  is  very  easy  to  distinguish  one 
year's  growth  from  the  next;  the  marks  so 
produced  are  called  annual  rings. 

We  have  now  classified  coffee  as  far  as 
the  class;  and  so  far  we  could  go  if  w'e 
had  only  the  leaves  and  stem  of  the  coffee 
plant.  In  order  to  proceed  farther,  we 
must  have  the  flow^ers  of  the  plant,  as  bo- 
tanical classification  goes  from  this  point 
on  the  basis  of  the  flowers.  The  class 
Dicotyledonecu  is  separated  into  sub-classes 
according  to  whether  the  flower's  corolla 
(the  showy  part  of  the  flower  which  ordi- 
narily gives  it  its  color)  is  all  in  one  piece, 
or  is  divided  into  a  number  of  parts.  The 
coffee  flower  is  arranged  with  its  corolla 
all  in  one  piece,  forming  a  tube-shaped  ar- 
rangement, and  accordingly  the  coffee  plant 




The  Coffee  Tree,  Showing  Details  of  Flowers  axd  Fruit 
From    a    drawing    by    Ch.   Emonts  in  Jardin's  Le  Cafcier  et  Le  Cafe 

belongs  to  the  sub-class  Sympetalce,  or 
MetachlamydecE ,  which  means  that  its  pet- 
als are  united. 

The  next  step  in  classification  is  to  place 
the  plant  in  the  proper  division  under  the 
sub-class,  which  is  the  order.  Plants  are 
separated  into  orders  according  to  their 
varied  characteristics.  The  coffee  plant  be- 
longs to  an  order  known  as  Buhiales.  These 
orders  are  again  divided  into  families.  Cof- 
fee' is  placed  in  the  family  Buhiacece,  or 
Madder  Family,  in  which  we  find  herbs, 
shrubs  or  trees,  represented  by  a  few  Amer- 
ican plants,  such  as  bluets,  or  Quaker 
ladies,  small  blue  spring  flowers,  common 
to  open  meadows  in  northern  United  States ; 
and  partridge  berries   {Mitchella  repens). 

The  Madder  Family  has  more  foreign 
representatives  than  native  genera,  among 
which  are  Coffea,  Cinchona,  and  Ipecac- 
uanha {Uragoga),  all  of  which  are  of  eco- 
nomic importance.  The  members  of  this 
family  are  noted  for  their  action  on  the 
nervous  system.  Coffee,  as  is  well  known, 
contains  an  active  principle  known  as 
caffein  which  acts  as  a  stimulant  to  the 
nervous  system  and  in  small  quantities  is 
very  beneficial.  Cinchona  supplies  us  with 
quinine,  while  Ipecacuanha  produces  ipe- 
cac, which  is  an  emetic  and  purgative. 

The  families  are  divided  into  smaller  sec- 
tions known  as  genera,  and  to  the  genus 

Coffea  belongs  the  coffee  plant.  Under  this 
genus  Coffea  are  several  sub-genera,  and  to 
the  sub-genus  Eucoffea  belongs  our  common 
coffee,  Coffea  arabica.  Coffea  arahica  is 
the  original  or  common  Java  coffee  of  com- 
merce. The  term  "common"  coffee  may 
seem  unnecessary,  but  there  are  many  other 
species  of  coffee  besides  arahica.  These 
species  have  not  been  described  very  fre- 
quently; because  their  native  haunts  are 
the  tropics,  and  the  tropics  do  not  always 
offer  favorable  conditions  for  the  study  of 
their  plants. 

All  botanists  do  not  agree  in  their  classi- 
fication of  the  species  and  varieties  of  the 
coffea  genus.  M.  E.  de  Wildman,  curator 
of  the  royal  botanical  gardens  at  Brussels, 
in  his  Les  Plantes  Tropicales  de  Grande 
Cidture,  says  the  systematic  division  of 
this  interesting  genus  is  far  from  finished; 
in  fact,  it  may  be  said  hardly  to  be  begun. 

Coffea  arahica  we  know  best  because  of 
the  important  role  it  plays  in  commerce. 

Complete  Classification   of  Coffee 

Kingdom    Vegetable 

Sub-Kiiigdom    Angiospermce 

Class    DicotyledonecB 

Sub-class   Sympetalce  or  Metaclilamydew 

Order  Ruhiales 

Family   RuMacece 

Genus Coffea 

Sub-genus Eucoffea 

Species  C.  araiica 



CH  .E/v\OMT 

Details  of  the  Germination  of  the  Coffee  Plant 
From  a  drawing  by  Ch.  Emonts  in  Jardin's  Le  Cafeier  et  Le  Cafe 

The  coffee  plant  most  cultivated  for  its 
berries  is,  as  already  stated,  Coffea  arabica, 
which  is  found  in  tropical  regions,  although 
it  can  grow  in  temperate  climates.  Unlike 
most  plants  that  grow  best  in  the  tropics, 
it  can  stand  low  temperatures.  It  requires 
shade  when  it  grows  in  hot,  low-lying  dis- 
tricts; but  when  it  grows  on  elevated  land, 
it  thrives  without  such  protection.  Free- 
man' says  there  are  about  eight  recognized 
species  of  coffea. 

Coffea  Arabica 

Coffea  arabica  is  a  shrub  with  evergreen 
leaves,  and  reaches  a  height  of  fourteen 
to  twenty  feet  when  fully  grown.  The 
shrub  produces  dimorphic  branches,  i.  e., 
branches  of  two  forms,  known  as  uprights 
and  laterals.  When  young,  the  plants  have 
a  main  stem,  the  upright,  which,  however, 
eventually  sends  out  side  shoots,  the  later- 
als. The  laterals  may  send  out  other  later- 
als, known  as  secondary  laterals;  but  no 
lateral  can  ever  produce  an  upright.  The 
laterals  are  produced  in  pairs  and  are  op- 
posite, the  pairs  being  borne  in  whorls 
around  the  stem.  The  laterals  are  pro- 
duced only  while  the  joint  of  the  upright, 
to  which  they  are  attached,  is  young;  and 
if  they  are  broken  off  at  that  point,  the 

1  Freeman,   W.   G.      The  World's   Commercial  Prod- 
ucts.    Boston,    (p.   170.) 

upright  has  no  power  to  reproduce  them. 
The  upright  can  produce  new  uprights 
also;  but  if  an  upright  is  cut  off,  the  later- 
als at  that  position  tend  to  thicken  up. 
This  is  very  desirable,  as  the  laterals  pro- 
duce the  flowers,  which  seldom  appear  on 
the  uprights.  This  fact  is  utilized  in  prun- 
ing the  coffee  tree,  the  uprights  being  cut 
back,  the  laterals  then  becoming  more  pro- 
ductive. Planters  generally  keep  their 
trees  pruned  down  to  about  six  feet. 

The  leaves  are  lanceolate,  or  lance-shaped, 
being  borne  in  pairs  opposite  each  other. 
They  are  three  to  six  inches  in  length,  with 
an  acuminate  apex,  somewhat  attenuate  at 
the  base,  with  very  short  petioles  which  are 
united  with  the  short  interpetiolar  stipules 
at  the  base.  The  coffee  leaves  are  thin,  but 
of  firm  texture,  slightly  coriaceous.  They 
are  very  dark  green  on  the  upper  surface, 
but  much  lighter  underneath.  The  margin 
of  the  leaf  is  entire  and  wavy.  In  some 
tropical  countries  the  natives  brew  a  coffee 
tea  from  the  leaves  of  the  coffee  tree. 

The  coft'ee  flowers  are  small,  white,  and 
very  fragrant,  having  a  delicate  character- 
istic odor.  They  are  borne  in  the  axils  of 
the  leaves  in  clusters,  and  several  crops  are 
produced  in  one  season,  depending  on  the 
conditions  of  heat  and  moisture  that  pre- 
vail in  the  particular  season.  The  diffor- 
ent  blossomings  are  classed  as  main  blossom- 





I— I 








ing  and  smaller  blossomings.  In  semi-dry 
high  districts,  as  in  Costa  Rica  or  Guate- 
mala, there  is  one  blossoming  season,  about 
March,  and  flowers  and  fruit  are  not  found 
together,  as  a  rule,  on  the  trees.  But  in 
lowland  plantations  where  rain  is  peren- 
nial, blooming  and  fruiting  continue  prac- 
tically all  the  year;  and  ripe  fruits,  green 
fruits,  open  flowers,  and  flower  buds  are  to 
be  found  at  the  same  time  on  the  same 
branchlet.  not  mixed  together,  but  in  the 
order  indicated. 

The  flowers  are  also  tubular,  the  tube  of 
le   corolla   dividing   into   five   white   seg- 

m.         '''-ni^B-'A. 



[4%?      " 

r-  ■  ^^^ 


"Ik^sk"    :*m 

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--■f'    N^ 

1.  ^ 



^    ■ 


ments.  Dr.  P.  J.  S.  Cramer,  chief  of  the 
division  of  plant  breeding.  Department  of 
Agriculture,  Netherlands  India,  says  the 
number  of  petals  is  not  at  all  constant,  not 
even  for  flowers  of  the  same  tree.  The 
corolla  segments  are  about  one-half  inch 
in  length,  while  the  tube  itself  is  about 
three-eighths  of  an  inch  long.  The  anthers 
of  the  stamens,  which  are  five  in  number, 
protrude  from  the  top  of  the  corolla  tube, 
together  with  the  top  of  the  two-cleft  pistil. 
The  calyx,  which  is  so  small  as  to  escape 
notice  unless  one  is  aware  of  its  existence, 
is  annular,  with  small,  tooth-like  indenta- 

While  the  usual  color  of  the  coffee  flower 
is  white,  the  fresh  stamens  and  pistils  may 
have  a  greenish  tinge,  and  in  some  culti- 
vated species  the  corolla  is  pale  pink. 

The  size  and  condition  of  the  flowers  are 
entirely  dependent  on  the  weather.  The 
flowers  are  sometimes  very  small,  very  fra- 
grant, and  very  numerous;  while  at  other 
times,  when  the  weather  is  not  hot  and  dry, 
they  are  very  large,  but  not  so  numerous. 
Both  sets  of  flowers  mentioned  above  "set 

fruit,"  as  it  is  called;  but  at  times,  espe- 
cially in  a  very  dry  season,  they  bear 
flowers  that  are  few  in  number,  small,  and 
imperfectly  formed,  the  petals  frequently 
being  green  instead  of  white.  These  flowers 
do  not  set  fruit.  The  flowers  that  open  on 
a  dry  sunny  day  show  a  greater  yield  of 
fruit  than  those  that  open  on  a  wet  day,  as 
the  first  mentioned  have  a  better  chance 
of  being  pollinated  by  the  insects  and  the 
wind.  The  beauty  of  a  coffee  estate  in 
flower  is  of  a  very  fleeting  character.  One 
day  it  is  a  snowy  expanse  of  fragrant  white 
blossoms  for  miles  and  miles,  as  far  as  the 
eye  can  see,  and  two  days  later  it  reminds 
one  of  the  lines  from  Villon's  Des  Dames 
du  Temps  Jadis, 

Where  are  the  snows  of  yesterday? 

The  winter  winds  have  blown  them  all  away. 

But  here,  the  winter  winds  are  not  to 
blame :  the  soft,  gentle  breezes  of  the  per- 

CoFFEA  Ababica,  Flower  axu  Fruit  —  Costa 

petual  summer  have  wrought  the  havoc, 
leaving,  however,  a  not  unpleasing  picture 
of  dark,  cool,  mossy  green  foliage. 

The  flowers  are  beautiful,  but  the  eye  of 
the  planter  sees  in  them  not  alone  beauty 
and  fragrance.  He  looks  far  beyond,  and 
in  his  mind's  eye  he  sees  bags  and  bags 



Young  Coffea  Arabica  Tkee  at  Kona,  Hawaii 

of  green  coffee,  representing  to  him  the 
goal  and  reward  of  all  his  toil.  After  the 
flowers  droop,  there  appear  what  are  com- 
mercially known  as  the  coffee  berries.  Bo- 
tanically  speaking,  "berry"  is  a  misnomer. 
These  little  fruits  are  not  berries,  such  as 
are  well  represented  by  the  grape ;  but  are 
drupes,  which  are  better  exemplified  by  the 
cherry  and  the  peach.  In  the  course  of 
six  or  seven  months,  these  coffee  drupes 
develop  into  little  red  balls  about  the  size 
of  an  ordinary  cherry;  but,  instead  of 
being  round,  they  are  somewhat  ellipsoidal, 
having  at  the  outer  end  a  small  umbilicus. 
The  drupe  of  the  coffee  usually  has  two 
loeules,  each  containing  a  little  "stone" 
(the  seed  and  its  parchment  covering)  from 
which  the  coffee  bean  (seed)  is  obtained. 
Some  few  drupes  contain  three,  while 
others,  at  the  outer  ends  of  the  branches, 
contain  only  one  round  bean,  known  as 
the  peaberry.  The  number  of  pickings 
corresponds  to  the  different  blossomings 
in  the  same  season ;  and  one  tree  of  the 
species  arabica  may  yield  from  one  to 
twelve  pounds  a  year. 

In  countries  like  India  and  Africa,  the 
birds  and  monkeys  eat  the  ripe  coffee  ber- 
ries.    The  so-called   "monkey   coffee"   of 

India,  according  to  Arnold,  is  the  undi- 
gested coffee  beans  passed  through  the  ali- 
mentary canal  of  the  animal. 

The  pulp  surrounding  the  coffee  beans 
is  at  present  of  no  commercial  importance. 
Although  efforts  have  been  made  at  various 
times  by  natives  to  use  it  as  a  food,  its 
flavor  has  not  gained  any  great  popularity, 
and  the  birds  are  permitted  a  monopoly  of 
the  pulp  as  a  food.  From  the  human 
standpoint  the  pulp,  or  sarcocarp,  as  it  is 
scientifically  called,  is  rather  an  annoyance, 
as  it  must  be  removed  in  order  to  procure 
the  beans.  This  is  done  in  one  of  two 
ways.  The  first  is  known  as  the  dry  meth- 
od, in  which  the  entire  fruit  is  allowed  to 
dry,  and  is  then  cracked  open.  The  sec- 
ond way  is  called  the  wet  method;  the 
sarcocarp  is  removed  by  machine,  and  two 
wet,  slimy  seed  packets  are  obtained.  These 
packets,  which  look  for  all  the  world  like 
seeds,  are  allowed  to  dry  in  such  a  way  that 
fermentation  takes  place.  This  rids  them 
of  all  the  slime;  and,  after  they  are  thor- 
oughly dry,  the  endocarp,  the  so-called 
parchment  covering,  is  easily  cracked  open 
and  removed.  At  the  same  time  that  the 
parchment  is  removed,  a  thin  silvery  mem- 
brane, the  silver  skin,  beneath  the  parch- 
ment,  comes   off,   too.      There   are   always 

Survivors  of  the  First  Liberian  Cofbee  Trees 
Introduced  into   Java   in   1876 






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From   a  photograph   made   at   I>ramaga,   Preanger,    Java,   in   1907 



LiBERiAX  Coffee  Tree  at  Lamoa,  P.  I. 

small  fragments  of  this  silver  skin  to  be 
found  in  the  groove  of  the  coffee  bean  con- 
tained within  the  parchment  packet, 
r  We  have  said  that  the  coffee  tree  yields 
from  one  to  twelve  pounds  a  year,  but  of 
course  this  varies  with  the  individual  tree 
and  also  with  the  region.  In  some  coun- 
tries the  whole  year's  yield  is  less  than  200 
pounds  per  acre,  while  there  is  on  record 
a  patch  in  Brazil  which  yields  about  seven- 
teen pounds  to  the  tree,  bringing  the  yield 
per  acre  much  higher. 

The  beans  do  not  retain  their  vitality  for 
planting  for  any  considerable  length  of 
time;  and,  if  they  are  thoroughly  dried,  or 
are  kept  for  longer  than  three  or  four 
months,  they  are  useless  for  that  purpose. 
It  takes  the  seed  about  six  weeks  to  ger- 
minate and  to  appear  above  ground.  Trees 
raised  from  seed  begin  to  blossom  in  about 
three  years ;  but  a  good  crop  can  not  be  ex- 
pected of  them  for  the  first  five  or  six 
years.  Their  usefulness,  save  in  excep- 
tional cases,  is  ended  in  about  thirty  years. 
The  coffee  tree  can  be  propagated  in  a 
way  other  than  by  seeds.  The  upright 
branches  can  be  used  as  slips,  which,  after 
taking  root,  will  produce  seed-bearing  lat- 
erals. The  laterals  themselves  can  not  be 
used  as  slips.  In  Central  America  the  na- 
tives   sometimes    use    coffee    uprights    for 

fences  and  it  is  no  uncommon  sight  to  see 
the  fence  posts  "growing." 

The  wood  of  the  coffee  tree  is  used  also 
for  cabinet  work,-  as  it  is  much  stronger 
than  many  of  the  native  woods,  weighing 
about  forty-three  pounds  to  the  cubic  foot, 
having  a  crushing  strength  of  5,800  pounds 
per  square  inch,  and  a  breaking  strength  of 
10,900  pounds  per  square  inch. 

The  propagation  of  the  coffee  plant  by 
cutting  has  two  distinct  advantages  over 
propagation  by  seed,  in  that  it  spares  the 
expense  of  seed  production,  which  is  enor- 
mous, and  it  gives  also  a  method  of  hybrid- 
ization, which,  if  used,  might  lead  not  only 
to  very  interesting  but  also  to  very  profit- 
able results. 

The  hybridization  of  the  coffee  plant  was 
taken  up  in  a  thoroughly  scientific  manner 
by  the  Dutch  government  at  the  experi- 
mental garden  established  at  Bangelan, 
Java,  in  1900.  In  his  studies,  twelve  va- 
rieties of  Coffea  arabica  are  recognized  by 
Dr.  P.  J.  S.  Cramer,  namely : 

Laurina,  a  hybrid  of  Coffea  arahica  with  C. 
mauritiana,  having  small  narrow  leaves,  stiff, 
dense  branches,  young  leaves  almost  wliite,  berry 
long  and  narrow,  and  beans  narrow  and  oblong. 

Mnrta,  having  small  leaves,  dense  branches, 
beans  as  in  the  typical  Coffea  arabica,  and  the 
plant  able  to  stand  bitter  cold. 

Menosperma,  a  distinct  type,  with  narrow 
leaves    and    bent-down    branches    resembling    a 

2  Tea   and    Coffee   Trade  Jour.,    1018. 
no.    4  ) 

(vol.    XXXV  : 

Two-and-One-Half-Yeab-Old   C.   Congensis 




This  Is  a  comparatively  new  species,  discovered  in  the  Tcliad   T>ake  district   of   West   Africa    in   190r». 

a  small-beaned  variety  of  Coffca  liberica 

It   is 



JBbanches  of  Cofpea  Excels  a   Grown  at  the 
Lamao   Experiment    Station,   P.    I. 

willow,  the  berries  seldom  containing  more  tlian 
one  seed. 

Mohka  (Coffea  MokkcB),  having  small  leaves, 
dense  foliage,  small  round  berries,  small  round 
beans  resembling  split  peas,  and  possessed  of  a 
stronger  flavor  than  Coffea  arabica. 

Purpurescens,  a  red-leaved  variety,  compar- 
able with  the  red-leaved  hazel  and  copper  beech, 
a  little  less  productive  than  the  Coffea  arahka. 

Variegata,  having  variegated  leaves  striped 
and  spotted  with  white. 

Amarella,  having  yellow  berries,  comparable 
with  the  white-fruited  variety  of  the  strawberry, 
raspberry,  etc. 

Bullata,  having  broad,  curled  leaves ;  stiflf, 
thick,  fragile  branches,  and  round,  fleshy  ber- 
ries containing  a  high  percentage  of  empry 

Angustifolia,  a  narrow-leaved  variety,  with 
berries  somewhat  more  oblong  and,  like  the 
foregoing,  a  poor  producer. 

Erecta,  a  variety  that  is  sturdier  than  the 
typical  arabica,  better  suited  to  windy  places, 
and  having  a  production  as  in  the  common 

Maragogipe,  a  well-defined  variety  with  light 
green  leaves  having  colored  edges;  berries  large, 
broad,    sometimes    narrower   in    the    middle ;    a 

C.  Stenopiiylla,  From  Which  Is  Obtained  the 
Highland  Coffee  of  Sierra  Leone 

light   bearer,    the   whole   crop   sometimes   being 
reduced  to  a  couple  of  berries  per  tree.' 

Columruvris,  a  vigorous  variety,  sometimes 
reaching  a  height  of  25  feet,  having  leaves 
rounded  at  the  base  and  rather  broad,  but  a 
shy  bearer,  recommended  for  dry  climates. 

Coffea  Stenophylla 

Coffea  arabica  has  a  formidable  rival  in 
the  species  stenophylla.  The  flavor  of  this 
variety  is  pronounced  by  some  as  surpass- 
ing that  of  arabica.  The  great  disadvan- 
tage of  this  plant  is  the  fact  that  it  re- 
quires so  long  a  time  before  a  yield  of  any 
value  can  be  secured.  Although  the  time 
required  for  the  maturing  of  the  crop  is 
so  long,  when  once  the  plantation  begins 
to  yield,  the  crop  is  as  large  as  that  of 
Coffea  arahica,  and  occasionally  somewhat 
larger.  The  leaves  are  smaller  than  any 
of  the  species  described,  and  the  flowers 
bear  their  parts  in  numbers  varying  from 
six  to  nine.  The  tree  is  a  native  of  Sierra 
Leone,  where  it  grows  wild. 

Coffea  Lib  erica 

The  bean  of  Coffea  arabica,  although  the 
principal  bean  used  in  commerce,  is  not  the 

^  Dr.  Cramer  considers  C.  Maragogipe  "the  flnrst 
coffee  known ;  it  lias  a  higlily  developed,  splendid 


Copyright,  iyU9,  by  The  Tea  and  Coffee  Trade  Journal 




Wild  "Caffein-Free"'  Coffee  Tree 
Mantsa'ka  or    Cafe  Sauvofje — Madagascar 

only  one ;  and  it  may  not  be  out  of  place 
here  to  describe  briefly  some  of  the  other 
varieties  that  are  produced  commercially. 
Coffea  liberica  is  one  of  these  plants.  The 
quality  of  the  beverage  made  from  its  ber- 
ries is  inferior  to  that  of  Coffea  arahica, 
but  the  plant  itself  offers  distinct  advan- 
tages in  its  hardy  growing  qualities.  This 
makes  it  attractive  for  hybridization. 

The  Coffea  liberica  tree  is  much  larger 
and  sturdier  than  the  Coffea  arahica',  and 
in  its  native  haunts  it  reaches  a  height  of 
30  feet.  It  will  grow  in  a  much  more  tor- 
rid climate  and  can  stand  exposure  to 
strong  sunlight.  The  leaves  are  about  twice 
as  long  as  those  of  arahica,  being  six  to 
twelve  inches  in  length,  and  are  very  thick, 
tough,  and  leathery.  The  apex  of  the 
leaf  is  acute.  The  flowers  are  larger  than 
those  of  arahica,  and  are  borne  in  dense 

clusters.  At  any  time  during  the  season, 
the  same  tree  may  bear  flowers,  white  or 
pinkish,  and  fragrant,  or  even  green,  to- 
gether with  fruits,  some  green,  some  ripe 
and  of  a  brilliant  red.  The  corolla  has 
been  known  to  have  seven  segments,  though 
as  a  rule  it  has  five.  The  fruits  are  large, 
round,  and  dull  red;  the  pulps  are  not 
juicy,  and  are  somewhat  bitter.  Unlike 
Coffea  arahica,  the  ripened  drupes  do  not 
fall  from  the  trees,  and  so  the  picking  can 
be  delayed  at  the  planter's  convenience. 

Among  the  allied  Liberian  species  Dr 
Cramer  recognizes: 

Abeokutae,  having  small  leaves  of  a  bright 
green,  flower  buds  often  pink  just  before  open- 
ing (in  Liberian  coffee  never),  fruit  smaller 
with  sharply  striped  red  and  yellow  shiny  skin, 
and  producing  somewhat  smaller  beans  than 
Liberian  coffee,  but  beans  whose  flavor  and 
taste  are  praised  by  brokers ; 

Deivevrei.  having  curled  edged  leaves,  stiff 
branches,  thick-skinned  berries,  sometimes  pink 
flowers,  beans  generally  smaller  than  in  C. 
liberica,  but  of  little  interest  to  the  trade : 

Arnoldiana,  a  species  near  to  Coffea  Abeoku- 
tae having  darker  foliage  and  the  even  colored 
small  berries : 

Laurentii  Gillet,  a  species  not  to  be  confused 
with  the  V.  Laurentii  belonging  to  the  robusta 
coffee,  but  standing  near  to  C.  liberica,  charac- 
terized by  oblong  rather  than  thin-skinned  ber- 
ries ; 

Excelsa,  a  vigorous,  disease-resisting  species 
discovered  in  1905  by  Aug.  Chevalier  in   West 

Differentiating  Characteristics  of  Coffee 

Beans,  in   Cross-section 

Col.  I.  Mature  bean.     Col.  II.  Embryo. 

A.  Gojfea  arabica,  R.  Coffea  rohusta,  L.  Coffea  liberica 





Africa,  in  the  region  of  tlie  Chari  River,  not  far 
from  Lake  Tchad.  The  broad,  dark-green  leaves 
have  an  under  side  of  liglit  green  witli  a  bluish 
tinge ;  the  flowers  are  large  and  white,  borne  in 
axillary  clusters  of  one  to  five ;  the  berries  are 
short  and  broad,  in  color  crimson,  the  bean 
smaller  than  rohusta,  very  like  Mocha,  but  in 
color  a  bright  yellow  like  Uberica.  The  caffein 
content  of  the  coffee  is  high,  and  the  aroma  is 
very  pronounced ; 

Dyboicskii,  another  disease-resisting  variety 
similar  to  excelsa,  but  having  different  leaf  and 
fruit  characteristics ; 

LanibOray,  having  bent  gutter-like  leaves,  and 
soft-skinned,  oblong  fruit ; 

Wanni  Riikula,  having  large  leaves,  a  vigorous 
growth,   and  small  berries ; 

Coffca  arutmmensis,  being  a  mixture  of  dif- 
ferent types. 

The  last  three  types  were  received  by  Dr. 
Cramer  at  Bangelan  from  Frere  Gillet  in 
the  Belgian  Congo,  and  were  still  under 
trial  in  Java  in  1919. 

Coffea  Rohusta 

Emil  Laurent,  in  1898,  discovered  a  spe- 
cies of  coffee  growing  wild  in  Congo.  This 
was  taken  up  by  a  horticultural  firm  of 
Brussels,  and  cultivated  for  the  market. 
This  firm  gave  to  the  coffee  the  name  Coffea 

rohusta,  although  it  had  already  been  given 
the  name  of  the  discoverer,  being  known  as 
Coffea  Laurentii.  The  plant  diifers  widely 
from  both  arahica  and  liherica,  being  con- 
siderably larger  than  either.  The  tree  is 
umbrella-shaped,  due  to  the  fact  that  its 
branches  are  very  long  and  bend  toward 
the  ground. 

The  leaves  of  rohusta  are  much  thinner 
than  those  of  liherica,  though  not  as  thin 
as  those  of  arahica.  The  tree,  as  a  whole, 
is  a  very  hardy  variety  and  even  bears 
blossoms  when  it  is  less  than  a  year  old. 
It  blossoms  throughout  the  entire  year,  the 
flowers  having  six-parted  corollas.  The 
drupes  are  smaller  than  those  of  liherica; 
but  are  much  thinner  skinned,  so  that  the 
coffee  bean  is  actually  not  any  smaller. 
The  drupes  mature  in  ten  months.  Al- 
though the  plants  bear  as  early  as  the  first 
year,  the  yield  for  the  first  two  years  is  of 
no  account;  but  by  the  fourth  year  the 
crop  is  large. 

Amo  Viehoever,  pharmacognosist  in 
charge  of  the  pharmacognosy  laboratory  of 
the  Bureau  of  Chemistry,  United  States 
Department  of  Agriculture,   has   recently 

RogusTA  Coffee  in  Flower,  Preangeb,  Java 


Coffee  Estate  in  the  Luquillo  Mountains,  Porto  Rico 

Jai'anksi:  i,Ai!t)i!i:i:s  I'UKi.Nd  Coffee  on  Kona  rSiiiE,   Island  of  Hawaii 




One-Ykau-Ulu    Kuhusta    Estate,    on    Sumatra's  West    Coast 

announced  findings  confirming  Hartwich 
which  appear  to  permit  of  differentiation 
between  rohusta,  arabica,  and  liherica* 
These  are  mainly  the  peculiar  folding  of 
the  endosperm,  showing  quite  generally  a 
distinct  hook  in  the  case  of  the  rohusta  cof- 
fee bean.  The  size  of  the  embryo,  and  es- 
pecially the  relation  of  the  rootlet  to  hy- 
pereotyl,  wall  be  found  useful  in  the  dif- 
ferentiation of  the  species  Coffea  arabica, 
liherica,  and  rohusta  (see  cut,  page  142). 

Viehoever  and  Lepper  carried  on  a  series 
•of  cup  tests  of  rohusta,  the  results  as  to 
taste  and  flavor  being  distinctly  favorable.* 
They  summarized  their  studies  and  tests 
as  follows: 

The  time  when  coffee  could  be  limited  to 
beans  obtained  from  plants  of  Coffea  arabica 
and  Coffea  Uberica  has  passed.  Other  species, 
with  qualities  which  make  them  desirable,  even 
in  preference  to  the  well  reputed  named  ones, 
have  been  discovered  and  cultivated.  Among 
them,  the  species  or  group  of  Coffea  rohusta  has 
attained  a  great  economic  significance,  and  is 
grown  in  increasing  amounts.  While  it  has,  as 
reports  seem  to  indicate,  not  as  yet  been  pos- 
sible to  obtain  a  strain  that  would  be  as  de- 
sirable in  flavor  as  the  old  "standard"  Coffea 

*,Ioumnl  of  the  A^nnciation  of  Official  Agricultural 
Chemists,   ><ov.    15,    1921.      (vol.   v :   no.  2  :   pp.   274  - 


arabica,  well  known  as  Java  or  "Fancy  Jav&" 
coffee,  its  merits  have  been  established. 

The  botanical  origin  is  not  quite  cleared  up, 
and  the  classification  of  the  varieties  belonging 
to  the  rohusta  group  deserves  further  study. 
Anatomical  means  of  differentiating  rohusta 
coft'ee  from  other  species  or  groups,  may  be  ap- 
plied as  distinctly  helpful.     , 

As  is  usual  in  most  of  the  coffee  species,  caf- 
fein  is  present.  The  amount  appears  to  be,  on 
an  average,  somewhat  larger  (even  exceeding 
2.0  percent)  than  in  the  South  American  cof- 
fee species.  In  no  instance,  however,  did  the 
amount  exceed  the  maximum  limits  observed  in 
coffee  in  general.     . 

Due  to  its  rapid  growth,  early  and  prolific 
yield,  resistance  to  coffee  blight,  and  many  other 
desirable  qualities,  Coffea  rohusta  has  estab- 
lished "its  own".  In  the  writers'  judgment, 
rohusta  coffee  deserves  consideration  and  rec- 

Among  the  rohusta  varieties,  Coifea  cane- 
pJiora  is  a  distinct  species,  well  character- 
ized by  growth,  leaves,  and  berries.  The 
branches  are  slender  and  thinner  than 
rohusta;  the  leaves  are  dark  green  and 
narrower ;  the  flowers  are  often  tinged  with 
red ;  the  unripe  berries  are  purple,  the  ripe 
berries  bright  red  and  oblong.  The  produce 
is  like  rohusta,  only  the  shape  of  the  bean, 
somewhat  narrower  and  more  oblong,  makes 
it  look  more  attractive.     Coffea  canephora, 



like  C.  robusta,  seems  better  fitted  to  higher 

Other  canephora  varieties  include : 

Madagascar,  having  small,  slightly- 
striped,  bright  red  berries  and  small  round 
beans ; 

Quilloucnsis,  having  dark  green  foliage 
and  reddish  brown  young  leaves;  and, 

Stenophylla  Paris,  with  purplish  young 

These  last  two  named  were  under  test  at 
the  Bangelan  gardens  in  1919. 

Among  other  allied  rohusta  species  are: 

Vgandce,  whose  produce  is  said  to  pos- 
sess a  better  flavor  than  rohusta; 

Bukobensis,  different  from  Vgandce  in 
the  color  of  its  berries,  which  are  a  dark 
red;  and 

Quillou,  having  bright  red  fruit,  a  cop- 
per-colored silver  skin,  three  pounds  of 
fruit  producing  one  pound  of  market  coffee. 
Some  people  prefer  Quillou  to  robusta  be- 
cause of  the  difference  in  the  taste  of  the 
roasted  bean. 

Some  Interesting  Hybrids 

.  The  most  popular  hybrid  belongs  to  a 
crossing  of  liberica  and  arabica.  Cramer 
states  that  the  beans  of  this  hybrid  make 
an  excellent  coffee   combining  the   strong 

taste  of  the  liberica  with  the  fine  flavor  of 
the  old  Government  Java  (arabica),  adding: 

The  hybrids  are  not  only  of  value  to  the 
roaster,  but  also  to  the  planter.  They  are  vig- 
orous trees,  pi-actically  free  from  leaf  disease ; 
they  stand  drought  well  and  also  heavy  rains ; 
they  are  not  particular  in  regard  to  shade  and 
upkeep;  never  fail  to  give  a  fair  and  often  a 
rather  heavy  crop.  The  fruit  ripens  all  the 
year  around,  and  does  not  fall  so  easily  as  in 
the  case  of  arabica. 

Among  other  hybrids  (many  were  still 
under  trial  in  1919)  may  be  mentioned: 
Coffea  excelsia  x  liberica;  C.  Abeokuta;  x 
liberica;  C.  Dybowskii  x  excelsa;  C.  steno- 
phylla X  Abeokutce;  C.  congensis  x 
Ugandce;  C.  Uganda;  x  congensis;  and  C. 
robusta  x  Maragogipe. 

There  are  many  species  of  Coffea  that 
stand  quite  apart  from  the  main  groups, 
arabica,  robusta  and  liberica;  but  while 
some  are  of  commercial  value,  most  of  them 
are  interesting  only  from  the  scientific  point 
of  view.  Among  the  latter  may  be  men- 
tioned: Coffea  bengalensis,  C.  Perieri,  C. 
mauritiana,  C.  macrocarpa,  C.  madagas- 
cariensis,  and  C.  schumanniana. 

M.  Teyssonnier,  of  the  experimental  gar- 
den at  Camayenne,  French  Guinea,  West 
Africa,  has  produced  a  promising  species  of 
coffee  known  as  affinis.  It  is  a  hybrid  of 
C.  stenophylla  with  a  species  of  liberica. 

Coffea   Quillou    Flowers   in    Full   Bloom 

^Kd  by  Dr.  Cramer  are : 

Coffea  congensis,  whose  berry  resembles 
that  of  C.  arahica,  when  well  prepared  for 
the  market  being  green  or  bluish ;  and 

Coffea  congensis  var.  Chalotii,  probably 
a  hybrid  of  C.  congensis  with  C.  canephora. 

Caffein-free  Coffee 

Certain  trees  growing  wild  in  the  Comoro 
Islands  and  Madagascar  are  known  as 
caffein-free  coffee  trees.  Just  whether  they 
are  entitled  to  this  classification  or  not  is  a 
question.  Some  of  the  French  and  Ger- 
man investigators  have  reported  coffee  from 
these  regions  that  was  absolutely  devoid  of 
caffein.  It  w^as  thought  at  first  that  they 
must  represent  an  entirely  new  genus ;  but 
upon  investigation,  it  was  found  that  they 
belonged  to  the  genus  Coffea,  to  which  all 
our  common  coffees  belong.  Professor 
Dubard,  of  the  French  National  Museum 
and  Colonial  Garden,  studied  these  trees 
botanically  and  classified  them  as  C.  Gal- 
lienii,  C.  Bonnieri,  C.  Mogeneti,  and  C. 
Aiigag)tcuri.  The  beans  of  berries  from 
these  trees  were  analyzed  by  Professor 
Bertrand  and  pronounced  caffein-free ;  but 
Labroy,  in  writing  of  the  same  coffee,  states 
that,  while  the  bean  is  caffein-free,  it  con- 
tains a  very  bitter  substance,  cafamarine. 



which  makes  the  infusion  unfit  for  use. 
Dr.  O.  W.  Willcox",  in  examining  some 
specimens  of  wild  coffee  from  Madagascar, 
found  that  the  bean  was  not  caffein-free; 
and  though  the  caffein  content  was  low,  it 
was  no  lower  than  in  some  of  the  Porto 
Rican  varieties. 

Hartwich'  reports  that  Hanausek  found 
no  caffein  in  C.  mauritiana,  C.  humboltiana, 
C.  Gallienii,  C.  Bonnerii,  and  C.  Mogeneti. 

Fungoid  Disease  of  Coffee 

The  coffee  tree,  like  every  other  living 
thing,  has  specific  diseases  and  enemies,  the 
most  common  of  which  are  certain  fungoid 
diseases  where  the  mycelium  of  the  fungus 
grows  into  the  tissue  and  spots  the  leaves, 
eventually  -causing  them  to  fall,  thus  rob- 
bing the  plant  of  its  only  means  of  elabor- 
ating food.  Its  most  deadly  enemy  in  the 
insect  world  is  a  small  insect  of  the  lepidop- 
terous  variety,  which  is  known  as  the  coffee- 
leaf  miner.  It  is  closely  related  to  the 
clothes  moth  and,  like  the  moth,  bores  in  its 
larval  stage,  feeding  on  the  mesophyl  of 
the  leaves.  This  gives  the  leaves  an  appear- 
ance of  being  shriveled  or  dried  by  heat. 

There  are  three  principal  diseases,  due 
to    fungi,    from    which   the    coffee    plants 

^The  Tea  and  Cotfee  Trade  Jour.,  1912.  (vol.  xxiii : 
no.  3.) 

'Die  Menachlichen  Oenusmittel,  1911.      (p.  300.) 

An  Eighteen-Months'-Old  Coffea  Quiulou  Tree  in  Blossom 



suffer.  The  most  common  is  known  as  the 
leaf-blight  fungus,  Pellicularia  tokeroga, 
which  is  a  slow-spreading  disease,  but  one 
that  causes  great  loss.  Although  the  fungus 
does  not  produce  spores,  the  leaves  die  and 
dry,  and  are  blown  away,  carrying  with 
them  the  dried  mycelium  of  the  fungus. 
This  mycelium  will  start  to  grow  as  soon 
as  it  is  supplied  with  a  new  moist  coffee 
leaf  to  nourish  it.  The  method  of  getting 
rid  of  this  disease  is  to  spray  the  trees  in 
seasons  of  drought. 

It  was  a  fungoid  disease  known  as  the 
Hemileia  vastatrix  that  attacked  Ceylon's 
coffee  industry  in  1869,  and  eventually 
destroyed  it.     It  is  a  microscopic  fungus 

whose  spores,  carried  by  the  wind,  adhere 
to  and  germinate  upon  the  leaves  of  the 
coffee  tree'. 

Another  common  disease  is  known  as  the 
root  disease,  which  eventually  kills  the  tree 
by  girdling  it  below  the  soil.  It  spreads 
slowly,  but  seems  to  be  favored  by  collec- 
tions of  decaying  matter  around  the  base 
of  the  tree.  Sometimes  the  digging  of 
ditches  around  the  roots  is  sufficient  to 
protect  it.  The  other  common  disease  is 
due  to  Stilhium  flavidum,  and  is  found  only 
in  regions  of  great  humidity.  It  affects 
both  the  leaf  and  the  fruit  and  is  known 
as  the  spot  of  leaf  and  fruit. 

'  See  chapter  XVI. 

CoFFEA  Uganda   Bent  Over  by  a  Heavy  Crop 

Chapter   XVI 


How  the  beans  may  be  examined  under  the  microscope,  and  what  is 
revealed  —  Structure  of  the  berry,  the  green,  and  the  roasted  bean  — 
The  coffee  leaf  disease  under  the  microscope  —  Value  of  microscopic 
analysis  in  detecting  adulteration 

THE  microscopy  of  coffee  is,  on  the 
whole,  more  important  to  the  planter 
than  to  the  consumer  and  the  dealer ; 
while,  on  the  other  hand,  the  microscopy  is 
of  paramount  importance  to  the  consumer 
and  the  dealer  as  furnishing  the  best  means 
of  determining  whether  the  product  offered 
is    adulterated    or    not.      Also,    from    this 

spherical ;  in  the  rare  instances  where  three 
seeds  are  found,  the  grains  are  angular. 

The  coffee  bean  with  which  the  consumer 
is  familiar  is  only  a  small  part  of  the  fruit. 
The  fruit,  which  is  the  size  of  a  small 
cherry,  has,  like  the  cherry,  an  outer  fleshy 
portion  called  the  pericarp.  Beneath  this  is 
a  part  like  tissue  paper,  spoken  of  technic- 


I  11 

Fig.  331.  Coffee  (Coffea  arahica).  I — Cross-section  of  berry,  natural  size;  Pk,  outer  pericarp; 
Mk,  endocarp  ;  Ek,  spermoderm  ;  8a,  liard  endosperm  ;  8p,  soft  endosperm.  II — Longitudinal 
section  of  berry,  natural  size  ;  Dis,  bordered  disk  ;  8e,  remains  of  sepals  ;  Em,  embryo.  Ill- 
Embryo,  enlarged;  cot,  cotyledon;  rad,  radicle.      (Tschircli  and  Oesterle.) 

standpoint,  the  microscopy  of  the  plant  is 
less  important  than  that  of  the  bean. 

The  Fruit  and  the  Bean 

The  fruit,  as  stated  in  chapter  XV,  con- 
sists of  two  parts,  each  one  containing  a 
single  seed,  or  bean.  These  beans  are  flat- 
tened laterally,  so  as  to  fit  together,  except 
in  the  following  instances :  in  the  peaberry, 
where  one  of  the  ovules  never  develops,  the 
single  ovule,  having  no  pressure  upon  it,  is 

ally  as  the  parchment,  but  known  scientific- 
ally as  the  endocarp.  Next  in  position  to 
this,  and  covering  the  seed,  is  the  so-called 
spermoderm,  which  means  the  seed  skin, 
referred  to  in  the  trade  as  the  silver  skin. 
Small  portions  of  this  silver  skin  are  always 
to  be  found  in  the  cleft  of  the  coffee  bean. 
The  coffee  bean  is  the  embryo  and  its 
food  supply ;  the  embryo  is  that  part  of  the 
seed  which,  when  supplied  with  food  and 
moisture,  develops  into  a  new  plant.    The 




embryo  of  the  coffee  is  very  minute  (Fig. 
331,  II,  Em)  ';  and  the  greater  part  of  the 
seed  is  taken  up  by  the  food  supply,  con- 

Fig.  332.  Coffee.  Cross  section  of  bean 
showing  folded  endosperm  with  hard 
and  soft   tissues.     x6.      (Moeller) 

sisting  of  hard  and  soft  endosperm  (Fig. 
331,  I  and  II,  Sa,  Sp).  The  minute  em- 
bryo consists  of  two  small  thick  leaves,  the 
cotyledons  (Fig.  331,  III,  cot),  a  short 
stem,  invisible  in  the  undissected  embryo, 
and  a  small  root,  the  radicle  (Fig.  331,  III, 

Fruit  Structure 

In  order  to  examine  the  structure  of  these 
layers  of  the  fruit  under  the  microscope,  it 
is  necessary  to  use  the  pericarp  dry,  as  it 
is  not  easily  obtainable  in  its  natural  con- 
dition. If  desired,  an  alcoholic  specimen 
may  be  used,  but  it  has  been  found  that 
the  dry  method  gives  more  satisfactory  re- 
sults. The  dried  pericarp  is  about  0.5  mm 
thick.  Great  difficulty  is  experienced  in 
cutting  microtome  sections  of  pericarp  when 
the  specimen  is  embedded  in  paraffin,  be- 
cause the  outer  layers  are  soft  and  the 
endocarp  is  hard,  and  the  two  parts  of  the 
section  separate  at  this  point.  To  overcome 
this,  the  sections  might  also  be  embedded  in 
celloidin.  When  the  sections  are  satisfac- 
tory, they  may  be  stained  with  any  of  the 
double  stains  ordinarily  used  in  the  study 
of  plant  histology. 

A  section  cut  crosswise  through  the  entire 
fruit  would  present  the  appearance  shown 
in  Fig.  333.     The  cells  of  the  epicarp  are 

^These  and  all  other  numbered  drawings  in  this 
chapter  are  from  Andrew  L.  Winton's  The  Microscopy 
of  Vegetable  Foods,  copyright  191G,  and  reprinted  by 

broad  and  polygonal,  sometimes  regularly 
four-sided,  about  15-35  fi  broad.  At  in- 
tervals along  the  surface  of  the  epicarp  are 
stomata,  or  breathing  pores,  surrounded  by 
guard  cells.  The  next  layer  of  the  pericarp 
is  the  mesocarp  (Figs.  333,  334,  335),  the 
cells  of  which  are  larger  and  more  regular 
in  outline  than  the  epicarp.  The  cells  of 
the  mesocarp  become  as  large  as  100  fi 
broad,  but  in  the  inner  parts  of  the  layer 
they  become  very  much  flattened.  Fibro- 
vascular  bundles  are  scattered  through  the 
compressed  cells  of  the  mesocarp.  The  cell 
walls  are  thick;  and  large,  amorphous, 
brown  masses  are  found  within  the  cell; 
occasionally,  large  crystals  are  found  in  the 
outer  part  of  the  layer.  The  fibrovascular 
bundles  consist  mainly  of  bast  and  wood 
fibers  and  vessels.  The  bast  fibers  are  as 
large  as  1  mm  long  and  25  fi  broad,  with 



Fig.  333.  Coffee.  Cross  section  of  hull 
and  bean.  Pericarp  consists  of  :  1,  epi- 
carp ;  2-3,  layers  of  mesocarp,  with  4, 
flbro-vascular  bundle  ;  5,  palisade  layer  ; 
and  6,  endocarp  ;  ss,  spermoderm,  con- 
sists of  8,  sclerenchyma,  and  9,  paren- 
chyma ;  End,  endosperm  (Tschirch  and 



Fig.  334.  Coflfee.  Surface  view  of  ep,  epi- 
carp,  and  p^  outer  parenchyma  of  meso- 
carp.     xl60.   (Moeller) 

thick  walls  and  very  small  lumina.  Spiral 
and  pitted  vessels  are  also  present. 

The  layer  next  to  this  is  a  soft  tissue, 
parenchyma  (Fig.  333,  5;  Fig.  334,  p). 
The  parenchyma,  or  palisade  cells  as  they 
are  called,  is  a  thin-walled  tissue  in  which 
the  cells  are  elongated,  from  which  fact 
they  receive  their  name.  The  walls  of  these 
cells,  though  verj^  thin,  are  mucilaginous, 
and  capable  of  taking  up  large  amounts  of 
water.  They  stain  well  with  the  aniline 

The  endocarp  (Fig.  336)  is  closely  con- 
nected with  the  palisade  layer  and  has  thin- 
walled  cells  that  closely  resemble,  in  all 
respects,  the  endocarp  of  the  apple.  The 
outer  layer  consists  of  thick-walled  fibers, 
which  are  remarkably  porous  (Fig.  333,  6; 
Fig.  336)  while  the  fibers  of  the  inner  layer 
are  thin-walled  and  run  in  the  transverse 

The  Bean  Structure 

Spermoderm,  or  silver  skin,  is  not  diffi- 
cult to  secure  for  microscopic  analysis ;  be- 
cause shreds  of  it  remain  in  the  groove  of 
the  berry,  and  these  shreds  are  ample  for 
examination.  It  can  readily  be  removed 
without  tearing,  if  soaked  in  water  for  a 
few  hours.  The  spermoderm  is  thin  enough 
not  to  need  sectioning.  It  consists  of  two 
elements  —  sclerenchyma  and  parenchyma 
cells.  (Figs.  333,  337,  st,p). 

Sclerenchyma  forms  an  uninterrupted 
covering  in  the  early  stages  of  the  seed ;  but 

Fig.  335.  Coffee.  Elements  of  pericarp  in 
surface  view.  p,  parencliyma ;  Itp, 
parencliyma  of  fibro-vascular  bundle ; 
ft,  bast  fiber ;  sp,  spiral  vessel.  xl60. 

as  the  seed  develops,  surrounding  tissues 
grow  more  rapidly  than  the  sclerenchyma, 
and  the  cells  are  pushed  apart  and  scattered. 
The  cells  occurring  in  the  cleft  of  the  berry 
are  straight,  narrow,  and  long,  becoming  as 
long  as  1  mm,  and  resemble  bast  fibers 
somewhat.  On  the  surface  of  the  berry, 
and  sometimes  in  the  cleft,  there  are  found 
smaller,  thicker  cells,  which  are  irregular 
in  outline,  club-shaped  and  vermiform 
types  predominating. 

Parenchyma  cells  form  the  remainder  of 
the  spermoderm;  and  these  are  partially 
obliterated,  so  that  the  structure  is  not 
easily  seen,  appearing  almost  like  a  solid 
membrane.  The  raphe  runs  through  the 
parenchyma  found  in  the  cleft  of  the  berry. 

The  endosperm  (Figs.  333;  338)  consist 
of  small  cells  in  the  outer  part,  and  large 
cells,  frequently  as  thick  as  100  /x,  in  the 
inner  part.  The  cell  walls  are  thickened 
and  knotted.  Certain  of  the  inner  cells 
have  mucilaginous  walls  which  when  treated 
with  water  disappear,  leaving  only  the 
middle  lamellae,  which  gives  the  section  a 
peculiar  appearance.  The  cells  contain  no 
starch,  the  reserve  food  supply  being 
stored  cellulose,  protein,  and  aleurone 
grains.  Various  investigators  report  the 
presence  of  sugar,  tannin,  iron,  salts,  and 

The  embryo  (Fig.  331,  III)  may  be  ob- 
tained by  soaking  the  bean  in  water  for 
several  hours,  cutting  through  the  cleft  and 
carefully  breaking  apart  the  endosperm.  If 



Fig.    336.      Coffee.      Sclerenchyma    fibers    of 
endocarp.        xl60.       (Moeller) 

it  is  now  soaked  in  diluted  alkali,  the 
embryo  protrudes  through  the  lower  end  of 
the  endosperm.  It  is  then  cleared  in  alkali, 
or  in  chloral  hydrate.  The  cotyledons 
shown  have  three  pairs  of  veins,  which  are 
slightly  netted.  The  radicle  is  blunt  and  is 
about  %  mm  in  length,  while  the  cotyledons 
are  ^  mm  long. 

The  Coffee-Leaf  Disease 
The  coffee  tree  has  many  pests  and  dis- 
eases; but  the  disease  most  feared  by 
planters  is  that  generally  referred  to  as  the 
coffee-leaf  disease,  and  by  this  is  meant  the 
fungoid  Hemileia  vastatrix,  which  as  told  in 

Fig.  338.  Coffee.  Cross-section  of  outer 
layers  of  endosperm,  shiowing  knotty 
thickenings  of  cell  walls.  xl60. 

chapter  XV,  destroyed  Ceylon's  once  pros- 
perous coffee  industry.  As  it  has  since  been 
found  in  nearly  all  coffee-producing  coun- 
tries, it  has  become  a  nightmare  in  the 
dreams  of  all  coffee  planters.  The  micro- 
scope shows  how  the  spores  of  this  dreaded 

Fig.  339.  Coffee.  Tis- 
sues of  embryo  in  sec- 
tion.   xl60.     (Moeller) 

Fig.  337.  Coffee.  Spermoderm  in  surface  view.  at. 
sclerenchyma  ;  p,  compressed  parencnyma.  xlOO. 

fungus,  carried  by  the  winds  upon  a  leaf 
of  the  coffee  tree,  proceed  to  germinate  at 
the  expense  of  the  leaf;  robbing  it  of  its 
nourishment,  and  causing  it  to  droop  and 
to  die.  A  mixture  of  powdered  lime  and 
sulphur  has  been  found  to  be  an  effective 
germicide,  if  used  in  time  and  diligently 

Value  of  Microscopic  Analysis 

The  value  of  the  microscopic  analysis  of 
coffee  may  not  be  apparent  at  first  sight; 
but  when  one  realizes  that  in  many  cases 
the  microscopic  examination  is  the  only  way 
to  detect  adulteration  in  coffee,  its  import- 
ance at  once  becomes  apparent.  In  many 
instances  the  chemical  analysis  fails  to  get 
at  the  root  of  the  trouble,  and  then  the  only 
method  to  which  the  tester  has  recourse  is 
the  examination  of  the  suspected  material 
under  the  scope.     The  mixing  of  chicory 



^th  coffee  has  in  the  past  been  one  of  the 
)mmonest  forms  of  adulteration.  The 
ucroscopic  examination  in  this  connection 

Roasted  date  stones  have  been  used  as 
adulterants,  and  these  can  be  detected  quite 
readily  with  the  aid  of  the  microscope,  as 

Coffee    Leaf    Disease    (Hemileia    vastatrix) 

1,  under  surface  of  affected  leaf,  x  %  ;  2,  section  through  same  showing  mycelium,  haustoria. 
and  a  spore-cluster ;  3,  a  spore-cluster  seen  from  below :  4,  a  uredospore ;  5,  germinating 
uredospore ;  6,  appressorial  swellings  at  tips  of  germ-tubes ;  7,  infection  through  stoma  of 
leaf ;  8.  teleutospores  ;  9,  teleutospore  germinating  with  promycelium  and  sporidia  ;  10,  spori- 
dia  and  their  germination  (2  after  Zimmermann,  3  after  Delacroix,  4-10  after  Ward) 

is  the  most  reliable.  The  coffee  grain  will 
have  the  appearance  already  described. 
Microscopically,  chicory  shows  numerous 
thin-w^alled  parenchymatous  cells,  lactifer- 
ous vessels,  and  sieve  tubes  with  transverse 
plates.  There  are  also  present  large  vessels 
with  huge,  well-defined  pits. 

they  have  a  very  characteristic  microscopic 
appearance.  The  epidermal  cells  are  almost 
oblong,  while  the  parenchymatous  cells  are 
large,  irregular  and  contain  large  quantities 
of  tannin. 

Adulteration    and    adulterants    are   con- 
sidered more  fully  in  chapter  XVII. 

Green  and  Roasted  Coffee  Under  the  Microscope 

Green  bean,  showing  the  size  and  form  of  the  cells 
as  well  as  the  drops  of  oil  contained  within  their 
cavities.  Drawn  with  the  camera  lucida,  and 
magnified  140  diameters. 

A  fragment  of  roasted  coffee  under  the  niicrcscope. 
Drawn  with  the  camera  lucida,  and  magnifled 
140   diameters. 



Bogota,  Gkeen 
Longitudinal  —  Magnifled  200  diameters 

Bogota,  Green 
Cross  Section  —  Magnified  200  diameters 

Bogota,  Green 
Tangential  —  Magnified   200   diameters 

Bogota,  Roasted 
Tangential  —  Magnified    200    diameters 


These  pictures  serve  to  demonstrate  that  the  coffee  bean  is  made  up  of  minute  cells  that  are 
not  broken  down  to  any  extent  by  the  roasting  process.  Note  that  the  oil  globules  are  more 
prominent  in  the  green  than  in  the  roasted  product 

Chapter  XVII 




Chemistry  of  the  preparation  and  treatment  of  the  green  hean  — 
Artificial  aging — .Renovating  damaged  coffees  —  Extracts  —  ''Caf- 
fetannic  acid"  —  Caffein,  caffein-free  coffee  —  Caffeol  —  Fats  and 
oils  —  Carbohydrates  —  Roasting  —  Scientific  aspects  of  grinding 
and  pacJiaging  —  The  coffee  brew  —  Soluble  coffee  —  Adulterants 
and  substitutes  —  Official  methods  of  analysis 

By  Charles  W.  Trigg 

Industrial  Fellow  of  the  Mellon  Institute  of  Industrial  Research,  Pittsburgh,  191G  - 1920 

WHEN  the  vast  extent  of  the  coffee 
business  is  considered,  together 
with  the  intimate  connection 
which  coffee  has  with  the  daily  life  of  the 
average  human,  the  relatively  small  amount 
of  accurate  knowledge  which  we  possess  re- 
garding the  chemical  constituents  and  the 
physiological  action  of  coffee  is  productive 
of  amazement. 

True,  a  painstaking  compilation  of  all 
the  scientific  and  semi-scientific  work  done 
upon  coffee  furnishes  quite  a  compendium 
of  data,  the  value  of  which  is  not  commen- 
surate with  its  quantity,  because  of  the 
spasmodic  nature  of  the  investigations  and 
the  non-conclusive  character  of  the  results 
so  far  obtained.  The  following  general  sur- 
vey of  the  field  argues  in  favor  of  the  pro- 
mulgation of  well-ordered  and  systematic 
research,  of  the  type  now  in  progress  at 
several  places  in  the  United  States,  into  the 
chemical  behavior  of  coffee  throughout  the 
various  processes  to  which  it  is  subjected  in 
the  course  of  its  preparation  for  human 

Green  Coffee 

One  of  the  few  chemical  investigations 
of  the  growing  tree  is  the  examination  by 
Graf  of  flowers  from  20-year-old  coffee 
trees,  in  which  he  found  0.9  percent  caffein. 

a  reducing  sugar,  caffetannic  acid,  and 
phytosterol.  Power  and  Chestnut'  found 
0.82  percent  caffein  in  air-dried  coffee 
leaves,  but  only  0.087  percent  of  the  alka- 
loid in  the  stems  of  the  plant  separated 
from  the  leaves.  In  the  course  of  a  study" 
instituted  for  the  purpose  of  determining 
the  best  fertilizers  for  coffee  trees,  it  de- 
veloped that  the  cherries  in  different  stages 
of  growth  show  a  preponderance  of  potash 
throughout,  w^hile  the  proportion  of  PgOg 
attains  a  maximum  in  the  fourth  month 
and  then  steadily  declines. 

Experiments  are  still  in  progress  to  as- 
certain the  precise  mineral  requirements 
of  the  crop  as  well  as  the  most  suitable 
stage  at  which  to  apply  them.  During  the 
first  five  months  the  moisture  content  un- 
dergoes a  steady  decrease,  from  87.13  per- 
cent to  65.77  percent,  but  during  the  final 
ripening  stage  in  the  last  month  there  is  a 
rise  of  nearly  1  percent.  This  may  ex- 
plain the  premature  falling  and  failure  to 
ripen  of  the  crop  on  certain  soils,  especially 
in  years  of  low  rainfall.  Malnutrition  of 
the  trees  may  result  also  in  the  production 
of  oily  beans.' 

1  JoMr.  Am.  Chan.  Soc,  1919   (vol.  xli  :  p.  1306 K 
-  Anstead,  R.  D.     Annals  on  Applied  Biology,  1915 

(vol.   i:  pp.  299-302). 
*  Huntington,   L.   M.      Tea  and   Coffee   Trade  Jour., 

1917  (vol.  xxxiii:  p.  228). 




The  coffee  berry  comprises  about  68  per- 
cent pulp,  6  percent  parchment,  and  26 
percent  clean  coffee  beans.  The  pulp  is 
easily  removed  by  mechanical  means;  but 
in  order  to  separate  the  soft,  glutinous,  sac- 
charine parchment,  it  is  necessary  to  resort 
to  fermentation,  which  loosens  the  skin  so 
that  it  may  be  removed  easily,  after  which 
the  coffee  is  properly  dried  and  aged. 
There  is  first  a  yeast  fermentation  produc- 
ing alcohol ;  and  then  a  bacterial  action 
giving  mainly  inactive  lactic  acid,  which  is 
the  main  factor  in  loosening  the  parchment. 
For  the  production  of  the  best  coffee,  acetic 
acid  fermentation  (which  changes  the  color 
of  the  bean)  and  temperature  above  60° 
should  be  avoided,  as  these  inhibit  subse- 
quent enzymatic  action.* 

Various  schemes  have  been  proposed  for 
utilizing  the  large  amount  of  pulp  so  ob- 
tained in  preparing  coffee  for  market. 
Most  of  these  depend  upon  using  the  pulp 
as  fertilizer,  since  fresh  pulp  contains  2.61 
percent  nitrogen,  0.81  percent  PaO.,,  2.38 
percent  potassium,  and  0.57  percent  cal- 
cium. One  procedure'  in  particular  is 
to  mix  pulp  with  sawdust,  urine,  and  a 
little  lime,  and  then  to  leave  this  mixture 
covered  in  a  pit  for  a  year  before  using. 
In  addition  to  these  mineral  matters,  the 
pulp  also  contains  about  0.88  percent  of 
caffein  and  18  to  37  percent  sugars.  Ac- 
cordingly, it  has  been  proposed"  to  extract 
the  caffein  with  chloroform,  and  the  sugars 
with  acidulated  water.  The  aqueous  solu- 
tion so  obtained  is  then  fermented  to 
alcohol.  The  insoluble  portion  left  after 
extraction  can  be  used  as  fuel,  and  the  re- 
sulting ash  as  fertilizer. 

The  pulp  has  been  dried  and  roasted  for 
use  in  place  of  the  berry,  and  has  been  im- 
ported to  England  for  this  purpose.  It  is 
stated  that  the  Arabs  in  the  vicinity  of 
Jiddah  discard  the  kernel  of  the  coffee  ber- 
ries and  make  an  infusion  of  the  husk.' 

Quality  of  green  coffee  is  largely  depend- 
ent upon  the  methods  used  and  the  care 
taken  in  curing  it,  and  upon  the  conditions 
obtaining  in  shipment  and  storage.  True, 
the  soil  and  climatic  conditions  play  a  de- 
terminative role  in  the  creation  of  the 
characteristics  of  coffee,  but  these  do  not 

^  Gorter,  Ann.   (vol.  ccclxxii :  pp.  237-46). 
Schulte,   A.       Z.  Nahr.    Oenussm.    (vol.   xxvii  :   pp. 

Loew,  Oscar.  Ann.  Rep.  P.  R.  Apr.  Expt.  Sta., 
1907   (pp.  41-55). 

»  Senclal.     El  Hacendado  Mex.   (vol.  ix  :  p.  191). 
'Pique,  R.     Bull.  As-^oc.  Chim.  aucr.  dist.  (vol.  xxiv  : 
pp.  1210-13). 

'' Pharm.  Jour.,  1886   (vol.  xvii :  p.  656). 

offer  any  greater  opportunity  for  construc- 
tive research  and  remunerative  improve- 
ment than  does  the  development  of  methods 
and  control  in  the  processes  employed  in 
the  preparation  of  green  coffee  for  the  mar- 

Storage  prior  and  subsequent  to  ship- 
ment, and  circumstances  existing  during 
transportation,  are  not  to  be  disregarded 
as  factors  contributory  to  the  final  quality 
of  the  coffee.    The  sweating  of  mules  carry- 

Cross-Section  of  the  Endosperm  or  Hard 
Structure  of  the  Green   Bean 

ing  bags  of  poorly  packed  coffee,  and  the 
absorption  of  strong  foreign  aromas  and 
flavors  from  odoriferous  substances  stored 
in  too  close  proximity  to  the  coffee  beans, 
are  classic  examples  of  damage  that  bear 
iterative  mention.  Damage  by  sea  water, 
due  more  to  the  excessive  moisture  than  to 
the  salt,  is  not  so  common  an  occurrence 
now  as  heretofore.  However,  a  cheap  and 
thoroughly  effective  means  of  ethically 
renovating  coffee  which  has  been  damaged 
in  this  manner  would  not  go  begging  for 
commercial  application. 

That  green  coffee  improves  with  age,  is 
a  tenet  generally  accepted  by  the  trade. 
Shipments  long  in  transit,  subjected  to  the 
effects  of  tropical  heat  under  closely  bat- 
tened hatches  in  poorly  ventilated  holds, 
have  developed  into  much-prized  yellow 
matured  coffee.  Were  it  not  for  the  large 
capital  required  and  the  attendant  prohibi- 
tive carrying  charges,  many  roasters  would 
permit  their  coffees  to  age  more  thoroughly 
before  roasting.  In  fact,  some  roasters  do 
indulge  this  desire  in  regard  to  a  portion 
of  their  stock.    But  were  it  feasible  to  treat 



?ortiox  of  the  investing  membrane,  showing 

Its   Structure 
Drawn  with  the  camera  lucida,   and  magnified  140 

and  hold  coffees  long  enough  to  develop 
their  attributes  to  a  maximum,  still  the 
exact  conditions  which  would  favor  such 
development  are  not  definitely  known. 
What  are  the  optimum  temperature  and 
the  correct  humidity  to  maintain,  and 
should  the  green  coffee  be  well  ventilated 
or  not  while  in  storage?  How  long  should 
coffee  be  stored  under  the  most  favorable 
conditions  best  to  develop  it?  Aging  for 
too  long  a  period  will  develop  flavor  at  the 
expense  of  body;  and  the  general  cup  effi- 
qiency  of  some  coffees  will  suffer  if  they 
be  kept  too  long. 

The  exact  reason  for  improvement  upon 
aging  is  in  no  wise  certain,  but  it  is  highly 
probable  that  the  changes  ensuing  are 
somewhat  analogous  to  those  occurring  in 
the  aging  of  grain.  Primarily  an  unde- 
fined enzymatic  and  mold  action  most  likely 
occurs,  the  nature  of  the  enzymes  and  molds 
being  largely  dependent  upon  the  previous 
treatment  of  the  coffee.  Along  with  this 
are  a  loss  of  moisture  and  an  oxidation,  all 
three  actions  having  more  evident  effects 
with  the  passage  of  time. 

Artificial  Aging 

In  consideration  of  the  higher  prices 
which  aged  products  demand,  attempts 
have  naturally  been  made  to  shorten  by 
artificial  means  the  time  necessary  for  their 
natural  production.    Some  of  these  methods 

depend  upon  obtaining  the  most  favorable 
conditions  f6r  acceleration  of  the  enzyme 
action ;  others,  upon  the  effects  of  micro- 
organisms; and  still  others,  upon  direct 
chemical  reaction  or  physical  alteration  of 
the  green  bean. 

One  of  the  first  efforts  toward  artificial 
maturing  was  that  of  Ashcroff ,  who  argued 
from  the  improved  nature  of  coffee  which 
had  experienced  a  delayed  voyage.  His 
method  consisted  of  inclosing  the  coffee  in 
sweat-boxes  having  perforated  bottoms  and 
subjecting  it  to  the  sweating  action  of 
steam,  the  boxes  being  enclosed  in  an  oven 
or  room  maintained  at  the  temperature  of 

Timby"  claimed  to  remove  dusts,  foreign 
odors,  and  impurities,  while  attaining  in  a 
few  hours  or  days  a  ripening  effect  nor- 
mally secured  only  in  several  seasons.  In 
this  process,  the  bagged  coffee  is  placed  in 
autoclaves  and  subjected  to  the  action  of 
air  at  a  pressure  of  2  to  3  atmospheres  and 
a  temperature  of  40°  to  100°  F.  The  tem^ 
perature  should  seldom  be  allowed  to  rise 
above  150°   F.     The  pressure  is  then  al-. 


Structure  of  the  Green  Bean 
Showing   thick-walled   cells   enclosing   drops   of  oil 

lowed  to  escape  and  a  partial  vacuum 
created  in  the  apparatus.  This  alteration 
of  pressure  and  vacuum  is  continued  until 
the  desired  maturation  is  obtained. 
Desvignes"  employs  a  similar  procedure, 
although    he    accomplishes    seasoning    by 

»U.  S.  Pat.,  113,832.  April  18,  1871. 
»U.  S.  Pat.,  660,602,  Oct.  30,  1900. 
"French  Pat.,  379,036,  Aug.  28,  1906. 



treating  the  coffee  also  with  oxygen  or 
ozone."  First  the  coffee  is  rendered  porous 
by  storage  in  a  hot  chamber,  which  is  then 
exhausted  prior  to  admission  of  the  oxygen. 
The  oxygen  can  be  ozonized  in  the  closed 
vessel  while  in  contact  with  the  coffee. 
Complete  aging  in  a  few  days  is  claimed. 

Weitzmann"  adopts  a  novel  operation, 
by  exposing  bags  of  raw  coffee  to  the  action 
of  a  powerful  magnetic  field,  obtained  with 
two  adjustable  electro-magnets.  The  claim 
that  a  maturation  naturally  produced  in 
several  years  is  thus  obtained  in  %  to  2 
hours  is  open  to  considerable  doubt.  A 
process  that  is  probably  attended  with  more 
commercial  success  is  that  of  Gram"  in 
which  the  coffee  is  treated  with  gaseous 
nitrogen  dioxid. 

By  far  the  most  notable  progress  in  this 
field,  both  scientifically  and  commercially, 
has  been  made  by  Robison*  with  his  "cul- 
turing"  method.  Here  the  green  coffee  is 
washed  with  water,  and  then  inoculated 
with  selected  strains  of  micro-organisms, 
such  as  Ochraeceus  or  Aspergillus  Wintii. 
Incubation  is  then  conducted  for  6  to  7 
days  at  90°  F.  and  85  percent  relative  hu- 
midity. Subsequent  to  this  incubation,  the 
coffee  is  stored  in  bins  for  about  ten  days ; 
after  which  it  is  tumbled  and  scoured. 
With  this  process  it  is  possible  to  improve 
the  cupping  qualities  of  a  coffee  to  a  sur- 
prising degree. 

Renovating  Damaged  Coffees 

Sophistication  has  often  been  resorted  to 
in  order  ostensibly  to  improve  damaged  or 
cheap  coffee.  Glazing,  coloring,  and  polish- 
ing of  the  green  beans  was  openly  and 
covertly  practised  until  restricted  by  law. 
The  steps  employed  did  not  actually  im- 
prove the  coffee  by  any  means,  but  merely 
put  it  into  condition  for  more  ready  sale. 
An  apparently  sincere  endeavor  to  reno- 
vate damaged  coffee  was  made  by  Evans'° 
when  he  treated  it  with  an  aqueous  solu- 
tion of  sulphuric  acid  having  a  density  of 
10.5°  Baume.  After  agitation  in  this  solu- 
tion, the  beans  were  washed  free  from  acid 
and  dried.  In  this  manner  discolorations 
and  impurities  were  removed  and  the 
beans  given  a  fuller  appearance. 

The  addition  of  glucose,  sucrose,  lactose, 
or  dextrin  to  green  coffees  is  practised  by 

"French  Pat.,  359,451,  Nov.  15,  1905. 
"British    Pat.,    26,905,   Dec.   9,    1904. 
"U.  S.  Pat.,  843,530,  Feb.  5,  1907. 
"IT.  S.  Pat.,  1,313.209,  Aug.   12,  1919. 
«U.  S.  Pat.,  134,792,  Jan.   14,   1873. 

von  Niessen'"  and  by  Winter",  with  the  ob- 
ject of  giving  a  mild  taste  and  strong  aroma 
to  "hard"  coffees.  The  addition  is  accom- 
plished by  impregnating,  with  or  without 
the  aid  of  vacuum,  the  beans  with  a  mod- 
erately concentrated  solution  of  the  sugar, 
the  liquid  being  of  insufficient  quantity  to 
effect  extraction.  When  the  solution  has 
completely  disseminated  through  the  ker- 
nels, they  are  removed  and  dried.  Upon 
subsequent  roasting,  a  decided  amelioration 
of  flavor  is  secured. 

Another  method  developed  by  von  Nies- 
sen'"  comprises  the  softening  of  the  outer 
layers  of  the  beans  by  steam,  cold  or  warm 
water,  or  brine,  and  then  surrounding  them 
with  an  absorbent  paste  or  powder,  such  as 
china  clay,  to  which  a  neutralizing  agent 
such  as  magnesium  oxid  may  be  added. 
After  drying,  the  clay  can  be  removed  by 
brushing  or  by  causing  the  beans  to  travel 
between  oppositely  reciprocated  wet  cloths. 
In  the  development  of  this  process,  von 
Niessen  evidently  argued  that  the  so-called 
"caffetannic  acid"  is  the  "harmful"  sub- 
stance in  coffee,  and  that  it  is  concentrated 
in  the  outer  layers  of  the  coffee  beans.*  If 
these  be  his  precepts,  the  question  of  their 
correctness  and  of  the  efficiency  of  his 
process  becomes  a  moot  one. 

A  procedure  which  aims  at  cleaning  and 
refining  raw  coffee,  and  which  has  been  the 
subject  of  much  polemical  discussion,''  is 
that  of  Thum'\  It  entails  the  placing  of 
the  green  beans  in  a  perforated  drum ;  just 
covering  them  with  water,  or  a  solution  of 
sodium  chloride  or  sodium  carbonate,  at  65° 
to  70°  C. ;  and  subjecting  them  to  a  vigor- 
ous brushing  for  from  1  to  5  minutes,  ac- 
cording to  the  grade  of  coffee  being  treated. 
The  value  of  this  method  is  somewhat 
doubtful,  as  it  would  not  seem  to  accom- 
plish any  more  than  simple  washing.  In' 
fact,  if  anything,  the  process  is  undesir- 
able ;  as  some  of  the  extractive  matters 
present  in  the  coffee,  and  particularly  eaf- 
fein,  will  be  lost.  Both  Freund'"  and  Har- 
nack'"  hold  briefs  for  the  product  produced 
by  this  method,  and  the  latter  endeavors 
analytically  to  prove  its  merits ;  but  as  his 
experimental  data  are  questionable,  his  con- 
clusions do  not  carry  much  weight. 

"  British  Pat.,  7.427,  Mar.  24,  1910. 
"U.   S.  Pat.,  997,431,  July  11,   1911. 
"British  Pat.,  28.087.  Oct.  9,  1912. 

French  Pat.,  449.343,  Oct.  12,  1912. 
"British  Pat.,  21,397.  Sept.  26,  1907. 

French  Pat.,  382,238.  Sept.  26,  1907. 

U.  S,  Pat.,  982.902,  Jan.  31,  1911. 
^Pharm.   Zentralhalle,  1915    (vol.   Ivi  :   pp.   343-48). 
'^  Munch.  Med.  Wochschr.,  (vol.  Iviii :  pp.  1868-72).- 

^■The  study  of  the  acids  of  coffee  has  been 

^^oduetive  of  much  controversy  and  many 
contradictory  results,  few  of  which  possess 
any  value.  The  acid  of  coffee  is  generally 
spoken  of  as  "caifetannic  acid."  Quite  a 
few  attempts  have  been  made  to  determine 
the  composition  and  structure  of  this  com- 
pound and  to  assign  it  a  formula.  Among 
them  may  be  noted  those  of  Allen "  who 
gives  it  the  empirical  formula  Ci^Hj^sO^; 
Hlasiwetz/'  who  represents  it  as  (TisHisOg ; 
Richter,  as  C^oHisOie ;  Griebel,"  as 
CisHo^Ojo,  and  Cazeneuve  and  Haddon/" 
as  CoiH2sOi4.  It  is  variously  supposed  to 
exist  in  coffee  as  the  potassium,  calcium,  or 
magnesium  salt.  In  regard  to  the  physical 
appearance  of  the  isolated  substance  there 
is  also  some  doubt,  Thorpe'^  describing  it 
as  an  amorphous  powder,  and  Howard'''  as 
a  brownish,  syrup-like  mass,  having  a 
slight  acid  and  astringent  taste. 

The  chemical  reactions  of  "caffetannic 
acid"  are  generally  agreed  upon.  A  dark 
green  coloration  is  given  with  ferric  chlo- 
rid;  and  upon  boiling  it  with  alkalies  or 
cHTute  acids,  caffeic  acid  and  glucose  are 
formed.  Fusion  with  alkali  produces  pro- 
tocatechuie  acid. 

K.  Gorter"  has  made  an  extensive  and 
accurate  investigation  into  the  matter,  and 
in  reporting  upon  the  same  has  made  some 
very  pertinent  observations.  His  claim  is 
that  the  name  "caffetannic  acid"  is  a  mis- 
nomer and  should  be  abandoned.  The  so- 
called  "caffetannic  acid"  is  really  a  mix- 
ture which  has  among  its  constituents 
chlorogenic  acid  (CgoH^gOio),  which  is  not 
a  tannic  acid,  and  coffalic  acid.     Tatlock 

^  and  Thompson"*  have  expressed  the  opinion 
that  roasted  coffee  contains  no  tannin,  and 
that  the  lead  precipitate  contains  mostly 
coloring  matter.  They  found  only  4.5  per- 
cent of  tannin  (precipitable  by  gelatin  or 
"  alkaloids)   in  raw  coffee. 

Hanausek"*  demonstrated  the  presence  of 
oxalic  acid  in  unripe  beans,  and  citric  acid 
has  been  isolated  from  Liberian  coffee.  It 
also   has   been   claimed   that  viridic   acid, 

'  C14H20O11,  is  present  in  coffee.     In   addi- 

**  Commercial  Organic  Analysis. 
»A«n.  Chem.  Pharm  .  1 S07    fvol.  cxlii  :  p.  230). 
"  Inaugural  Diss.,  Munich.  1903. 
'^  Comptes  Rertdus,  1807    (vol.  cxxiv  :  p.   1458). 
^  Diet.  Avp.  Chem.,  15)13   (vol.  v:  p.  393). 
"U.    S.   Dept.   Agr.    Bur.    Chem.      Bull.    105,    1907. 
<P.  42). 

^  Ann.    (vol.  cccviii  :  pp.  327-348). 

Ibid.   (vol.  ccclxxH  :  pp.  237,  246). 

Arch.  Pharm.    (vol.  ccxlvii :  pp.  184-196). 
'^Jour.   Soc.   Chem.,  Ind..  1910    (vol.  xxlx  :   p.   138). 
^"Z.  Nahr.  Gentissm.   (vol.  xxi :  p.  295). 



tion  to  these,  the  fat  of  coffee  contains  a 
certain  percentage  of  free  fatty  acids. 

It  is  thus  apparent  that  even  in  green 
coffee  there  is  no  definite  compound  "caffe- 
tannic acid,"  and  there  is  even  less  likeli- 
hood of  its  being  present  in  roasted  coffee. 
The  conditions,  high  heat  and  oxidation,  to 
which  coffee  is  subjected  in  roasting  would 
suffice  to  decompose  this  hypothetical  acid 
if  it  wera  present.  ^- 

In  the  method  of  analysis  for  caffetannic 
acid  (No.  24)  given  at  the  end  of  this  chap- 
ter, there  are  many  chances  of  error, 
although  this  procedure  is  the  best  yet  de- 
vised. Lead  acetate  forms  three  different 
compounds  with  "caffetannic  acid,"  so  that 
this  reagent  must  be  added  with  extreme 
care  in  order  to  precipitate  the  compound 
desired.  The  precipitate,  upon  forming, 
mechanically  carries  down  with  it  any  fats 
which  may  be  present,  and  which  are  re- 
moved from  it  only  with  difficulty.  The 
majority  of  the  mineral  salts  in  the  solu- 
tion will  come  down  simultaneously.  All 
of  the  above-mentioned  organic  acids  form 
insoluble  salts  with  lead  acetate,  and  there 
will  also  be  a  tendency  toward  precipita- 
tion of  certain  of  the  components  of  cara- 
mel, the  acidic  polymerization  products  of 
acrolein,  glycerol,  etc.,  and  of  the  proteins 
and  their  decomposition  products. 

In  view  of  this  condition  of  uncertainty 
in  composition,  necessity  for  great  care  in 
manipulation,  and  ever-present  danger  of 
contamination,  the  significance  of  "caffe- 
tannic acid  analysis"  fades.  It  is  highly 
desirable  that  the  nomenclature  relevant  to 
this  analytical  procedure  be  changed  to 
one,  such  as  "lead  number,"  which  will  be 
more  truly  indicative  of  its  significance. 

The  Alkaloids  of  Coffee 

In  addition  to  caffein,  the  main  alkaloid 
of  coffee,  trigonellin  —  the  methylbetaine 
of  nicotinic  acid  —  sometimes  known  as 
caffearine,  has  been  isolated  from  coffee." 
This  alkaloid,  having  the  formilla 
C14H16O4N2,  is  also  found  in  fenugreek, 
Trigonella  foenumrgrcecum,  in  various  le- 
guminous plants,  and  in  the  seeds  of  stro- 
phanthus.  When  pure  it  forms  colorless 
needles  melting  at  140"  C,  and,  as  with  all 
alkaloids,  gives  a  weak  basic  reaction.  It  is 
very  soluble  in  water,  slightly  soluble  in. 
alcohol,  and  only  very  slightly  soluble  in 

31  Paladino,  Oasietta,  1895  (vol.  xxv :  no.  1 :  p.  104). 

Forster  &  Rlechelmann,  Zeitach.  6ffent.  Chem., 
1897    (vol.   lii:   p.   129). 

Polstorflf,  K.  Wallach-Featachrift,  1909  (pp.  569- 



ether,  chloroform  or  benzol,  so  that  it  does 
not  contaminate  the  caffein  in  the  deter- 
mination of  the  latter.  Its  effects  on  the 
body  have  not  been  studied,  but  they  are 
probably  not  very  great,  as  Polstorff  ob- 
tained only  0.23  percent  from  the  coffee 
which  he  examined. 

Caffein,  thein,  trimethylxanthin,  or 
C5H(CH3)3N40a,  in  addition  to  being  in 
the  coffee  bean  is  also  found  in  guarana 
leaves,  the  kola  nut,  mate,  or  Paraguay  tea, 
and,  in  small  quantities,  in  cocoa.  It  is  also 
found  in  other  parts  of  these  plants  besides 
those   commonly   used   for   food   purposes. 

A  neat  test  for  detecting  the  presence  of 
caffein  is  that  of  A.  Viehoever,"'  in  which 
the  caffein  is  sublimed  directly  from  the 
plant  tissue  in  a  special  apparatus.  The 
presence  of  caffein  in  the  sublimate  is  veri- 
fied by  observing  its  melting  point,  deter- 
mined on  a  special  heating  stage  used  in 
connection  with  a  microscope.    . 

The  chief  commercial  source  of  this  alka- 
loid is  waste  and  damaged  tea,  from  which 
it  is  prepared  by  extraction  with  boiling 
water,  the  tannin  precipitated  from  the 
solution  with  litharge,  and  the  solution  then 
concentrated  to  crystallize  out  the  caffein. 
It  is  further  purified  by  sublimation  or  re- 
cpystallization  from  water.  «Coffee  chaff 
and  roaster-flue  dust  have  been  proposed  as 
sources  for  medicinal  caffein,  but  the  ex- 
traction of  the  alkaloid  from  the  former 
has  not  proven  to  be  a  commercial  success. 
Several  manufacturers  of  pharmaceuticals 
are  now  extracting  caffein  from  roaster-flue 
dust,  probably  by  an  adaptation  of  the 
Faunce""  process.  The  recovery  of  caffein 
from  roaster-flue  gases  may  be  facilitated 
and  increased  by  the  use  of  a  condenser 
such  as  proposed  Ewe."* 

Pure  caffein  forms  long,  white,  silky,  flex- 
ible needles,  which  readily  felt  together  to 
form   light,    fleecy    masses.      It    melts    at 

^Private  comninnioation. 
M  U.  S.  Pat,  716,878,  Dec.  30,  1902. 
»*  Tea  d  Coffee  Trade  Jour.,  1920    (vol.  xxxvlii :  pp. 

235  -  7°  C.  and  sublimes  completely  at  178 
C,  though  the  sublinlation  starts  at  120  . 
Salts  of  an  iinstable  nature  are  formed  with 
caffein  by  most  acids.  The  solubility  o!: 
caffein  as  determined  by  Seidell  is  given 
in  Table  I. 

Table  I — 'The  Solubility  of  Caffein 




ture of 
Sp.  Gr.  of  Solu- 

Solvent  tlon 

Water    0.95)7  25 

J]ther    0.716  25 

Chloroform    .  .  .  1.476  25 

Acetone    0.809  30-1 

Benzene    0.872  80-1 

Benzaldehyde    .  1.055  30-1 

Amylacetate    .  .  0.860  30-1 

Anmne    1.02  «0-l 

Amyl    alcohol..  0.814  25 

Acetic    acid 1.055  21.5 

Xylene    0  847  32.5 

Toluene     0.862  25 

Grm.  Caf- 
fein per  100 
Grm.  of 

Sp.   Gr. 

of  Satu- 



The  similarity  between  caffein  and  theo- 
bromin  (the  chief  alkaloid  of  cocoa),  xan- 
thin  (one  of  the  constituents  of  meat),  and 
uric  acid,  is  shown  by  the  accompanying 
structural  formulae. 

These  formulae  show  merely  the  relative 
position  occupied  by  caffein  in  the  purin 
group,  and  do  not  in  any  wise  indicate,  be- 
cause of  its  similarity  of  structure  to  the 
other  compounds,  that  it  has  the  same 
physiological  action.  The  presence  and 
position  of  the  methyl  groups  (CH3)  in 
caffein  is  probably  the  controlling  factor 
which  makes  its  action  differ  from  the  be- 
havior of  other  members  of  the  series.  The 
structure  of  these  compounds  was  estab- 
lished, and  their  syntheses  accomplished,  in 
the  course  of  various  classic  researches  by 
Emil  Fischer.'' 

Gorter  states  that  caffein  exists  in  coffee 
in  combination  with  ehlorogenic  acid  as  a 
potassium  chlorogenate,  Ca^HaeOia, 
K2(C8HjoO,N,)2-2H20,  which  he  'isolated 
in  colorless  prisms.  This  compound  is 
water-soluble,  but  caffein  can  not  be  ex- 
tracted from  the  crystals  with  anhydrous 

^Jour.  Amer.  Chetn.  Soc,  1907  (vol.  xxix  :  p.  1091). 
^*  Ber.,  1895  (vol.  xxviii  :  p.  3137)  ;  1899  (vol.  xxxii : 
p.  435);   1900    (vol.   xxxiii :   p.   3035). 

CttjN— CO 

OC      C— Nn 



CH3N  — C-N^ 
Caffcm  (their\) 

HN — CO 

I       I 
OC      C— N<^"3 

I        II       >" 
CH3N— C— N 




OC       c — 



HN —  C  — N'^ 



I        I 

OC      C~NH 

HN—  C — NH 

Unc  Acid 


Formula  fob  Caffein,  Showing  Its  Relation  to  the  Purin  Group 

.'  ■  I    ,-1 


1(1(11, IKS    l>A(i(ll  ,\(;    iOIlKK   ON     TllK     1  »i;\  1  .N(i    GkOUNDS 




^^B  Green 

^Hoisture  April  20th 8.75 

Moisture   Septemb,  r  20tli 8.12 

Ash    4.41 

Oil    12.96 

CaJfein     1.87 

Caffein,  dry  basis 2.03 

Crude  fiber 20.70 

I'rotein    9.50 

Protein,  dry  basis 10.41 

Water  e.xtrnct    31.11 

Specific  gravity,   10  p  rcent  extract     1.0109 

Bushelwt'ight    47.0 

1,000  kernel   weight ISO. 60 

1,000  kernel  weight,  dry  basis 119.1 


■ffetannic   acid    15.58 

iility  by  titration   apparent 1.50 


Table  II  —  Coffee  Analyses 









^^■||vents.     To  this  behavior  can  probably 
^^H  attributed  the  difficulty  experienced  in 
^^Blracting  caffein  from  coffee  with  dry  or- 
^^nic  solvents.     However,  the  fact  that  a 
small  percentage  can  be  extracted  from  the 
green  bean  in  this  manner  indicates  that 
some  of  the  caffein  content  exists  therein 
in  a  free  state.    This  acid  compound  of  caf- 
fein will  be  largely  decomposed  during  the 
process  of  torrefaction,  so  that  in  roasted 
coffee  a  larger  percentage  will  be  present  in 
the  free  state.     Microscopical  examination 
of  the  roasted  bean  lends  verisimilitude  to 
this  contention. 

As  may  be  seen  in  Table  II "  the  caffein 
content  of  coffee  varies  with  the  different 
kinds,  a  fair  average  of  the  caffein  content 
being  about  1.5  percent  for  C.  arahica,  to 
which  class  most  of  our  coffees  belong. 
However,  aside  from  these  may  be  men- 
tioned C.  canephora,  which  yields  1.97  per- 
cent caffein  ;  C.  mauritiana,  which  contains 
0.07  percent  of  the  alkaloid  (less  than  the 
average  "caffein-free  coffee")  ;  and  C. 
humhoUiana,  which  contains  no  caffein,  but 
a  bitter  principle,  cafemarin.  Neither  do 
the  berries  of  C.  Gallienii,  C.  Bonnieri,  or 
C.  Mogeneti  contain  any  caffein ;  and  there 
has  also  been  reported^'  a  "Congo  coffee" 
which  contained  no  crystallizable  alkaloid 

Apparently  the  variation  in  caffein  con- 
tent is  largely  due  to  the  genus  of  the  tree 
from  which  the  berry  comes,  but  it  is  also 
quite  probable  that  the  nature  of  the  soil 
and  climatic  conditions  play  an  important 
part.  In  the  light  of  what  has  been  accom- 
plished in  the  field  of  agricultural  research, 
it  does  not  seem  improbable  that  a  man 
of  Burbank's  ability  and  foresight  could 
successfully  develop  a  series  of  coffees  pos- 

"  Willcox  &  Rentschler.  Tea  &  Coffee  Trade  Jour., 
1910   (vol.  six:  p.  440). 

■^  Pricke,  E.  Zeits.  /.  angew.  Chemie,  1889  (pp. 














































sessed  of  all  the  cup  qualities  inherent  in 
those  now  used,  but  totally  devoid  of  caf- 
fein. Whether  this  is  desirable  or  not  is  a 
question  to  be  considered  in  an  entirely 
different  light  from  the  possibility  of  its 

Table  III  —  Caffein  in  Different  Roasts 



1  68% 







Cinnamon    .  .  . 



.  ..      1.70 
.  .  .      1.66 
.  .  .      1.36 

The  variation  in  the  caffein  content  of 
coffee  at  different  intensities  of  roasting, 
as  shown  in  Table  III^  is,  of  course,  pri- 
marily dependent  upon  the  original  content 
of  the  green,  A  considerable  portion  of  the 
caffein  is  sublimed  off  during  roasting,  thus 
decreasing  the  amount  in  the  bean.  The 
higher  the  roast  is  carried,  the  greater  the 
shrinkage ;  but,  as  the  analyses  in  the  above 
table  show,  the  loss  of  caffein  proceeds  out 
of  proportion  to  the  shrinkage,  for  the  per- 
centage of  caffein  constantly  decreases  with 
the  increase  in  color.  If  the  roast  be  car- 
ried almost  to  the  point  of  carbonization, 
as  in  the  case  of  the  "Italian  roast,"  the 
caffein  content  will  be  almost  nil.  This  is 
not  a  suitable  coffee  for  one  desiring  an  al- 
most caffein-free  drink,  for  the  empyreu- 
matic  products  produced  by  this  excessive 
roasting  will  be  more  toxic  by  far  than  the 
caffein  itself  would  have  been. 

Caffein-free  Coffee 

The  demand  for  a  caffein-free  coffee  may 
be  attributed  to  two  causes,  namely:  the 
objectionable  effect  which  caffein  has  upon 
neurasthenics;  and  the  questionable  adver- 
tising of  the  "coffee-substitute"  dealers, 
who  have  by  this  means  persuaded  many 
normal  persons  into  believing  that  they  are 
decidedly  sub-normal.  As  a  result  of  this 
demand,  a  variety  of  decaffeinated  coffees 

s*  Willcox  &  Rentschler. 
1911    (vol.  XX  :  p.  355). 

Tea  d  Coffee  Trade  Jour., 



have  been  placed  on  the  market.  Just  why 
the  coffee  men  have  not  taken  advantage  of 
naturally  caffein-free  coffees,  or  of  the  pos- 
sibility of  obtaining  coffees  low  in  caffein 
content  by  chemical  selection  from  the  lines 
now  used,  is  a  difficult  question  to  answer. 

In  the  endeavor  to  develop  a  commercial 
decaffeinated  coffee  the  first  method  of  pro- 
cedure was  to  extract  the  caffein  from 
roasted  coffee.  This  method  had  its  advan- 
tages and  its  disadvantages,  of  which  the 
latter  predominated.  The  caffein  in  the 
roasted  coffee  is  not  as  tightly  bound  chemi- 
cally as  in  the  green  coffee,  and  is,  there- 
fore, more  easily  extracted.  Also,  the 
structure  of  the  roasted  bean  renders  it 
more  readily  penetrable  by  solvents  than 
does  that  of  the  green  bean.  However,  the 
great  objection  to  this  method  arises  from 
the  fact  that  at  the  same  time  as  the  caf- 
fein is  extracted,  the  volatile  aromatic  and 
flavoring  constituents  of  the  coft'ee  are  re- 
moved also.  These  substances,  which  are 
essential  for  the  maintenance  of  quality  by 
the  coffee,  though  readily  separated  from 
the  caffein,  can  not  be  returned  to  the 
roasted  bean  with  any  degree  of  certainty. 
This  virtually  insurmountable  obstacle 
forced  the  abandonment  of  this  mode  of 

In  order  to  avoid  this  action,  the  atten- 
tion of  investigators  was  directed  to  extrac- 
tion of  the  alkaloid  in  question  from  the 
green  bean.  Because  of  the  difficulty  of 
causing  the  solvent  to  penetrate  the  bean, 
recourse  to  grinding  resulted.  This  greatly 
facilitated  the  desired  extraction,  but  a 
difficulty  was  encountered  when  the  subse- 
quent roasting  was  attempted.  The  irregu- 
lar and  broken  character  of  the  ground 
green  beans  resisted  all  attempts  to  produce 
practically  a  uniformly  roasted,  highly 
aromatic  product  from  the  ground  ma- 

Avoidance  of  this  lack  of  uniformity  in 
the  product,  and  the  great  desirability  to 
duplicate  the  normal  bean  as  far  as  pos- 
sible, necessitated  the  development  of  a 
method  of  extraction  of  the  caffein  from  the 
whole  raw  bean  without  a  permanent  al- 
teration of  the  shape  thereof.  The  close 
structure  of  the  green  bean,  and  its  conse- 
quent resistance  to  penetration  by  solvents, 
and  the  existence  of  the  caffein  in  the  bean 
as  an  acid  salt,  which  is  not  easily  soluble, 
offered  resistance  to  successful  extraction. 

As  a  means  of  overcoming  the  difficulty 
of  structure,  the  beans  were  allowed  to 
stand  in  water  in  order  to  swell,  or  the  cells 

were  expanded  by  treatment  with  steam,  or 
the  beans  were  subjected  to  the  action  of 
some  "cellulose-softening  acids,"  such  as 
acetic  acid  or  sulphur  dioxid.  As  a  method 
of  facilitating  the  mechanical  side  of  ex- 
traction without  deleterious  effects,  the 
treatment  of  the  coffee  with  steam  under 
pressure,  as  utilized  in  the  patented  proc- 
ess of  Myer,  Eoselius,  and  Wimmer,*"  is 
probably  the  safest. 

Many  ingenious  methods  have  been  de- 
vised for  the  ready  removal  of  the  caffein 
from  this  point  on.  Several  processes 
employ  an  alkali,  such  as  ammonium  hy- 
droxid,  to  free  the  caffein  from  the  acid ;  or 
an  acid,  such  as  acetic,  hydrochloric,  or 
sulphurous,  is  used  to  form  a  more  soluble 
salt  of  caffein.  Other  procedures  effect  the 
dissociation  of  the  caffein-acid  salt  by 
dampening  or  immersion  in  a  liquid  and 
subjecting  the  mass  to  the  action  of  an 
electric  current. 

The  caffein  is  usually  extracted  from  the 
beans  by  benzol  or  chloroform,  but  a  variety 
of  solvents  may  be  employed,  such  as  pe- 
trolic ether,  water,  alcohol,  carbon  tetra- 
chlorid,  ethylene  chlorid,  acetone,  ethyl 
ether,  or  mixtures  or  emulsions  of  these. 
After  extraction,  the  beans  may  be  steam 
distilled  to  remove  and  to  recover  any  resid- 
ual traces  of  solvent,  and  then  dried  and 
roasted.  It  is  said"  that  by  heating  the 
beans  before  bringing  them  into  contact 
with  steam,  not  only  is  an  economy  of  steam 
effected,  but  the  quality  of  the  resultant 
product  is  improved. 

One  clever  but  expensive  method"  of  pre- 
paring caffein-free  coffee  consists  in  heat- 
ing the  beans  under  pressure,  with  some 
substance,  such  as  sodium  salicylate,  with 
the  resultant  formation  of  a  more  soluble 
and  more  easil.y  steam-distillable  compound 
of  caffein.  The  beans  are  then  steam  dis- 
tilled to  remove  the  caffein,  dried,  and 

Another  process  of  peculiar  interest  is 
that  of  Hubner,"  in  which  the  coffee  beans 
are  well  washed  and  then  spread  in  layers 
and  kept  covered  with  water  at  15°  C.  until 
limited  germination  has  taken  place,  where- 
upon the  beans  are  removed  and  the  caf- 
fein extracted  with  water  at  50°  C.  It  is 
claimed  by  the  inventor  that  sprouting 
serves  to  remove  some  of  the  caffein,  but  it 
is  quite  probable  that  the  process  does  noth- 

*»U.  S.  Pat,  897,840.   Sept.  1,  1908. 
"British  Pat.,  144,988,  March  19,  1920. 
« French   Pat.,   412,550.   Feb.    12,    1910. 
«U.   S.  Pat.,  947,577,  Jan.   25,   1910. 



ig  more  than  aecoinplish  simple  aqueous 


In  the  majority  of  these  processes  the 

Ivor  of  the  resultant  product  should  be 

iry    similar    to    natural    roasted    coffee. 

[owever,  in  the  cases  where  aqueous  ex- 

raction  is  employed,  other  substances  be- 

jjdes  caffein  are  removed  that  are  replaced 

the  bean  only  with  difficulty.     The  re- 

iltant  product  accordingly  is  very  likely 
to  have  a  flavor  not  entirely  natural.  On 
the  other  hand,  beans  from  which  the  caf- 
fein is  extracted  with  volatile  solvents,  if 
the  operation  be  conducted  carefully, 
should  give  a  natural-tasting  roast.  Any 
residual  traces  of  the  solvent  left  in  the 
bean  are  volatilized  upon  roasting. 

Some  of  the  caffein-free  coffees  on  the 
market  show  upon  analysis  almost  as  much 
eaffein  as  the  natural  bean.  Those  manu- 
factured b}'  reliable  concerns,  however,  are 
virtually  caffein-free,  their  content  of  the 
alkaloid  varying  from  0.3  to  0.07  percent 
as  opposed  to  1.5  percent  in  the  untreated 
coffee.  Thus,  although  actually  only  caf- 
fein-poor,  in  order  to  get  the  reaction  of 
one  cup  of  ordinary  coffee  one  would  have 
to  drink  an  unusual  amount  of  the  brew 
made  from  these  coffees. 

The  Aromatic  Principles  of  Coffee 

To  ascertain  just  what  substance  or  sub- 
stances give  the  pleasing  and  characteristic 
aroma  to  coffee  has  long  been  the  great 
desire  of  both  practical  and  scientific  men 
interested  in  the  coffee  business.  This  elu- 
sive material  has  been  variously  called  caf- 
feol,  caffeone,  "the  essential'  oil  of  coffee," 
etc.,  the  terms  having'acquired  an  ambigu- 
ij^ous  and  incorrect  significance.  It  is  now 
f  generally  agreed  that  the  aromatic  con- 
!  stituent  of  coffee  is  not  an  essential  oil,  but 
!  a  complex  of  compounds  which  usage  has 
causecPto  be  coITecHvery  called  "caffeol.',' 
These  substances  are  not  present  in  the, 
green  bean,  but  are  produced  during  the 
process  of  roasting.  Attempts  at  identi- 
fication and  location  of  origin  have  been 
numerous;  and  although  not  conclusive, 
still  have  not  proven  entirely  futile.  One 
of  the  first  observations  along  this  line  was 
that  of  Benjamin  Thompson  in  1812. 
"This  fragrance  of  coffee  is  certainly  ow- 
ing to  the  escape  of  a  volatile  aromatic 
substance  which  did  not  originally  exist  as 
such  in  the  grain,  but  which  is  formed  in 
the  process  of  roasting  it."  Later,  Graham, 
Stenhouse,  and  Campbell  started  on  the 
way  to  the  identification  of  this  aroma  by 

noting  that  "in  common  with  all  the  valu- 
able constituents  of  coffee,  caffeone  is  found 
to  come  from  the  soluble  portion  of  the 
roasted  seed."" 

Comparison  of  the  aroma  given  off  by 
coffee  during  the  roasting  process  with  that 
of  fresh-ground  roasted  coffee  shows  that 
the  two  aromas,  although  somewhat  differ- 
ent, may  be  attributed  to  the  same  sub- 
stances present  in  different  proportions  in 
the  two  cases.  Recovery  and  identification 
of  the  aromatic  principles  escaping  from 
the  roaster  would  go  far  toward  answering 
the  question  regarding  the  nature  of  the 
aroma.  Bernheimer"  reported  water,  caf- 
fein, caffeol,  acetic  acid,  quinol,  methyla- 
min,  acetone,  fatty  acids  and  pyrrol  in  the 
distillate  coming  from  roasting  coffee. 
The  caffeol  obtained  by  Bernheimer  in  this 
work  was  believed  by  him  to  be  a  methyl 
derivative  of  saligenin.  Jaeekle"  examined 
a  similar  product  and  found  considerable 
quantities  of  caffein,  furfurol,  and  acetic 
acid,  together  with  small  amounts  of  ace- 
tone, ammonia,  trimethylamin,  and  formic 
acid.  The  caffeol  of  Bernheimer  could  not 
be  detected.  Another  substance  was  sepa- 
rated also,  but  in  too  small  a  quantity  to 
permit  complete  identification.  This  sub- 
stance consisted  of  colorless  crystals,  which 
readily  sublimed,  melted  at  115°  to  117°  C, 
and  contained  sulphur.  The  crystals  were 
insoluble  in  water,  almost  insoluble  in  alco- 
hol, but  readily  soluble  in  ether. 

By  distilling  roasted  coffee  with  super- 
heated steam,  Erdmann"  obtained  an  oil 
consisting  of  an  indifferent  portion  of  58 
percent  and  an  acid  portion  of  42  percent, 
consisting  mainly  of  a  valeric  acid,  prob- 
ably alphamethylbutyric  acid.  The  indif- 
ferent portion  was  found  to  contain  about 
50  percent  furfuryl  alcohol,  together  with 
a  number  of  phenols.  The  fraction  con- 
taining the  characteristic  odorous  constit- 
uent of  coffee  boiled  at  93°  C.  under  13 
mm.  pressure.  The  yield  of  this  latter 
principle  was  extremely  small,  only  about 
0.89  gram  being  procured  from  65  kilos 
of  coffee. 

Pyridin  was  also  shown  to  be  present  in 
•coffee  by  Betrand  and  Weisweiller*'  and  by 
Sayre.*"    As  high  as  200  to  500  milligrams 

**J(jur.   Chem.   Soc,  1857    (vol.  Ix  :  p.   34). 

"Tl'tcn.  Akad.  Ber.   (2  Abth.)    (vol.  Ixxxi :  pp.  1032- 

Monatsh,   f.    Chem.,    1880    (vol.    i:    p.    456). 

**  Zeita.   f.    Vntersuch.    d.   Nahr.    u.    Ocnussm.,    1898 
(vol.  vii  :  pp.  457-472) 

«  Ber ,  1901  (vol.  xxxv  :  pp.  1846-1854). 

<»Co»ipf.  rend.    (vol.  clvii :  pp.  212-13). 

*»  Bull.  Pharm.,  1916  (vol.  xxx  :  pp.  276^-78). 



of  this  toxic  compound  have  been  obtained 
from  1  kilogram  of  freshly  roasted  coffee. 

As  stated  above,  the  empyreumatic  vola- 
tile aromatic  constituents  of  the  coffee  are 
without  question  formed  during  and  by  the 
roasting  process.  According  to  Thorpe/" 
the  most  favorable  temperature  for  devel- 
opment of  coffee  odor  and  flavor  is  about 
200°  C.  Erdmann  claimed  to  have  pro- 
duced caffeol  by  gently  heating  together 
caffetannic  acid,  caffein,  and  cane  sugar. 
Other  investigators  have  been  unable  to 
duplicate  this  work.  Another  authority," 
giving  it  the  empirical  formula  CgHioOa, 
states  that  it  is  produced  during  roasting, 
probably  at  the  expense  of  a  portion  of  the 
caffein.  These  conceptions  are  in  the  main 
incomplete  and  inaccurate. 

By  means  of  careful  work,  Grafe"  came 
closer  to  ascertaining  the  origin  of  the  fuga- 
cious aromatic  materials.  His  work  with 
normal,  caffein-free  coffee  and  with  Thum's 
purified  coffee  led  him  to  state  that  a  part 
of  these  substances  was  derived  from  the 
crude  fiber,  probably  from  the  hemi-cellu- 
lose  of  the  thick  endosperm  cells.  Sayre" 
makes  the  most  plausible  proposal  regard- 
ing the  origin  of  caffeol.  He  considers  the 
roasting  of  coffee  as  a  destructive  distilla- 
tion process,  summarizing  the  results, 
briefly,  as  the  production  of  furfuraldehyde 
from  the  carbohydrates,  acrolein  from  the 
fats,  catechol  and  pyrogallol  from  the  tan- 
nins, and  ammonia,  amins,  and  pyrrols 
from  the  proteins.  The  products  of  roast- 
ing inter-react  to  produce  many  compounds 
of  varying  degrees  of  complexity  and 

The  great  difficulty  which  arises  in  the 
attempt  to  identify  the  aromatic  constit- 
uents of  coffee  is  that  the  caffeols  of  no  two 
coffees  may  be  said  to  be  the  same.  The 
reason  for  this  is  apparent;  for  the  green 
coffees  themselves  vary  in  composition,  and 
those  of  the  same  constitution  are  not 
roasted  under  identical  conditions.  There- 
fore, it  is  not  to  be  expected  that  the  de- 
composition products  formed  by  the  action 
of  the  different  greens  would  be  the  same. 
Also,  these  volatile  products  occur  in  the 
roasted  coffee  in  such  a  small  amount  that 
the  ascertaining  of  their  percentage  rela- 
tionship and  the  recognition  of  all  that  are 
present  are  not  possible  with  the  methods 
of  analysis  at  present  at  our  disposal. 
Until    better    analytical    procedures    have 

^  Diet.  App.  Chem.,  1913  (vol.  li :  p.  99). 

"  [/.  S.  Dispensatory,  19th  Ed,  1907   (p.  145). 

^^Monatsh.   f.    Chem.    (vol.    xxxiii :   pp.   1389-1406). 

been  developed  we  can  not  hope  to  estab- 
lish a  chemical  basis  for  the  grading  ol' 
coffees  from  this  standpoint. 

Coffee  Oil  and  Fat 

It  is  well  to  distinguish  between  the  * '  cof- 
fee oils,"  as  they  are  termed  by  the  trade, 
and  true  coffee  oil.  In  speaking  of  thi' 
qualities  of  coffee,  connoisseurs  frequently 
use  erroneous  terms,  particularly  when  they 
designate  certain  of  the  flavoring  and  aro- 
matic constituents  of  coffee  as  "oils"  or 
"essential  oils."  Coffee  does  not  contain 
any  essential  oils,  the  aromatic  constituent 
corresponding  to  essential  oil  in  coffee  being 
caffeol,  a  complex  which  is  water-soluble,  a 
property  not  possessed  by  any  true  oil. 
True,  the  oil  when  isolated  from  roasted 
coffee  does  possess,  before  purification,  con- 
siderable of  the  aromatic  and  flavoring  con- 
stituents of  coffee.  They  are,  however,  no 
part  of  the  coffee  fat,  but  are  held  in  it  no 
doubt  by  an  enfleurage  action  in  much  the 
same  way  that  perfumes  of  roses,  etc.,  are 
absorbed  and  retained  by  fats  and  oils  in 
the  commercial  preparation  of  pomades  and 
perfumes.  This  affinity  of  the  coffee  oil  for 
caffeol  assists  in  the  retention  of  aromatic 
substances  by  the  whole  roasted  bean. 
However,  upon  extraction  of  ground 
roasted  coffee  with  water,  the  caffeol  shows 
a  preferential  solubility  in  water,  and  is 
dissolved  out  from  the  oil,  going  into  the 

The  true  oil  of  coffee  has  been  investi- 
gated to  a  fair  degree  and  has  been  found 
to  be  inodorous  when  purified.  Analysis  of 
green  and  roasted  coffees  shows  them  to 
possess  between  12  percent  and  20  percent 
fat.  Warnier"  extracted  ground  unroasted 
coffee  with  petroleum  ether,  washed  the  ex- 
tract with  water,  and  distilled  off  the  sol- 
vent, obtaining  a  yellow-brownish  oil 
possessing  a  sharp  taste.  From  his  exam- 
ination of  this  oil  he  reported  these  con- 
stants: d24_5,  0.942;  refraction  at  25°, 
81.5 ;  solidifying  point,  6°  to  5° ;  melting 
point,  8°  to  9° ;  saponification  number, 
177.5 ;  esterification  number,  166.7 ;  acid 
number,  6.2 ;  acetyl  number,  0 ;  iodin  num- 
ber, 84.5  to  86.3.  Meyer  and  Eckert"  care- 
fully purified  coffee  oil  and  saponified  it 
with  LigO  in  alcohol.  In  the  saponifiable 
portion,  glycerol  was  the  only  alcohol  pres- 
ent, the  acids  being  carnaubic,  10  percent; 
daturinic  acid,  1  to  1.5  percent;  palmitic 

^^^Apoth.-Ztg.   (vol.  xxii:  pp.  919-20). 
Pharm.  Weekbl.,  1907  (vol.  xxxvii). 
^  Monatsh.  f.  Chem.   (vol.  xxxi :  p.  1227). 




id,  25  to  28  percent ;  capric  acid,  0.5  per- 
cent ;  oleic  acid,  2  percent,  and  linoleic  acid, 
50  percent.  The  unsaponifiable  wax 
amounted  to  21.2  percent,,  was  nitrogen- 
free,  gave  a  phytostearin  reaction,  and 
saponification  and  oxidation  indicated  that 
it  was  probably  a  tannol  carnaubate.  Von- 
Bitto'"  examined  the  fat  extracted  from  the 
inner  husk  of  the  coffee  berry  and  found  it 
to  be  faint  yellow  in  color,  and  to  solidify 
only  gradually  after  melting.  Upon  analy- 
sis, it  showed :  saponification  value,  141.2 ; 
palmitic  acid,  37.84  percent,  and  glycerids 
as  tripalmitin,  28.03  percent. 

Carbohydrates  of  the  Coffee  Berry 

There  has  been  considerable  diversity  of 
opinion  regarding  the  sugar  of  coffee.  Bell 
believed  the  sugar  to  be  of  a  peculiar  species 
allied  to  melezitose,  but  Ewell,°"  G.  L.  Spen- 
cer, and  others  definitely  proved  the  pres- 
ence of  sucrose  in  coffee.  In  fat-free  coffee 
6  percent  of  sucrose  was  found  extractable 
by  70  percent  alcohol.  Baker"  claimed  that 
manno-arabinose,  or  manno-xylose,  formed 
one  of  the  most  important  constituents  of 
the  coffee-berry  substance  and  yielded  man- 
nose  on  hydrolysis.  Schultze  and  Maxwell 
state  that  raw  coffee  contains  galactan, 
mannan,  and  pentosans,  the  latter  present 
to  the  extent  of  5  percent  in  raw  and  3  per- 
cent in  roasted  coffee.  By  distilling  coffee 
with  hydrochloric  acid  Ewell  obtained  fur- 
furol  equivalent  to  9  percent  pentose.  He 
also  obtained  a  gummy  substance  which,  on 
hydrolysis,  gave  rise  to  a  reducing  sugar; 
and  as  it  gave  mucic  acid  and  furfurol  on 
oxidation,  he  concluded  that  it  was  a  com- 
pound of  pentose  and  galactose.  In  un- 
dressed Mysore  coffee  Commaille°'  found 
2.6  percent  of  glucose  and  no  dextrin.  This 
claim  of  the  presence  of  glucose  in  coffee 
was  substantiated  by  the  work  of  Hlasi- 
wetz,""  who  resolved  a  caffetannie  acid, 
which  he  had  isolated,  into  glucose  and  a 
peculiar  crystallizable  acid,  C8H8O4,  which 
he  named  caffeic  acid. 

The  starch  content  of  coffee  is  very  low. 
Cereals  may  readily  be  detected  and  identi- 
fied in  coffee  mixtures  by  the  presence  and 
characteristics  of  their  starch,  in  view  of 
the  fact  that  coffee  (chicory,  too)  is  prac- 
tically free  from  starch.  On  this  score  it  is 
inadvisable  for  diabetics  to  use  any  of  the 
many  cereal  substitutes  for  coffee.     It  is 

"Jour.  Lnndw.,  1904    (vol.  Hi:   p.  93). 

">  Amer.  Chem.  Jour.,  1892   (vol.  xiv  :  p.  47.3). 

"Analyst,  1902   (vol.  xxvl  :  p.   116). 

''Mon.  8ci.   (vol.  iii  :  no.   6:  p.  779). 

»»J.  P.  C,  1867    (p.  307). 

pertinent  to  note  in  this  connection  that 
persons  suffering  from  diabetes  may 
sweeten  their  coffee  with  saccharin  (I/2  to 
1  grain  per  cup)  or  glycerol,  thus  obtaining 
perfect  satisfaction  without  endangering 
their  health. 

The  cellulose  in  coffee  is  of  a  very  hard 
and  horny  character  in  the  green  bean,  but 
it  is  made  softer  and  more  brittle  during 
the  process  of  roasting.  It  is  rather  diffi- 
cult to  define  under  the  microscope,  par- 
ticularly after  roasting,  even  though  the 
chief  characteristics  of  the  cellular  tissue 
are  more  or  less  retained.  Coffee  cellulose 
gives  a  blue  color  with  sulphuric  acid  and 
iodin,  and  is  dissolved  by  an  ammoniacal 
solution  of  copper  oxid.  Even  after  roast- 
ing, remnants  of  the  silver  skin  are  always 
present,  the  structure  of  which,  a  thin 
membrane  with  adherent,  thick-walled, 
spindle-shaped,  hollow  cells,  is  peculiar  to 

The  Chemistry  of  Roasting 

The  effect  of  the  heat  in  the  roasting  of 
coffee  is  largely  evidenced  as  a  destructive 
distillation  and  also  as  a  partial  dehydra- 
tion. At  the  same  time,  oxidizing  and 
reducing  reactions  probably  occur  within 
the  bean,  as  well  as  some  polymerization 
and  inter-reactions. 

A  loss  of  water  is  to  be  expected  as  the 
natural  outcome  of  the  application  of  heat ; 
and  analyses  show  that  the  moisture  con- 
tent of  raw  coffee  varies  from  8  to  14  per- 
cent, while  after  roasting  it  rarely  exceeds 
3  percent,  and  frequently  falls  as  low  as 
0.5  percent.  The  loss  of  the  original  water 
content  of  the  green  bean  is  not  the  only 
moisture  loss ;  for  many  of  the  constituents 
of  coffee,  notably  the  carbohydrates,  are  de- 
composed upon  heating  to  give  off  water, 
so  that  analysis  before  and  after  roasting  is 
no  direct  indication  of  the  exact  amount  of 
water  driven  off  in  the  process.  If  it  be 
desired  to  ascertain  this  quantity  accu- 
rately, catching  of  the  products  which  are 
driven  off  and  determination  of  their  water 
content  becomes  necessary. 

The  carbohydrates  both  dehydrate  and 
decompose.  The  result  of  the  cjehydration 
is  the  formation  of  caramel  and  related 
products,  which  comprise  the  principal 
coloring  matters  in  coffee  infusion.  That 
portion  of  the  carbohydrates  known  as  pen- 
tosans gives  rise  to  furfuraldehyde,  one  of 
the  important  components  of  caffeol. 

The  effect  of  roasting  upon  the  fat  con- 
tent of  the  beans  is  to  reduce  its  actual 



weight,  but  not  to  change  appreciably  the 
percentage  present,  since  the  decrease  in 
quantity  keeps  pace  fairly  well  with  the 
shrinkage.  Some  of  the  more  volatile  fatty 
acids  are  driven  off,  and  the  fats  break 
down  to  give  a  larger  percentage  of  free 
fatty  acids,  some  light  esters,  acrolein,  and 
formic  acid.  If  the  roast  be  a  very  heavy 
one,  or  is  brought  up  too  rapidly,  the  iai 
wall  come  to  the  surface,  through  breaking 
of  the  fat  cells,  with  a  decided  alteration  in 
the  chemical  nature  of  the  fat  and  with 
pronounced  expansion  and  cracking. 

Decomposition  of  the  caffein  acid-salt 
and  considerable  sublimation  of  the  caffein 
also  occur.  The  majority  of  the  caffein  un- 
dergoes this  volatilization  unchanged,  but 
a  portion  of  it  is  probably  oxidized  with  the 
formation  of  ammonia,  methylamin,  di- 
methylparabanic  acid,  and  carbon  dioxid. 
This  reaction  partly  explains  why  the 
amount  of  caffein  recovered  from  the 
roaster  flues  is  not  commensurate  with  the 
amount  lost  from  the  roasting  coffee;  al- 
though incomplete  condensation  is  also  an 
important  factor.  Microscopic  examination 
of  the  roasted  beans  will  show  occasional 
small  crystals  of  caffein  in  the  indentations 
on  the  surface,  where  they  have  been  de- 
posited during  the  cooling  process. 

The  compound,  or  compounds,  known  as 
**caffetannic  acid"  are  probably  the  source 
of  catechol,  as  the  proteins  are  of  am- 
monia, amins,  and  pyrrols.  The  crude 
fiber  and  other  unnamed  constituents  of 
the  raw  beans  react  analogously  to  similar 
compounds  in  the  destructive  distillation  of 
wood,  giving  rise  to  acetone,  various  fatty 
acids,  carbon  dioxid  and  other  uncondens- 
able  gases,  and  many  compounds  of  un- 
known identity. 

During  the  course  of  roasting  and  subse- 
quent cooling  these  decomposition  products 
probably  interact  and  polymerize  to  form 
aromatic  tar-like  materials  and  other  com- 
plexes which  play  an  important  role  among 
the  delicate  flavors  of  coffee.  In  fact,  it  is 
not  unlikely  that  these  reactions  continue 
throughout  the  storage  time  after  roasting, 
and  that  upon  them  the  deterioration  of 
roasted  coffee  is  largely  dependent.  Specu- 
lation upon  what  complex  compounds  are 
thus  formed  offers  much  attraction.  A 
notable  one  by  Sayre"*  postulates  the  reac- 
tion between  acrolein  and  ammonia  to  give 
methyl  pyridin,  which  in  turn  with  fur- 
furol  forms  furfurol  vinyl  pyridin.     This 

«» Trans.  Kansas  Acad.  Sci.,  1918  <vol.  xxviil :  pp. 

upon  reduction  would  produce  the  alkaloid, 
conin,  traces  of  which  have  been  found  in 

Although  furfuraldehyde  is  the  natural 
decomposition  product  of  pentosans,  fur- 
furyl  alcohol  is  the  main  furane  body  of 
coffee  aroma.  This  would  indicate  that 
active  reducing  conditions  prevail  within 
the  bean  during  roasting;  and  the  further 
fact  that  carbon  monoxid  is  given  oft'  dur- 
ing roasting  makes  this  seem  quite  prob- 
able. If  one  admits  that  caffetannic  acid 
exists  in  the  green  bean;  that  upon  oxida- 
tion it  gives  viridic  acid ;  and  that  it  is  con- 
centrated in  the  outer  layers  of  the  bean, 
as  certain  investigators  have  claimed,  then 
there  is  chemical  proof  of  the  existence  of 
oxidizing  conditions  about  the  exterior  of 
the  bean.  In  any  event,  however,  the  fact 
that  oxidizing  conditions  predominate  on 
the  external  portion  of  the  bean  is  obvious. 
Accordingly,  our  meager  knowledge  of  the 
chemistry  of  roasting  indicates  that  while 
the  external  layers  of  the  roasting  beans  are 
subjected  to  oxidizing  conditions,  reducing 
ones  exist  in  the  interior.  Future  experi- 
mentation will,  no  doubt,  prove  this  to  be 
the  case. 

Attempts  have  been  made  to  retain  in 
the  beans  the  volatile  products,  which  nor- 
mally escape,  both  by  coating  previous  to 
roasting"  and  by  conducting  the  process 
under  pressure."'  However,  the  results  so 
obtained  were  not  practical,  since  the  cup 
values  were  decreased  in  the  majority  of 
cases;,  and  the  physiological  effects  produced 
were  undesirable.  In  cases  where  the  qual- 
ity was  improved,  the  gain  was  not  suffi- 
cient to  recompense  the  roaster  for  the  ad- 
ditional expense  and  difficulty  of  operation. 

Various  persons  have  essayed  to  control 
the  roasting  process  automatically;  but 
the  extreme  variance  in  composition  of 
different  coffees,  the  effect  of  changing 
atmospheric  conditions,  and  the  lack  of 
constancy  in  the  calorific  power  of  fuels 
have  conspired  to  defeat  the  automatic 
roasting  machine."  It  is  even  doubtful 
whether  De  Mattia's"  process  for  roasting 
until  the  vapors  evolved  produce  a  violet 
color  when  passed  into  a  solution  of  fuchsin 
decolorized  with  sulphur  dioxid  is  commer- 
cially reliable. 

81  Feitler,  S. :  Enj?.  Pat.,  19,84.5,  Aug.  28,  1897. 

«U.  S.  Pat.,  33,453,  Oct.  8.  1861. 

U.  S.  Pat.,  75.829,  March  24.  1868, 

U.  S.  Pat.,  701,750,  June  3,  1902. 

«'U.   S.  Pat,  943,   238,   Dec.   14.   1909. 

«*U.  S.  Pat.,   703,508,  July  1,   1902. 

U.  S.  Pat.,  865,203,  Sept.  3,  1907. 




Many  patents  have  been  granted  for  the 
treatment  of  coffees  immediately  prior  to  or 
during  roasting  with  the  object  of  thus  im- 
proving the  product.  The  majority  of 
These  depend  upon  adding  solutions  of 
sugar.'"  calcium  saccharate,""  or  other  carbo- 
hydrates,*' and  in  the  case  of  Eckhardt,"" 
of  small  percentages  of  tannic  acid  and  fat. 
In  direct  opposition  to  this  latter  practise, 
urgens  and  Westphaf"  apply  alkali, 
tensibly  to  lessen  the  "tannic  acid"  con- 

^  ''L^k 


tl  Iff  ^1 

Grouxd  Coffee  Under  the  Microscope 

tent.  Brougier'"  sprays  a  solution  contain- 
ing caifein  upon  the  roasting  berries ;  and 
Potter"  roasts  the  coffee  together  with 
chicory,  effecting  a  separation  at  the  end. 
The  exact  effect  which  roasting  with 
sugars  has  upon  the  flavor  is  not  well  un- 
derstood ;'but  it  is  known  that  it  causes  the 
beans  to  absorb  more  moisture,  due  to  the 
hygroscopicity  of  the  caramel  formed.  For 
inrstance,  berries  roasted  with  the  addition 
of  glucose  syrup  hold  an  additional  7  per- 
cent of  water  and  give  a  darker  infusion 
than  normally  roasted  coffee.  When  the 
green  coffee  is  glazed  with  cane  sugar  prior 
to  roasting,  the  losses  during  the  process 
are  much  higher  than  ordinarily,  on  ac- 
count of  the  higher  temperature  required 
to  attain  the  desired  results.  Losses  for 
ordinary  coffee  taken  to  a  16-percent  roast 
are  9.7  percent  of  the  original  fat  and  21.1 

«  Winter.  H.  :    U.  S.  Pat.,  997.4.31.  Augr.  28,  1897. 

'"Simon,  M.,  Jr.:    Ger.  Pat..  2.53.419.  Feb.  19.  1911. 

«'  Von   Niessen  :   British   Pat.,   7,417,  Mar.   24,   1910. 

•«  Eng.  Pat.,  5.776,  Mar.  19,  1895. 

«»U.  S.  Pat,  832..322. 

">Eng.  Pat.,  8.270,  April  24,   1893. 

«U.  S.  Pat.,  994,785,  June  13,  1911. 

percent  of  the  original  caffein ;  while  for 
"sugar  glazed"  coffee  the  losses  were  18.3 
percent  of  the  original  fat  and  44.3  percent 
of  the  original  caffein,  using  8  to  9  percent 
sugar  with  Java  coffee. 

Grinding  and  Packaging 

It  is  a  curious  fact  that  green  coffee  im- 
proves upon  aging,  whereas  after  roasting 
it  deteriorates  with  time.  Even  when 
packed  in  the  best  containers,  age  shows  to 
a  disadvantage  on  the  roasted  bean.  This 
is  due  to  a  number  of  causes,  among  which 
are  oxidation,  volatilization  of  the  aroma, 
absorption  of  moisture  and  consequent 
hydrolysis,  and  alteration  in  the  character 
of  the  aromatic  principles.  Doolittle  and 
Wright'''  in  the  course  of  some  extensive  ex- 
periments found  that  roasted  coffee  showed 
a  continual  gain  in  weight  throughout  60 
weeks,  this  gain  being  mostly  due  to  mois- 
ture ab.sorption.  An  investigation  by 
Gould"  also  demonstrated  that  roasted  cof- 
fee gives  off  carbon  dioxid  and  carbon 
monoxid  upon  standing.  The  latter,  ap- 
parently produced  during  roasting  and 
retained  by  the  cellulffr  structure  of  the 
bean,  diffuses  therefrom;  whereas  the 
former  comes  from  an  ante-roasting  decom- 
position of  unstable  compounds  present.'* 

The  surface  of  the  whole  bean  forms  a 
natural  protection  against  atmospheric  in- 
fluences, and  as  soon  as  this  is  broken,  de- 
terioration sets  in.  On  this  account,  coffee 
should  be  ground  immediately  before  ex- 
traction if  maximum  efficiency  is  to  be 
obtained.  The  cells  of  the  beans  tend  to 
retain  the  fugacious  aromatic  principles  to 
a  certain  extent ;  so  that  the  more  of  these 
which  are  broken  in  grinding,  the  greater 
will  be  the  initial  loss  and  the  more  rapid 
the  vitiation  of  the  coffee.  It  might,  there- 
fore, seem  desirable  to  grind  coarsely  in 
order  to  avoid  this  as  much  as  possible. 
However,  the  coarser  the  grind,  the  slower 
and  more  incomplete  will  be  the  extraction. 
A  patent"  has  been  granted  for  a  grind 
which  contains  about  90  percent  fine  coffee 
and  10  percent  coarse,  the  patentee's  claim 
being  that  in  his  "irregular  grind"  the 
coarse  coffee  retains  enough  of  the  volatile 
constituents  to  flavor  the  beverage,  while 
the  fine  coffee  gives  a  very  high  extraction, 

".4m.  J.  P^ar»»./l915   (vol.  Ixxxvil :  pp.  524-26). 

"  Orig.  Com.  8th  Intern.  Cong.  Appl.  Chetn. 
(Apprn  )    (vol.  xxvl  :  p.  389) 

'♦  Ten  d  Coffee  Trade  Jour.,  1920  (vol.  xxxlx  :  pp. 

«  King,  J.  E.  :     U.  S.  Pat.  1,263,434. 



thus  giving  an  efficient  brew  without  sacri- 
ficing individuality. 

In  packaging  roasted  coffee  the  whole 
bean  is  naturally  the  best  form  to  employ, 
but  if  the  coffee  is  ground  first,  King'" 
found  that  deterioration  is  most  rapid  with 
the  coarse  ground  coffee,  the  speed  decreas- 
ing with  the  size  of  the  ground  particles. 
He  explains  this  on  the  ground  of  ' '  ventila- 
tion"—  the  finer  the  grind,  the  closer  the 
particles  pack  together,  the  less  the  circula- 
tion of  air  through  the  mass,  and  the 
smaller  the  amount  of  aroma  which  is  car- 
ried away.  He  also  found  that  glass  makes 
the  best  container  for  coffee,  with  the  tin 
can,  and  the  foil-lined  bag  with  an  inner 
lining  of  glassine,  not  greatly  inferior. 

Considerable  publicity  has  been  given 
recently  to  the  method  of  packing  coffee  in 
a  sealed  tin  under  reduced  pressure.  While 
thus  packing  in  a  partial  vacuum  undoubt- 
edly retards  oxidation  and  precludes  escape 
of  aroma  from  the  original  package,  it 
would  seem  likely  to  hasten  the  initial  vola- 
tilizing of  the  aroma.  Also,  it  would  appear 
from  Gould's"  work  that  roasted  coffee 
evolves  carbon  dioxid  until  a  certain  posi- 
tive pressure  is  attained,  regardless  of  the 
initial  pressure  in  the  container.  Accord- 
ingly, vacuum-packing  apparently  enhances 
decomposition  of  certain  constituents  of 
coffee.  "Whether  this  result  is  beneficial  or 
otherwise  is  not  quite  clear. 


The  old-time  boiling  method  of  making 
coffee  has  gone  out  of  style,  because  the 
average  consumer  is  becoming  aware  of  the 
fact  that  it  does  not  give  a  drink  of  maxi- 
mum efficiency.  Boiling  the  ground  coffee 
with  water  results  in  a  large  loss  of  aro- 
matic principles  by  steam  distillation,  a 
partial  hydrolysis  of  insoluble  portions  of 
the  grounds,  and  a  subsequent  extraction  of 
the  products  thus  formed,  which  give  a  bit- 
ter flavor  to  the  beverage.  Also,  the  main- 
tenance of  a  high  temperature  by  the  direct 
application  of  heat  has  a  deleterious  effect 
upon  the  substances  in  solution.  This  is 
also  true  in  the  ease  of  the  pumping  perco- 
lator, and  any  other  device  wherein  the 
solution  is  caused  to  pass  directly  into 
steam  at  the  point  where  heat  is  applied. 
Warm  and  cold  water  extract  about  the 
same  amount  of  material  from  coffee;  but 
with  different  rates  of  speed,  an  increase 

"Tea  4c  Coffee  Trade  Jour.,  1917  (vol.  xxxiii :  pp. 

■'■' hoc.  cit.    (see  73). 

in  temperature  decreasing  the  time  neces- 
sary to  effect  the  desired  result. 

It  is  a  well  known  fact  that  rewarming  a 
coffee  brew  has  an  undesirable  effect  upon 
it.  This  is  very  probably  due  to  the  pre- 
cipitation of  some  of  the  water-soluble 
proteins  when  the  solution  cools,  and  their 
subsequent  decomposition  when  heat  is  ap- 
plied directly  to  them  in  reheating  the  solu- 
tion. The  absorption  of  air  by  the  solution 
upon  cooling,  with  attendant  oxidation, 
which  is  accentuated  by  the  application  of 
heat  in  rewarming,  must  also  be  considered. 
It  is  likewise  probable  that  when  ap  extract 
of  coffee  cools  upon  standing,  some  of  the 
aromatic  principles  separate  out  and  are 
lost  by  volatilization. 

The  method  of  extracting  coffee  which 
gives  the  most  satisfaction  is  practised  by 
using  a  grind  just  coarse  enough  to  retain 
the  individualistic  flavoring  components, 
retaining  the  ground  coffee  in  a  fine  cloth 
bag,  as  in  the  urn  system,  or  on  a  filter 
paper,  as  in  the  Tricolator,  and  pouring 
water  at  boiling  temperature  over  the  cof- 
fee. During  the  extraction,  a  top  should 
be  kept  on  the  device  to  minimize  volatiliza- 
tion, and  the  temperature  of  the  extract 
should  be  maintained  constant  at  about 
200°  F.  after  being  made.  Whether  a  re- 
pouring  is  necessary  or  not  is  dependent 
upon  the  speed  with  which  the  water  passes 
through  the  coffee,  which  in  turn  is  con- 
trolled by  the  fineness  of  the  grind  and  of 
the  filtering  medium. 

The  Water  Extract 

Although  many  analyses  of  the  whole 
coffee  bean  are  available,  but  little  work 
has  been  reported  upon  the  aqueous  ex- 
tracts. The  total  water  extract  of  roasted 
coffee  varies  from  20  to  31  percent  in  dif- 
ferent kinds  of  coffee.  The  following 
analysis  of  the  extract  from  a  Santos  coffee 
may  be  taken  as  a  fair  average  example  of 
the  water-soluble  material.'' 

Table    IV- — Analysis    of    Santos    Coffee  Extract 
(Dry  Basis) 

Ether  extract,  fixed 1.06% 

Total  nitrogen    3.40% 

Caffein     5.42% 

Crude    fiber    0.25% 

Total  ash    17.43% 

Reducing  sugar 2.70% 

Caffetannic   acid    15.33% 

Protein    7.71% 

It  is  difficult  to  make  the  trade  ternis, 
such  as  acidity,  astringency,  etc.,  used  in 
describing  a  cup  of  coffee,  conform  with  the 

'"Tea  d  Coffee  Trade  Jour.,  1911    (vol.  xx :  p.  34)- 



_emical  meanings  of  the  same  terms, 
owever,  a  fair  explanation  of  the  cause  of 
ime  of  these  qualities  can  be  made.  Care- 
1  work  by  Warnier"  showed  the  actual 
iidities  of  some  East  India  coffees  to  be : 

'ABLE  V  —  Acidity  of  Some  East  India  Coffees 
ffee  from  Acid  Content 

Sindjai    0.033% 

Timor    0.028% 

'       Bauthain     0.019% 

^K  Boengei    0.016% 

^B  Loewae    0.021% 

^^"    Waloe   Pengenteu    0.018% 

Kawi  Redjo    0.015% 

Palman    Tjiasem     0.022% 

Malang    0.013% 

These  figures  may  be  taken  as  reliable 
examples  of  the  true  acid  content  of  coffee ; 
and  though  they  seem  very  low,  it  is  not  at 
all  incomprehensible  that  the  acids  which 
they  indicate  produce  the  acidity  in  a  cup 
of  coffee.  They  probably  are  mainly  vola- 
tile organic  acids,  together  with  other 
acidic-natured  products  of  roasting.  "We 
know  that  very  small  quantities  of  acids  are 
readily  detected  in  fruit  juices  and  beer, 
and  that  variation  in  their  percentage  is 
quickly  noticed,  while  the  neutralization  of 
this  small  amount  of  acidity  leaves  an  in- 
sipid drink.  Hence,  it  seems  quite  likely 
that  this  small  acid  content  gives  to  the 
coffee  brew  its  essential  acidity.  A  few 
minor  experiments  on  neutralization  have 
proven  that  a  very  insipid  beverage  is  pro- 
duced by  thus  treating  a  coffee  infusion. 

The  body,  or  what  might  be  called  the 
licorice-like  character,  of  coffee,  is  due 
conceivably  to  the  presence  of  bodies  of  a 
glucosidic  nature  and  to  caramel.  Astrin- 
gency,  or  bitterness,  is  dependent  upon  the 
decomposition  products  of  crude  fiber  and 
chlorogenic  acid,  and  upon  the  soluble  min- 
eral content  of  the  bean.  The  degree  to 
which  a  coffee  is  sweet-tasting  or  not  is,  of 
course,  dependent  upon  its  other  charac- 
teristics, but  probably  varies  with  the  re- 
ducing sugar  content.  Aside  from  the 
effects  of  these  constituents  upon  cup  qual- 
ity, the  influence  of  volatile  aromatic  and 
flavoring  constituents  is  always  evident  in 
the  cup  valuation,  and  introduces  a  con- 
trolling factor  in  the  production  of  an 
individualistic  drink. 

Coffee  Extracts 

I  The  uncertainty  of  the  quality  of  coffee 

'        brews  as  made  from  day  to  day,  the  incon- 

^*Phnrm.  WeekM.  voor  Nederl.,  1899    (no.  13). 
Apoth.  Ztg.,  1899  (p.  14). 

venience  to  the  housewife  of  conducting  the 
extraction,  and  the  inevitable  trend  of  the 
human  race  toward  labor-saving  devices, 
have  combined  their  influences  to  produce  a 
demand  for  a  substance  which  will  give  a 
good  cup  of  coffee  when  added  to  water. 
This  gave  rise  to  a  number  of  concentrated 
liquid  and  solid  ''extracts  of  coffee,"  which, 
because  of  their  general  poor  quality,  soon 
brought  this  type  of  product  into  disrepute. 
This  is  not  surprising;  for  these  prepara- 
tions were  mainly  mixtures  of  caramel  and 
carelessly  prepared  extracts  of  chicory, 
roasted  cereals,  and  cheap  coffee. 

Liquid  extracts  of  coffee  galore  have  ap- 
peared on  the  market  only  soon  to  disap- 
pear. Difficulty  is  experienced  in  having 
them  maintain  their  quality  over  a  pro- 
tracted period  of  time,  primarily  due  to 
the  hydrolyzing  action  of  water  on  the 
dissolved  substances.  They  also  ferment 
readily,  although  a  small  percentage  of 
preservative,  such  as  benzoate  of  soda,  will 
halt  spoilage.'" 

So  much  trouble  is  not  encountered  with 
coffee-extract  powders  —  the  so-called 
"soluble"  or  "instant"  coffees.  The  ma- 
jority of  these  powdered  dry  extracts  do, 
however,  show  great  affinity  for  atmos- 
pheric moisture.  Their  hygroscopicity 
necessitates  packing  and  keeping  them  in 
air-tight  containers  to  prevent  them  run- 
ning into  a  solid,  slowly  soluble  mass. 

The  general  method  of  procedure  em- 
ployed in  the  preparation  of  these  powders 
is  to  extract  ground  roasted  coffee  with 
water,  and  to  evaporate  the  aqueous  solu- 
tion to  dryness  with  great  care.  The  major 
difficulty  which  seems  to  arise  is  that  the 
heat  needed  to  effect  evaporation  changes 
the  character  of  the  soluble  material,  at  the 
same  time  driving  off  some  volatile  con- 
stituents which  are  essential  to  a  natural 
flavor.  Many  complex  and  clever  processes 
have  been  developed  for  avoiding  these 
difficulties,  and  quite  a  number  of  patents 
on  processes,  and  several  on  the  resultant 
product,  have  been  allowed;  but  the  com- 
mercial production  of  a  soluble  coffee  of 
freshly-brewed-coffee-duplicating-power  is 
yet  to  be  accomplished.  However,  there 
are  now  on  the  market  several  coffee-extract 
powders  which  dissolve  readily  in  water, 
giving  quite  a  fair  approximation  of  freshly 
brewed    coffee.     The   improvement  shown 

<^  Jour.  Assoc.   Off.  Agri.   Chem.,  1920    (vol.   ill:  p. 



since  they  first  appeared  augurs  well  for 
the  eventual  attainment  of  their  ultimate 

Adulterants  and  Substitutes 

There  would  appear  to  be  three  reasons 
why  substitutes  for  coffee  are  sought  —  the 
high  cost,  or  absence,  of  the  real  product; 
the  acquiring  of  a  preferential  taste,  by  the 
consumer,  for  the  substitute;  and  the  in- 
jurious effects  of  coffee  when  used  to  excess. 
Makers  of  coffee  substitutes  usually  empha- 
size the  latter  reason ;  but  many  substitutes, 
which  are,  or  have  been,  on  the  market, 
seem  to  depend  for  their  existence  on  the 
other  two.  Properly  speaking,  there  are 
scarcely  any  real  substitutes  for  coffee. 
The  substances  used  to  replace  it  are  mostly 
like  it  only  in  appearance,  and  barely  simu- 
late it  in  taste.  Besides,  many  of  them  are 
not  used  alone,  but  are  mixed  with  real 
coffee  as  adulterants. 

The  two  main  coffee  substitutes  are 
chicory  and  cereals.  Chicory,  succory, 
Cichorium  Iniybus,  is  a  perennial  plant, 
growing  to  a  height  of  about  three  feet, 
bearing  blue  flowers,  having  a  long  tap  root, 
and  possessing  a  foliage  which  is  sometimes 
used  as  cattle  food.  The  plant  is  cultivated 
generally  for  the  sake  of  its  root,  which  is 
cut  into  slices,  kiln-dried,  and  then  roasted 
in  the  same  manner  as  coffee,  usually. with 
the  addition  of  a  small  proportion  of  some 
kind  of  fat.  The  preparation  and  use  of 
roasted  chicory  originated  in  Holland, 
about  1750.  Fresh  chicory''  contains  about 
77  percent  water,  7.5  gummy  matter,  1.1  of 
glucose,  4.0  of  bitter  extractive,  0.6  fat,  9.0 
cellulose,  inulin  and  fiber,  and  0.8  ash. 
Pure  roasted  chicory"  contains  74.2  percent 
water-soluble  material,  comprised  of  16.3 
percent  water,  26.1  glucose,  9.6  dextrin  and 
inulin,  3.2  protein,  16.4  coloring  matter, 
and  2.6  ash;  and  25.8  percent  insoluble 
substances,  namely,  3.2  percent  protein,  5.7 
fat,  12.3  cellulose,  and  4.6  ash.  The  effect 
of  roasting  upon  chicory  is  to  drive  off  a 
large  percentage  of  water,  increasing  the 
reducing  sugars,  changing  a  large  propor- 
tion of  the  bitter  extractives  and  inulin,  and 
forming  dextrin  and  caramel  as  well  as  the 
characteristic  chicory  flavor. 

The  cereal  substitutes  contain  almost 
every  type  of  grain,  mainly  wheat,  rye, 
oats,  buckwheat,  and  bran.  They  are  pre- 
pared in  two  general  ways,  by  roasting  the 

»  Blyth,  Wynter.     Foods.  1909    (p.  3.59> 

»2  Petermann.    Bied.  Zentr.,  1899   (vol.  ii :  p.  211). 

grains,  or  the  mixtures  of  grains,  with  or 
Avithout  the  addition  of  such  substances  as 
sugar,  molasses,  tannin,  citric  acid,  etc.,  or 
by  first  making  the  floured  grains  into  a 
dough,  and  then  baking,  grinding,  and 
roasting.  Prior  to  these  treatments,  the 
grains  may  be  subjected  to  a  variety  of 
other  treatments,  such  as  impregnation 
with  various  compounds,  or  germination. 
The  effect  of  roasting  on  these  grains  and 
other  substitutes  is  the  production  of  a 
destructive  distillation,  as  in  the  case  of 
coffee;  the  crude  fiber,  starches,  and  other 
carbohydrates,  etc.,  being  decomposed,  with 
the  production  of  a  flavor  and  an  aroma 
faintly  suggesting  coffee. 

The  number  of  other  substitutes  and  imi- 
tations which  have  been  employed  are  too 
numerous  to  warrant  their  complete  de- 
scription; but  it  will  prove  interesting  to 
enumerate  a  few  of  the  more  important 
ones,  such  as  malt,  starch,  acorns,  soya 
beans,  beet  roots,  figs,  prunes,  date  stones, 
ivory  nuts,  sweet  potatoes,  beets,  carrots, 
peas,  and  other  vegetables,  bananas,  dried 
pears,  grape  seeds,  dandelion  roots,  rinds 
of  citrus  fruits,  lupine  seeds,  whey,  pea- 
nuts, juniper  berries,  rice,  the  fruit  of  the 
wax  palm,  cola  nuts,  chick  peas,  cassia 
seeds,  and  the  seeds  of  any  trees  and  plants 
indigenous  to  the  country  in  which  the 
substitute  is  produced. 

Aside  from  adulteration  by  mixing  sub- 
stitutes with  ground  coffee,  and  an  occa- 
sional case  of  factitious  molded  berries,  the 
main  sophistications  of  coffee  comprise 
coating  and  coloring  the  whole  beans. 
Coloring  of  green  and  roasted  coffees  is 
practised  to  conceal  damaged  and  inferior 
beans.  Lead  and  zinc  chromates,  Prussian 
blue,  ferric  oxid,  coal-tar  colors,  and  other 
substances  of  a  harmful  nature,  have  been 
employed  for  this  purpose,  being  made  to 
adhere  to  the  beans  with  adhesives.  As 
glazes  and  coatings,  a  variety  of  substances 
have  been  emplyyed,  such  as  butter,  mar- 
garin,  vegetable  oils,  paraffin,  vaseline, 
gums,  dextrin,  gelatin,  resins,  glue,  milk, 
glycerin,  salt,  sodium  bicarbonate,  vinegar, 
Irish  moss,  isinglass,  albumen,  etc.  It  is 
usually  claimed  that  coating  is  applied  to 
retain  aroma  and  to  act  as  a  clarifying 
agent;  but  the  real  reasons  are  usually  to 
increase  weight  through  absorption  of 
water,  to  render  low-grade  coffees  more  at-' 
tractive,  to  eliminate  by-products,  and  to 
assist  in  advertising. 



{Official  and  Tentative) 

(Sole    responsibility   for   any   errors   in   compilation 
printing    of    these    metliods    is    assumed    by    the 

Green  Coffee 
,  Macroscopic  Examination  —  Tentative 
A  macroscopic  exaniiuation  is  usually  sufficient 
)  show  the  presence  of  excessive  amounts  of 
black  and  blighted  coffee  beans,  coffee  hulls, 
stones,  and  other  foreign  matter.  These  can  be 
iparated  by  hand-picking  and  determined  gravi- 

Coloring  Matters  —  Tentative 

Shake  vigorously  100  grams  or  more  of  the 

iple  with  cold  water  or  70  percent  alcohol  by 
>lume.  Strain  through  a  coarse  sieve  and 
low  to  settle.  Identify  soluble  colors  in  the 
)lution  and  insoluble  pigments  in  the  sediment. 

Roasted  Coffee 
Macroscopic  Examination  —  Tentative 
Artificial  coffee  beans  are  apparent  from  their 
Sxact  regularity  of  form.  Roasted  legumes  and 
lumps  of  chicory,  when  present  in  whole  roasted 
coffee,  can  be  picked  out  and  identified  micro- 
scopically. In  the  case  of  ground  coffee,  si>rinkle 
some  of  the  sample  on  cold  water  and  stir 
lightly.  Fragments  of  pure  coffee,  if  not  over- 
roasted, will  float ;  while  fragments  of  chicory, 
legumes,  cereals,  etc.,  will  sink  immediately, 
I'hicory  coloring  the  water  a  decided  brown.  In 
all  cases  identify  the  particles  that  sink  by 
microscopical  examination. 

4.  Preparation  of  Sample  —  Official 

Grind  the  sample  to  pass  through  a  sieve  hav- 
ing holes  0.5  mm.  in  diameter  and  preserve  in  a 
tightly  stoppered  bottle. 

r>.  Moisture  —  Tentative 

Dry  5  gi'ams  of  the  sample  at  105°  - 110° C.  for 
5  hours  and  subsequent  periods  of  an  hour  each 
until  constant  weight  is  obtained.  The  same  pro- 
cedure may  be  used,  drying  in  vacuo  at  the  tem- 
perature of  boiling  water.  In  the  case  of  whole 
coffee,  grind  rapidly  to  a  coarse  powder  and 
weigh  at  once  portions  for  the  determination 
without  sifting  and  without  unnecessary  ex- 
posure to  the  air. 

6.  Soluble  Solids  —  Tentative 
Place  4  grams  of  the  sample  in  a  200-cc.  flask, 

add  water  to  the  mark,  and  allow  the  mass  to 
infuse  for  eight  hours,  with  occasional  shaking ; 
let  stand  IG  hours  longer  without  shaking,  filter, 
evaporate  50  cc.  of  filtrate  to  dryness  in  a  flat- 
bottomed  dish,  dry  at  100°  C,  cool  and  weigh. 

7.  Ash  —  Official 
Char  a  quantity  of  the  substance,  rei>resenting 

al>out  2  grams  of  the  dry  material,  and  burn 
until  free  of  carbon  at  a  low  heat,  not  to  exceed 
dull  redness.  If  a  carbon-free  ash  can  not  be 
obtained  in  this  manner,  exhaust  the  charred 
mass  with  hot  water,  collect  the  insoluble  resi- 
due on  a  filter,  burn  till  the  ash  is  white  or 
nearly  so.  and  then  add  the  filtrate  to  the  ash 
and  evaporate  to  dryness.  Heat  to  low  redness, 
until  ash  is  white  or  grayish  white,  and  weigh. 

^  Association     of     Official     Agricultural     Chemists. 
Sept.   1920. 

8.  Ash  Insoluble  in  Acid  —  Official 

Boil  the  water-insoluble  residue,  obtained  as 
directed  under  9,  or  the  total  ash  obtained  as 
directed  under  7,  with  25  cc.  of  10-perceut  hydro- 
chloric acid  (sp.  gr.  1.050)  for  5  minutes,  collect 
the  insoluble  matter  on  a  Gooch  crucible  or  an 
ashless  filter,  wash  with  hot  water,  ignite  and 

9.  Soluble  and  Insoluble  Ash  —  Official 

Heat  5  to  10  grams  of  the  sample  in  a  plati- 
num dish  of  from  50  to  100  cc.  capacity  at  100° 
C.  until  the  water  is  expelled,  and  add  a  few 
drops  of  pure  olive  oil  and  heat  slowly  over  a 
rtame  until  swelling  ceases.  Then  place  the  dish 
in  a  muffle  and  heat  at  low  redness  until  a  white 
ash  is  obtained.  Add  water  to  the  ash,  in  the 
platinum  dish,  heat  nearly  to  boiling,  filter 
through  ash-free  filter  paper,  and  wash  with  hot 
water  until  the  combined  filtrate  and  washings 
measure  to  about  00  cc.  Return  the  filter  and 
contents  to  the  platinum  dish,  carefully  ignite, 
cool  and  weigh.  Compute  percentages  of  water- 
insoluble  ash  and  water-soluble  ash. 

10.  Alkalinity  of  the  Soluble  Ash  —  Official 
Cool  the  filtrate  from  9  and  titrate  with  N/10 

hydrochloric  acid,  using  methyl  orange  as  an 

Express  the  alkalinity  in  terms  of  the  number 
of  cc.  of  N/10  acid  per  1  gram  of  the  sample. 

11.  Soluble  Phosphoric  Acid  in  the  Ash  —  Official 
Acidify  the  solution  of  soluble  ash,  obtained  in 

9,  with  dilute  nitric  acid  and  determine  phos- 
phoric acid  (PoOs).  For  percentages  up  to  5 
use  an  aliquot  corresponding  to  0.4  gram  of  sub- 
stance, for  percentages  between  5  and  20  use  an 
aliquot  corresponding  to  0.2  gram  of  substance, 
and  for  percentages  above  20  use  an  aliquot  cor- 
responding to  0.1  gram  of  substance.  Dilute  to 
75  - 100  cc,  heat  in  a  water-bath  to  60°  -  65°  C, 
and  for  percentages  below  5  add  20  -  25  cc.  of 
freshly  filtered  molybdate  solution.  For  per- 
centages between  5  and  20  add  30  -  35  cc.  of 
molybdate  solution.  For  percentages  greater 
than  20  add  sufficient  iholybdate  solution  to  in- 
sure complete  precii>itation.  Stir,  let  stand  in 
the  bath  for  about  15  minutes,  filter  at  once, 
wash  once  or  twice  with  water  by  decantation, 
using  25-30  cc.  each  time,  agitate  the  precipi- 
tate thoroughly  and  allow  to  settle;  transfer  to 
the  filter  and  wash  with  cold  water  until  the 
filtrate  from  two  fillings  of  the  filter  yields  a 
pink  color  upon  the  addition  of  phenolphthalein 
and  one  drop  of  the  standard  alkali.  Transfer 
the  precipitate  and  filter  to  the  beaker,  or  pre- 
cipitating vessel,  dissolve  the  precipitate  in  a 
small  excess  of  the  standard  alkali,  add  a  few 
drops  of  phenolphthalein  solution,  and  titrate 
with  the  standard  acid. 

12.  Insoluble    Phosphoric    Acid    in    the    Ash  — 

Determine  iihosphoric  acid    (P3O5)    in  the  in- 
soluble ash  by  the  foregoing  method. 

13.  Chlorids  —  Official 

Moisten  5  grams  of  the  substance  in  a  plati- 
num dish  with  20  cc.  of  a  5-percent  solution  of 
sodium  carbonate,  evaporate  to  dryness  and 
ignite  as  thoroughly  as  possible  at  a  temperature 
not  exceeding  dull  redness.  Extract  with  hot 
water,  filter  and  wash.     Return  the  residue  to 



the  platinum  dish  and  ignite  to  an  ash ;  dissolve 
In  nitric  acid,  and  add  this  solution  to  the 
water  extract.  Add  a  linown  volume  of  N/10 
sliver  nitrate  In  slight  excess  to  the  combined 
solutions.  Stir  well,  filter  and  wash  the  sliver 
chlorld  precipitate  thoroughly.  To  the  filtrate 
and  washings  add  5  cc.  of  a  saturated  solution 
of  ferric  alum  and  a  few  cc.  of  nitric  acid. 
Titrate  the  excess  silver  with  N/10  ammonium 
or  potassium  thlocyanate  until  a  permanent  light 
brown  color  appears.  Calculate  the  amount  of 

14.  Caffein —  The  Fendler  and  Stiiber  Method  — 
Pulverize  the  coffee  to  pass  without  residue 
through  a  sieve  having  circular  openings  1  mm. 
in  diameter.  Treat  a  10-gram  sample  with  10 
grams  of  10-percent  ammonium  hydroxld  and 
200  grams  of  chloroform  in  a  glass-stoppered 
bottle  and  shake  continuously  by  machine  or 
hand  for  one-half  hour.  Pour  the  entire  con- 
tents of  the  bottle  on  a  12.5-cm.  folded  filter, 
covering  with  a  watch  glass.  Weigh  150  grams 
of  the  filtrate  into  a  250-cc.  flask  and  evaporate 
on  the_  steam  bath,  removing  the  last  chloroform 
with  a  blast  of  air.  Digest  the  residue  with 
80  cc.  of  hot  water  for  ten  minutes  on  a  steam 
bath  with  frequent  shaking,  and  let  cool.  Treat 
the  solution  with  20  cc.  (for  roasted  coftee)  or 
10  cc.  (for  unroasted  coffee)  of  1-percent  potas- 
sium permanganate  and  let  stand  for  15  minutes 
at  room  temperature.  Add  2  cc.  of  3-percent 
hydrogen  peroxid  (containing  1  cc.  of  glacial 
acetic  acid  in  100  cc).  If  the  liquid  is  still  red 
or  reddish,  add  hydrogen  peroxid,  1  cc.  at  a 
time,  until  the  excess  of  potassium  permanganate 
is  destroyed.  Place  the  flask  on  the  steam  bath 
for  15  minutes,  adding  hydrogen  peroxid  in 
0.5-cc.  portions  until  the  liquid  becomes  no 
lighter  in  color.  Cool  and  filter  into  a  separa- 
tory  funnel,  washing  with  cold  water.  Extract 
four  times  with  25  cc.  of  chloroform.  Evaporate 
the  chloroform  extract  from  a  weighed  flask 
with  aid  of  an  air  blast  and  dry  at  100°  C.  to 
constant  weight  (one-half  hour  is  usually  suffi- 
cient). Weigh  the  residue  as  caffein  and 
calculate  on  7.5  grams  of  coffee.  Test  the  purity 
of  the  residue  by  determining  nitrogen  and  mul- 
tiplying by  3.464  to  obtain  caffein. 

15.  Caffein  —  Power-Chestnut  Method  —  Official 
Moisten  10  grams  of  the  finely  powdered 
sample  with  alcohol,  transfer  to  a  Soxhlet,  or 
similar  extraction  apparatus,  and  extract  with 
alcohol  for  8  hours.  (Care  should  be  exercised 
to  assure  complete  extraction.)  Transfer  the 
extract  with  the  aid  of  hot  water  to  a  porcelain 
dish  containing  10  grams  of  heavy  magnesium 
oxdd  in  suspension  in  100  cc.  of  water.  (This 
reagent  should  meet  the  U.  S.  P.  requirements.) 
Evaporate  slowly  on  the  steam  bath  with  fre- 
quent stirring  to  a  dry,  powdery  mass.  Rub  the 
residue  with  a  pestle  into  a  paste  with  boiling 
water.  Transfer  with  hot  water  to  a  smooth 
filter,  cleaning  the  dish  with  a  rubber-tipped 
glass  rod.  Collect  the  filtrate  in  a  liter  flask 
marked  at  250  cc.  and  wash  with  boiling  water 
until  the  filtrate  reaches  the  mark.  Add  10  cc.  of 
10-percent  sulphuric  acid  and  boil  gently  for  30 
minutes  with  a  funnel  in  the  neck  of  the  flask. 
Cool  and  fllter  through  a  moistened  double  paper 
into  a  separatory  funnel  and  wash  with  small 

portions  of  0.5-percent  sulphuric  acid.  Extract 
with  six  successive  25-cc.  portions  of  chloro- 
form. Wash  the  combined  chloroform  ex- 
tracts in  a  separatory  funnel  with  5  cc.  of 
1-percent  potassium  hydroxld  solution.  Fil- 
ter the  chloroform  into  an  Erlenmeyer  flask. 
Wash  the  potassium  hydroxld  with  2  portions 
of  chloroform  of  10  cc.  each,  adding  them  to  the 
flask  together  with  the  chloroform  washings  of 
the  filter  paper.  Evaporate  or  disitil  on  the 
steam  bath  to  a  small  volume  (10-15  cc.) ,  trans- 
fer with  chloroform  to  a  tared,  beaker,  evaporate 
carefully,  dry  for  30  minutes  in  a  water  oven, 
and  weigh.  The  purity  of  the  residue  can  be 
tested  by  determining  nitrogen  and  multiplying 
by  the  factor  3.464. 

16.  Crude  Fiber  —  Official 

Prepare  solutions  of  sulphuric  acid  and  sodium 
hydroxld  of  exactly  1.25-percent  strength,  deter- 
mined by  titration.  Extract  a  quantity  of  the 
substance  representing  about  2  grams  of  the  dry 
material  with  ordinary  ether,  or  use  residue 
from  the  determination  of  the  ether  extract. 
To  this  residue  in  a  500-cc.  flask  add  200  cc. 
of  boiling  1.25-percent  sulphuric  acid ;  connect 
the  flask  with  a  reflux  condenser,  the  tube  of 
which  passes  only  a  short  distance  beyond  the 
rubber  stopper  into  the  flask,  or  simply  cover  a 
tall  conical  flask,  which  is  well  suited  for  this 
determination,  with  a  watch  glass  or  short 
stemmed  funnel.  Boil  at  once  and  continue  boil- 
ing gently  for  thirty  minutes.  A  blast  of  air 
conducted  into  the  flask  may  serve  to  reduce  the 
frothing  of  the  liquid.  Filter  through  linen,  and 
wash  with  boiling  water  until  the  washings  are 
no  longer  acid ;  rinse  the  substance  back  into 
the  flask  with  200  cc.  of  the  boiling  1.25-ipercent 
solution  of  sodium  hydroxld  free,  or  nearly  so, 
of  sodium  carbonate ;  boil  at  once  and  continue 
boiling  gently  for  thirty  minutes  in  the  same 
manner  as  directed  above  for  the  treatment  with 
acid.  Filter  at  once  rapidly,  wash  with  boiling 
water  until  the  washings  are  neutral.  The  last 
filtration  may  be  performed  upon  a  Gooch 
crucible,  a  linen  filter,  or  a  tared  filter  paper. 
If  a  linen  filter  is  used,  rinse  the  crude  fiber, 
after  washing  is  completed,  into  a  flat-bottomed 
platinum  dish  by  means  of  a  jet  of  water ; 
evaporate  to  dryness  on  a  steam  bath,  dry  to 
constant  weight  at  110°  C,  weigh,  incinerate 
completely,  and  weigh  again.  The  loss  in  weight 
is  considered  to  be  crude  fiber.  If  a  tared  filter 
paper  is  used,  weigh  in  a  weighing  bottle.  In 
any  case,  the  crude  fiber  after  drying  to  con- 
stant weight  at  110°  C,  must  be  incinerated  and 
the  amount  of  the  ash  deducted  from  the  original 

17.  Starch — Tentative 

Extract  5  grams  of  the  finely  pulverized 
sample  on  a  hardened  filter  with  five  successive 
portions  (10  cc.  each)  of  ether,  wash  with  small 
portions  of  J>5-percent  alcohol  by  volume  until 
a  total  of  200  cc.  have  passed  through,  place  the 
residue  in  a  beaker  with  50  cc.  of  water,  im- 
merse the  beaker  in  boiling  water  and  stir  con- 
stantly for  15  minutes  or  until  all  the  starch  is 
gelatinized ;  cool-  to  55°  C,  add  20  cc.  of  malt 
extract  and  maintain  at  this  temperature  for  an 
hour.  Heat  again  to  boiling  for  a  few  minutes, 
cool  to  55°  C,  add  20  cc.  of  malt  extract  and 
maintain  at  this  temperature  for  an  hour  or 
until   the  residue  treated  with  iodln  shows  no 



l)lue  color  upon  microscopic  examination.  Cool, 
make  up  directly  to  250  cc,  and  filter.  Place 
1100  cc.  of  the  filtrate  in  a  fiask  with  20  cc.  of 
liydrochloric  acid  (sp.  gr.  1.125)  ;  connect  with  a 
loflux  condenser  and  heat  in  a  boiling  water 
bath  for  2.5  hours.  Cool,  nearly  neutralize  with 
sodium  hydroxid  solution,  and  make  up  to  500 
cc.  Mix  the  solution  well,  pour  through  a  dry 
filter  and  determine  the  dextrose  In  an  aliquot. 
Conduct  a  blank  determination  upon  the  same 
volume  of  the  malt  extract  as  used  upon  the 
sample,  and  correct  the  weight  of  reduced  cop- 

;r  accordingly.  The  weight  of  the  dextrose 
Obtained  multiplied  by  0.90  gives  the  weight  of 

|8.  Sugars  —  Tentative 

See  original."' 
19.  Petroleum  Ether  Extract  —  Official 

Dry  2  grams  of  coffee  at  100°  C,  extract  with 

?troleum  ether  (boiling  point  35°  to  50°  C.)  for 
IG  hours,  evaporate  the  solvent,  dry  the  residue 
It  100°  C,  cool,  and  weigh. 
Total  Aciditu  —  Tentative 

Treat  10  grams  of  the  sample,  prepared  as 
lirected  under  4,  wdth  75  cc.  of  80-percent  alco- 
hol by  volume  in  an  Erlenmeyer  flask,  stopper, 
md  allow  to  stand  16  hours,  shaking  occasion- 
illy.  Filter  and  transfer  an  aliquot  of  the 
lltrate  (25  cc.  in  the  case  of  green  coffee,  10  cc. 
In  the  case  of  roasted  coffee;  to  a  beaker,  dilute 
|o  about  100  cc.   with   water  and  titrate  with 

f/10  alkali,  using  phenolphthalein  as  an  indi- 
Bator.  Express  the  result  as  the  number  of  cc. 
)f  N/10  alkali  required  to  neutralize  the  acidity 
)f  100  grams  of  the  sample. 

21.  Volatile  Acidity  —  Tentative 

Into  a  volatile  acid  apparatus  introduce  a  few 
glass  beads,  and  over  these  place  20  grams  of 
the  unground  sample.  Add  100  cc.  of  recently 
boiled  water  to  the  sample,  place  a  sufficient 
quantity  of  recently  boiled  water  in  the  outer 
flask  and  distil  until  the  distillate  is  no  longer 
acid  to  litmus  paper.  Usually  100  cc.  of  distillate 
will  be  collected.  Titrate  the  distillate  with 
N/10  alkali,  using  phenolphthalein  as  an  indi- 
cator. Express  the  result  as  the  number  of  cc. 
of  N/10  alkali  required  to  neutralize  the  acidity 
of  100  grams  of  the  sample. 

Unofficial  Methods 

22.  Protein 

Determine  nitrogen  in  3  grams  of  the  sample 
by  the  Kjeldahl  or  Gunning  method.    This  gives 

the  total  nitrogen  due  to  both  the  proteids  and 
the  caCfein.  To  obtain  the  protein  nitrogen,  sub- 
tract from  the  total  nitrogen  the  nitrogen  due  to 
caffein,  obtained  by  direct  determination  on  the 
separated  caffein  or  by  calculation  (caffein 
divided  by  3.464  gives  nitrogen).  Multiply  by 
0.25  to  obtain  the  amount  of  protein. 

23.  Ten  Percent  Extract  —  McGill  Method 
Weigh  into  a  tared  flask  the  equivalent  of  10 

grams  of  the  dried  substance,  add  water  until 
the  contents  of  the  flask  weigh  110  grams,  con- 
nect with  a  reflux  condenser  and  heat,  beginning 
the  boiling  in  10  to  15  minutes.  Boil  for  1  hour, 
cool  for  15  minutes,  weigh  again,  making  up 
any  loss  by  the  addition  of  water,  filter,  and 
take  the  specific  gravity  of  the  filtrate  at  15°  C. 

According  to  McGill,  a  10-percent  extract  of 
pure  coffee  has  a  specific  gravity  of  1.00986  at 
15°  C,  and  under  the  same  treatment  chicory 
gives  an  extract  with  a  specific  gravity  of 
1.02821.  In  mixtures  of  coffee  and  chicory  the 
approximate  percentage  of  chicory  may  be  cal- 
culated by  the  following  formula  : 

(1.02821  — 

Percent  of  chicory  =  100 • 


The  index  of  refraction  of  the  above  solution 
may  be  taken  with  the  Zeiss  immersion  refrac- 
tometer  or  with  the  Abbe  refractometer. 

With  a  10-percent  coffee  extract,  n^  20°  = 

With  a  10-percent  chicory  extract,  n^  20°  = 

Determinations  of  the  solids,  ash,  sugar,  nitro- 
gen, etc.,  may  be  made  in  the  10-percent  extract, 
if  desired. 

24.  Caffetannic  Acid  —  Krug's  Method^* 

Treat  2  grains  of  the  coffee  with  10  cc.  ol 
water  and  digest  for  36  hours ;  add  25  cc.  of  90- 
percent  alcohol  and  digest  24  hours  more,  filter, 
and  wash  with  90-percent  alcohol.  The  filtrate 
contains  tannin,  caffein,  color,  and  fat.  Heat  the 
filtrate  to  the  boiling  point  and  add  a  saturated 
solution  of  lead  acetate.  If  this  is  carefully 
done,  a  caffetannate  of  lead  will  be  precipitated 
containing  49  percent  of  lead.  As  soon  as  the 
precipitate  has  become  flocculent,  collect  on  a 
tared  filter,  wash  with  90-percent  alcohol  until 
free  from  lead,  wash  with  ether,  dry  and  weigh. 
The  precipitate  multiplied  by  0.51597  gives  the 
weight  of  the  caffetannic  acid. 

"^  Association     of     Official     Agricultural     Chemists. 
Sept.,    ]!)20. 

"U.  S.  Dept.  Agri.,  Div.  of  Chem.    Bull.  13  (pt.  7: 
p.  908). 

Chapter  XVIII 

General  physiological  action  —  Effect  on  children  —  Effect  on  longev- 
ity —  Behavior  in  the  alimentary  regime  —  Place  in  dietary  —  Action 
on  bacteria  —  Use  in  medicine  —  Physiological  action  of  " caff  etannic 
acid"  —  Of  caffeol  —  Of  caffein  —  Effect  of  caffein  on  mental  and 
motor  efficiency  —  Conclusions 

By  Charles  W.  Trigg 

Indnsti-ial  Fellow  of  the  Mellon  Institute  of  Industrial  Research,  Pittsburgh,  191G-1920 

THE  published  information  regarding 
the  effects  of  coffee  drinking  on  the 
human  system  is  so  contradictory  in 
its  nature  that  it  is  hazardous  to  make 
many  generalizations  about  the  physiologi- 
cal behavior  of  coffee.  Most  of  the  investi- 
gations that  have  been  conducted  to  date 
have  been  characterized  by  incompleteness 
and  a  failure  to  be  sufficiently  comprehen- 
sive to  eliminate  the  element  of  individual 
-idiosyncrasy  from  the  results  obtained.  Ac- 
cordingly, it  is  possible  to  select  statements 
from  literature  to  the  effect  either  that  cof- 
fee is  an  ''elixir  of  life,"  or  even  a  poison. 
This  is  a  deplorable  state  of  affairs,  nor 
calculated  to  promote  the  dissemination  of 
accurate  knowledge  among  the  consuming 
public,  but  it  may  be  partly  excused  upon 
the  grounds  that  experimental  apparatus 
has  not  always  been  at  the  level  of  perfec- 
tion that  it  now  occupies.  Also,  to  do  jus- 
tice to  some  of  the  able  men  who  have 
interested  themselves  in  this  problem,  it 
should  be  said  that  some  of  their  results 
were  obtained  in  researches,  distinguished 
by  painstaking  accuracy,  which  have  ef- 
fected the  establishment  of  the  major  reac- 
tions of  ingested  coffee. 

The  Physiological  Action  of  Coffee 

Drinking  of  coffee  by  mankind  may  be 
attributed  to  three  causes :  the  demand  for, 
and  the  pleasing  effects  of,  a  hot  drink  (a 

very  small  percentage  of  the  coffee  con- 
sumed is  taken  cold),  the  pleasing  reaction 
which  its  flavors  excite  on  the  gustatory 
nerve,  and  the  stimulating  effect  which  it 
has  upon  the  body.  The  flavor  is  due 
largely  to  the  volatile  aromatic  constit- 
uents, "caffeol,"  which,  when  isolated,  have 
a  general  depressant  action  on  the  system; 
and  the  stimulation  is  caused  by  the  caffein. 
The  general  and  specific  actions  of  these  in- 
dividual components,  together  with  that  of 
the  hypothetical  "caffetannic  acid,"  are 
considered  under  separate  headings. 

Coffee  may  be  considered  a  member  of 
the  general  class  of  adjuvant,  or  auxiliary, 
foods  to  which  other  beverages  and  condi- 
ments of  negligible  inherent  food  value  be- 
long. Its  position  on  the  average  menu 
may  be  attributed  largely  to  its  palatability 
and  comforting  effects.  However,  the 
medicinal  value  of  coffee  in  the  dietary  and 
per  se  must  not  be  overlooked. 

The  ingestion  o,f  coffee  infusion  is  always 
followed  by  evidences  of  stimulation.  It 
acts  upon  the  nervous  system  as  a  powerful 
cerebro-spinal  stimulant,  increasing  mental 
activity  and  quickening  the  power  of  per- 
ception, thus  making  the  thoughts  more 
precise  and  clear,  and  intellectual  work 
easier  without  any  evident  subsegirent  de- 
pression. The  muscles  are^caused  to  con- 
tract more  vigorously,  increasing  their 
working   power   without   there   being   any 




secondary  reaction  leading  to  a  diminished 
capacity  for  work.    Its  action  upon  the  cir- 
culation   is    somewhat    antagonistic;    for 
hile  it  tends  to  increase  the  rate  of  the 
eart    by    acting    directly    on    the    heart 
uscle,  it  tends  to  decrease  it  by  stimulat- 
ing the  inhibitory  center  in  the  medulla/ 
The  effect  on  the  kidneys  is  more  marked, 
he  diuretic  effect  being  shown  by  an  in- 
rease  in  water,  soluble  solids,  and  of  uric 
cid  directly  attributable  to  the  caffein  con- 
ent  of  the  coffee  taken.    In  the  alimentary 
iract  coffee  seems  to  stimulate  the  oxyntic 
ells  and  slightly  to  increase  the  secretion 
of  hydrochloric  acid,  as  well  as  to  favor  in- 
testinal peristalsis.     It  is  difficult  to  accept 
reports  of  coffee  accomplishing  both  a  de- 
crease  in  metabolism  and  an  increase  in 
body  heat;  but  if  the  production  of  heat  by 
^Bithe  demethylation  of  caffein  to  form  uric 
^Hftcid  and  a  possible  repression  of  perspira- 
^Hpion  by  coffee  be  considered,  the  simultane- 
^^Bus  occurrence  of  these  two  physiological 
^^■•eactions  may  be  credited. 
^L        The  disagreement  of  medical  authorities 
over  the  pliysiological  effects  of  coffee  is 
quite  pronounced.     This  may  be  observed 
by  a  careful  perusal  of  the  following  state- 
ments made  by  these  men.     It  will  be  no- 
ticed   that    the    majority    opinion    is    that 
coffee  in  moderation  is  not  harmful.     Just 
how  much  coffee  a  person  may  drink,  and 
still  remain  within  the  limits  of  moderation 
and  temperance,  is  dependent  solely  upon 
the  individual  constitution,  and  should  be 
decided   from   personal    experience   rather 
than  by  accepting  an  arbitrary  standard  set 
by  some  one  who  professes  to  be  an  author- 
ity on  the  matter. 

A  writer  in  the  British  Homeopathic  Re- 
vieiv^  says  that  "the  exciting  effects  of 
coffee  upon  the  nervous  system  exhibit 
themselves  in  all  its  departments  as  a  tem- 
porary exaltation.  The  emotions  are  raised 
in  pitch,  the  fancies  are  lively  and  vivid, 
benevolence  is  excited,  the  religious  sense  is 
stimulated,  there  is  great  loquacity.  .  .  . 
The  intellectual  powers  are  stimulated, 
both  memory  and  judgment  are  rendered 
more  keen  and  unusual  vivacity  of  verbal 
expression  rules  for  a  short  time."  He 
continues : 

Hahnemann  gives  a  characteristically  careful 
account  of  the  coffee  headache.  If  the  quantity 
of  coffee  taken  he  immoderately  great  and  the 
l>ody  he  very  excitable  and  quite  unused  to  cof- 
fee,   there  occurs  a  semilateral  headache  from 

the  upper  part  of  the  parietal  hone  to  the  base 
of  the  brain.  The  cerebml  membranes  of  this 
side  also  seem  to  be  painfully  sensitive,  the 
hands  and  feet  becoming  cold,  and  sweat  ap- 
pears on  the  brows  and  palms.  The  disposition 
becomes  irritable  and  intolerant,  anxiety,  trem- 
bling and  restlessness  are  apparent.  ...  I 
have  met  with  headaches  of  this  type  which 
yielded  readily  to  coffee  and  with  many  more 
in  which  the  indicated  remedy  failed  to  act  until 
the  use  of  coffee  as  a  beverage  was  abandoned. 
The  eyes  and  ears  suffer  alike  from  the  super- 
excitation  of  coffee.  There  is  a  characteristic 
toothache  associated  with  coffee. 

In  apparent  contradiction  of  this  opin- 
ion, Dr.  Valentin  Nalpasse,'  of  the  Faculty 
of  Medicine  of  Paris,  states : 

When  coffee  is  properly  made  and  taken  in 
moderation,  it  is  a  most  valuable  drink.  It 
facilitates  the  digestion  because  it  produces  a 
local  excitement.  Its  principal  action  gives  clear 
and  stable  imaginative  power  to  the  brain.  By 
doing  that,  it  makes  intellectual  work  easy, -and, 
to  a  certain  extent,  regulates  the  functions  of 
the  brain.  The  thoughts  become  more  precise 
and  clear,  and  mental  combinations  are  formed 
with  much  greater  rapidity.  Under  the  influ- 
ence of  coffee,  the  memory  is  sometimes  sur- 
prisingly active,  and  ideas  and  words  flow  with 
ease  and  elegance.  .  .  .  Many  people  abuse 
coffee  without  feeling  any  bad  effect. 

Discussing  the  use  and  abuse  of  coffee, 
I.  N.  Love*  says : 

The  world  has  in  the  infusion  of  coffee  one  of 
its  most  valuable  beverages.  It  is  a  prompt 
diffusible  stimulant,  antiseptic  and  encourager 
of  elimination.  In  season  it  supports,  tides  over 
danger,  helps  the  appropriate  powers  of  the  sys- 
tem, whips  up  the  flagging  energies,  enhances 
the  endurance ;  but  it  is  in  no  sense  a  food,  and 
for  this  reason  it  should  be  used  temperately. 

Also  Dr.  Jonathan  Hutchinson'  makes 
the  following  weighty  pronouncement : 

In  reference  to  my  suggestion  to  give  children 
tea  and  coffee,  I  may  explain  that  it  is  done  ad- 
visedly. There  is  probably  no  objection  to  their 
use  even  at  early  ages.  They  arouse  the  duU, 
calm  the  excitable,  prevent  headaches,  and  fit  the 
brain  for  work.  They  preserve  the  teeth,  keep 
them  tight  in  their  place,  strengthen  the  vocal 
chords,  and  prevent  sore  throat.  To  stigmatize 
these  invaluable  articles  of  diet  as  "nerve  stimu- 
lants" is  an  erroneous  expression,  for  they  un- 
doubtedly have  a  right  to  rank  as  nerve 

But  Dr.  Harvey  Wiley"  comes  forth  with 
evidence  on  the  other  side,  saying: 

The  effects  of  the  excessive  use  of  coffee,  tea, 
and  other  natural  caffein  beverages  is  well 
known.  Although  the  caffein  is  combined  in  these 

^Niles,    G.    M.       Tea    &    Coffee    Trade    Jour.,    1910 
(vol.  xix  :  no.  1 :  p.  27). 
"Through  The  Sun,  New  York,  July  17.  1910. 

'  Annales  PoUtiquea  et  Littirairea,  through  Tea,  d 
Coffee  Trade  Jour.,  1906    (vol.  x:  p.  303). 

*Jour.  Am.  Med.  Assoc.,  1891    (vol.  xvl). 

s  The  Times,  London,  Oct.  1,  1904  ;  through  Tea  & 
Coffee  Trade  Jour,  1911    (vol.  xxl  :  p.  36). 

« Oood  Housekeeping,  through  Tea  d  Coffee  Trade 
Jour.,   1912    (vol.   xxiii  :   p.   237). 



beverages  naturally,  and  they  are  as  a  rule 
taken  at  meal  times,  which  mitigates  the  effects 
of  the  caffein,  they  are  recognized  by  every  one 
as  tending  to  produce  sleeplessness,  and  often 
indigestion,  stomach  disorders,  and  a  condition 
which,  for  lack  of  a  better  term,  is  described 
as  nervousness.  .  .  .  The  excessive  drinking  of 
tea  and  coffee  is  acknowledged  to  be  injurious 
by  practically  all  specialists. 

Dr.  V.  C.  Vaughn/  of  the  University  of 
Michigan,  speaking  of  tea  and  coffee,  ex- 
presses this  opinion : 

I  believe  that  caffein  used  as  a  beverage  and 
in  moderation  not  only  is  harmless  to  the  ma- 
jority of  adults,  but  is  beneficial. 

This  verdict  is  upheld  by  the  results  of  a 
symposium"  conducted  by  the  Medical 
Times,  in  which  a  large  majority  of  the 
medical  experts  participating,  among  whom 
may  be  enumerated  Drs.  Lockwood,  Wood, 
Hollingworth,  Robinson,  and  Barnes, 
agreed  that  the  drinking  of  coffee  is  not 
harmful  per  se,  but  that  over-indulgence  is 
the  real  cause  of  any  ill  effects.  This  is  also 
true  of  any  ingested  material. 

Insomnia  is  a  condition  frequently  at- 
tributed to  coffee,  but  that  the  authorities 
disagree  on  this  ground  is  shown  by 
Wiley's*  contention,  "We  know  beyond 
doubt  that  the  caffein  (in  coffee)  makes  a 
direct  attack  on  the  nerves  and  causes  in- 
somnia." While  Woods  Hutchinson'  ob- 
serves : 

Oddly  enough,  a  cup  of  hot,  weak  tea  or  coffee, 
with  plenty  of  cream  and  sugar,  will  often  help 
you  to  sleep,  for  the  grateful  warmth  and  stimu- 
lus to  the  lining  of  the  stomach,  drawing  the 
blood  into  it  and  away  from  the  head,  will  pro- 
duce more  soothing  effects  than  the  small  amount 
of  caffein  will  produce  stimulating  and  wakeful 

The  writer  has  often  had  people  remark 
to  him  that  while  black  coffee  sometimes 
kept  them  awake,  coffee  with,  cream  or 
sugar  or  both  made  them  drowsy. 

In  the  course  of  experiments  conducted 
by  Montuori  and  Pollitzer'"  it  was  found 
that  coffee  prepared  by  hot  infusion  when 
given  by  mouth  or  hypodermically  with  the 
addition  of  a  small  dose  of  alcohol  proved 
an  efficient  means  of  combating  the  perni- 
cious effects  of  low  temperatures.  Coffee 
prepared  by  boiling,  and  tea,  showed  nega- 
tive effects. 

The  value  of  coffee  as  a  strength-con- 
server,  and  its  function  of  increasing  en- 

■    '  Tea  d  Coffee  Trade  Jour.,  1913  (vol.  xxiv  :  p.  455). 

» Tea  &  Coffee  Trade  Jour.,  1912  (vol.  xxiii :  p. 

'  Good  Housekeeping,  through  Tea  &  Coffee  Trade 
Jour.,  1915    (vol.  xxviii :  p.  533). 

^'>  Atti.  accad.  Lincei,  1915  (vol.  xxiv:  no.  2:  pp. 

durance,  morale,  and  healthfulness,  was 
demonstrated  by  the  great  stress  which  the 
military  authorities,  in  the  late  and  in  pre- 
vious wars,  placed  upon  furnishing  the 
soldiers  with  plenty  of  good  coffee,  particu- 
larly at  times  when  they  were  under  the 
greatest  strain.  Various  articles"  record 
this  fact;  and  these  statements  are  further 
borne  out  by  the  data  given  below  in  the 
discussion  of  the  physiological  effects  of 
caffein,  to  which  the  majority  of  the  stimu- 
lating effects  of  coffee  may  be  attributed. 

According  to  Fauvel,'^  with  a  healthy 
patient  on  a  vegetable  diet,  chocolate  and 
coffee  increase  the  excretion  of  purins, 
diminishing  the  excretion  of  uric  acid  and 
apparently  hindering  the  precipitation  of 
uric  acid  in  the  organism.  This  diminu- 
tion, however,  was  not  due  to  retention  of 
uric  acid  in  the  organism. 

"Habit-forming"  is  one  of  the  adjectives 
often  used  in  describing  coffee,  but  it  is  a 
fact  that  coffee  is  much  less  likely  than  alco- 
holic liquors  to  cause  ill  effects.  A  man 
rarely  becomes  a  slave  of  coffee ;  and  exces- 
sive drinking  of  this  beverage  never  pro- 
duces a  state  of  moral  irresponsibility  or 
leads  to  the  commission  of  crime.  Dr.  J.  W. 
Mallet,"  in  testimony  given  before  a  Fed- 
eral Court,  stated  that  caffein  and  coffee 
were  not  habit-forming  in  the  correct  sense 
of  the  term.  His  definition  of  the  expres- 
sion is  that  the  habit  formed  must  be  a 
detrimental  and  injurious  one  —  one  which 
becomes  so  firmly  fixed  upon  a  person  form- 
ing it  that  it  is  thrown  off  with  great  diffi- 
culty and  with  considerable  suffering, 
continuous  exercise. of  the  habit  increasing 
the  demand  for  the  habit-forming  drug. 
It  is  well  known  that  the  desire  ceases  in  a 
very  short  period  of  time  after  cessation  of 
use  of  caffein-containing  beverages,  so  that 
in  that  sense,  coffee  is  not  habit-forming. 

It  has  been  shown  by  Gourewitsch"  that 
the  daily  administration  of  coffee  produces 
a  certain  degree  of  tolerance,  and  that  the 
doses  must  be  increased  to  obtain  toxic  re- 
sults. Harkness"  has  been  quoted  as  stat- 
mg  that  "taken  in  moderation,  coffee  is  one 
of  the  most  w^holesome  beverages  known. 
It  assists  digestion,  exhilarates  the  spirits, 
and  counteracts  the  tendency  to  sleep." 

"  Nalpasse,  Dr.  Valentin,  loc.  cit.    (see  3). 
Flint,  Dr.  Austin  B.    Text  Book  of  Physiology. 
Wood,  H.  C,  Jr.    Therapeutic  Gazette,  1912    (vol. 
xxxvi :  p.   13). 

^  Compt,  rend.   (vol.  cxlviii :  p.  1541). 
"  Tea   &    Coffee    Trade   Jour.,    1914    (vol.    xxvi :    p. 

^*Arch.  exp.  Path.  Pharm.,  1907   (vol.  Ivii  :  p.  214). 
^^  Universal  Dictionary,  1897   (vol.  i:  p.  1097). 


Men  and  Women  Laborers  Picking  Cofi-ee  on  a  Sao  Paulo  Estate 






Carl  V.  Voit,"  the  German  physiological 
chemist,  says  this  about  coffee: 

The  effect  of  coffee  is  that  we  are  bothered 
[less  by  uupleasant  experiences  and  become  more 
[able  to  conquer  difficulties;    therefore,  for   the 

feasting  rich,  it  makes  intestinal  work  after  a 

meal  le^^s  evident  and  drives  away  the  deadly 
( ennui ;  for  the  student  it  is  a  means  to  keep  wide 

awake  and  fresh ;  for  the  worker  it  makes  the 

day's  fatigue  more  bearable. 

Dr.  Brady"  believes  that  the  so-called 
,harmfulness  of  coffee  is  mainly  psychologi- 
jcal,  as  evidenced  by  his  expression,  ''Most 
I  of  the  prejudice  which  exists  against  coffee 
as  a  beverage  is  based  upon  nothing  more 
(than  morbid  fancy.  People  of  dyspeptic 
for  neurotic  temperament  are  fond  of  assum- 
ing that  coffee  must  be  bad  because  it  is  so 
good,  and  accordingly,  denying  themselves 
the  pleasure  of  drinking  it." 

The  recounting  of  evidence,  both  pro  and 

con,  relevant  to  the  general  effects  of  coffee 

tcould  continue  almost  ad  infinitum,  but  the 

fairest  unification  of  the  various  opinions  is 

best  quoted  from  Woods  Hutchinson ' : 

Somewhere  from  1  to  3  percent  of  the  com- 
munity are  distinctly  injured  or  poisoned  by 
tea  or  coffee,  even  small  amounts  producing 
burning  of  the  stomach,  palpitation  of  the  heart, 
headache,  eruptions  of  the  skin,  sensations  of 
extreme  nervousness,  and  so  on ;  though  the  re- 
maining 97  i>ercent  are  not  injured  by  them  in 
I  any  appreciable  way  if  consumed  in  moderation. 

So,  if  one  is  personally  satisfied  that  he 
belongs  to  the  abnormal  minority,  and  has 
not  been  argued  by  fallacious  reasoning 
into  his  belief  that  coffee  injures  him,  he 
should  either  reduce  his  consumption  of 
coffee  or  let  it  alone.  Even  those  most 
vitally  interested  in  the  commercial  side  of 
coffee  will  admit  that  this  is  the  logical 

Effects  of  Coffee  on  Children 

The  same  sort  of  controversy  has  raged 
around  the  question  of  the  advisability  of 
giving  coffee  to  children  as  has  occurred 
regarding  its  general  action.  Dr.  J. 
Hutchinson"*  advocates  furnishing  children 
with  coffee,  while  Dr.  Charlotte  Abbey""  is 
strongly  against  such  a  practise,  claiming 
that  use  of  caffein-containing  beverages  be- 
fore the  attainment  of  full  growth  will 
weaken  nerve  power.     Nalpasse"  observes 

"  Handhuch  der  Physiologic,  1881   (vol.  vi :  p.  435). 

"r/ie  CoScc  Club,  1921    (vol.  i:  p.  4). 

"  Saturday  Evening  Post,  throujih  Tea  d  Coffee 
Trade  Jour,  1914    ^vol.  xxvii :  p.  5St)). 

*»  hoc.  cit.    (see  5). 

''Seven  Truths  to  Teach  the  Young  in  Regard  to 
Life  and  Sex,  No.  2. 

**  Loc.  cit.    (see  3). 

that  until  fully  developed  the  young  are 
immoderately  excited  by  coffee ;  and  Hawk" 
is  of  the  opinion  that  to  give  such  a  stimu- 
lant to  an  active  school-child  is  both  logi- 
cally and  dietetically  incorrect.  Dr. 
Vaughn"  advances  this  scientific  argument 
against  the  drinking  of  coffee  by  children 
under  seven  years  of  age : 

In  proportion  to  body  weight  the  young  con- 
tain more  of  the  xanthin  bases  than  adults. 
They  are  already  laden  with  these  physiological 
stimulants,  and  the  additional  dose  given  in  tea 
or  coffee  may  be  harmful. 

In  a  study  of  the  effects  of  coffee  drink- 
ing upon  464  school  children,  C.  K,  Tay- 
lor'* found  a  slight  difference  in  mental 
ability  and  behavior,  unfavorable  to  coffee. 
About  29  percent  of  these  children  drank 
no  coffee ;  46  percent  drank  a  cup  a  day ; 
12  percent,  2  cups;  8  percent,  3  cups;  and 
the  remainder,  4  or  more  cups  a  day.  The 
measurements  of  height,  weight,  and  hand 
strength  also  showed  a  slight  advantage  in 
favor  of  the  non-coffee  drinkers.  If  these 
results  be  talfen  as  truly  representative, 
their  indication  is  obvious.  However,  it 
seems  desirable  to  repeat  these  experiments 
upon  other  groups ;  at  the  same  time  noting 
carefully  the  factors  of  environment,  and 
other  diet,  before  any  criterion  is  made. 

As  a  refutation  to  this  experimental  evi- 
dence is  the  practical  experience  of  the  in- 
habitants of  the  Island  of  Groix,  off  the 
Brittany  coast,  whose  annual  consumption 
of  coffee  is  nearly  30  pounds  per  cxpita, 
being  ingested  both  as  the  roasted  bean  and 
as  an  infusion.  It  is  reported  that  many 
of  the  children  are  nourished  almost  en- 
tirely on  coffee  soup  up  to  ten  years  of  age, 
yet  the  mentality  and  physique  of  the 
populace  does  not  fall  below  that  of  others 
of  the  same  stock  and  educational  oppor- 
tunities," "• 
Pertinent  in  this  connection  is  Hawk^s"* 
statement  that  young  mothers  should  re- 
frain from  the  use  of  coffee,  as  caffein 
stimulates  the  action  of  the  kidneys  and 
tends  to  bring  about  a  loss  from  the  body 
of  some  of  the  salts  necessary  to  the  de- 
velopment of  the  unborn  child  as  well  as 
for  the  proper  production  of  milk  during 
the  nursing  period.  The  caffein  of  coffee 
also  increases  the  flow  of  milk,  but  the  milk 
produced  is  correspondingly  dilute  and  a 
later  decreased  secretion  may  be  expected. 

"Ladies'  Home  Journal,  Dec,  1916  (p.  37). 

'^  Loc.  cit.    (see  7). 

^  Psych.  Clin.    (vol.  vi  :  pp.  56-5S). 

"Tea  d  Coffee  Trade  Jour.,  June,  1905   (p.  274). 



Furthermore,  some  of  the  caffein  of  the 
coffee  may  pass  into  the  mother's  milk,  thus 
reaching  the  child,  so  that  the  use  of  coffee 
during  the  nursing  period  is  undesirable  on 
this  ground  also."  Naturally,  the  question 
arises  as  to  whether  this  arra^ignment  is 
purely  theoretical  or  based  upon  analytical 
and  clinical  data. 

It  is  a  difficult  matter  definitely  to  set 
an  age  below  which  coffee  should  not  be 
drunk,  as  the  time  of  reaching  maturity 
varies  with  climate  and  ancestral  origin. 
Yet,  from  a  theoretical  standpoint,  chil- 
dren before  or  during  the  adolescent  period 
should  be  limited  to  the  use  of  a  rather 
small  amount  of  tea  and  coffee  as  bever- 
ages, as  their  poise  and  nerve  control  have 
not  reached  a  stage  of  development  suffi- 
cient to  warrant  the  stimulation  incident 
to  the  consumption  of  an  appreciable  quan- 
tity of  caffein. 

Coffee  Drinking  and  Longevity 

There  are  many  who  would  have  us  be- 
lieve that  the  use  of  coffee  is  only  a  means 
toward  the  end  of  quickly  reaching  the 
great  beyond;  but  it  is  known  that  the 
habitual  coffee  drinker  generally  enjoys 
good  health,  and  some  of  the  longest-lived 
people  have  used  it  from  their  earliest 
youth  without  any  apparent  injury  to  their 
health.  Nearly  every  one  has  an  acquaint- 
ance who  has  lived  to  a  ripe  old  age  despite 
the  use  of  coffee.    Quoting  Metchnikoff'' : 

In  some  cases  centenarians  have  been  much 
addicted  to  the  drinlving  of  coffee.     The  reader 
will  recall  Voltaire's  reply  when  his  doctor  de- 
scribed   the    grave   harm    that  comes   from    the 
abuse   of  coffee,   which   acts  as   a   real   poison. 
"Well",    said   Voltaire,    "I   have   been   poisoning 
myself  for  nearly  eighty  years."    There  are  cen- 
tenarians who  have  lived  longer  than  Voltaire, 
and   have   drunk    still    more   coffee.      Elizabeth^ 
Dririeux,  a  native  of  Savoy,  reached  the  age  of  1 
114.     Her  principal  food  was  coffee,  of  which  i 
she   took    daily   as   many   as   forty    small    cups. 
She  was  jovial  and  a  boon  table  companion,  and 
used  black  coffee  in  quantities  that  would  have 
surprised  an  Arab.     Her  coffee-pot  was  always 
on  the  fire,  like  the  tea-pot  in  an  English  cot- 
tage  (Lejoncourt,  p.  84;  Chemin,  p.  147). 

The  entire  matter  resolves  itself  into  one 
of  individual  tolerance,  resistivity,  and 
constitution.  Numerous  examples  of  young 
abstainers  who  have  died  and  coffee 
drinkers  who  have  still  lived  on  can  be 
found,  and  vice  versa,  the  preponderance 
of  instances  being  in  neither  direction. 
Bodies  of  persons  killed  by  accident  have 
been  painstakingly   examined  for  physio- 

"  The  Prolongation  oj  Life. 

logical  changes  attributable  to  coffee;  but 
no  difference  between  those  of  coffee  and 
of  non-coffee  drinkers  (ascertained  by  care- 
ful investigation  of  their  life  history) 
could  be  discerned."'  In  the  long  run,  it  is 
safe  to  say  that  the  effect  of  coffee  drinking 
upon  the  prolongation  or  shortening  of  life 
is  neutral. 

Coffee  in  the  Alimentary  Tract 

When  coffee  is  taken  per  os  it  passes  di-. 
rectly  to  the  stomach,  where  its  sole  im- 
mediate action  is  to  dilute  the  previous 
contents,  just  as  other  ingested  liquids  do. 
Eventually  the  caffein  content  is  absorbed 
by  the  system,  and  from  thence  on  a  stimu- 
lation is  appareiit.  Considerable  conjec- 
ture has  occurred  over  the  difference  in  the 
effects  of  tea  and  coffee,  the  most  feasible 
explanation  advanced  being  one  appearing 
in  the  London  Lancet.'" 

The  caffein  tannate  of  tea  is  precipitated  by 
weak  acids,  and  the  presumption  is  that  it  is 
precipitated  by  the  gastric  juice  and,  therefore, 
the  caffein  is  probably  not  absorbed  until  it 
reaches  the  alkaMne  alimentary  tract.  In  the 
\case  of  coffee,  however,  in  whatever  form  the 
caffein  may  be  present,  it  is  soluble  in  both  al- 
kaline and  acid  liuids,  and,  therefore,  the  absorp- 
tion of  the  alkaloid  probably  takes  place  in  the 

This  theory,  if  true,  goes  far  toward  ex- 
plaining the  more  rapid  stimulation  of 

The  statement  has  sometimes  been  made 
that  milk  or  cream  causes  the  coffee  liquid 
to  become  coagulated  when  it  comes  into 
contact  with  the  acids  of  the  stomach.  This 
is  true,  but  does  not  carry  with  it  the  in- 
ference that  indigestibility  accompanies 
this  coagulation.  Milk  and  cream,  upon 
reaching  the  stomach,  are  coagulated  by  the 
..gastric  juice;  but  the  casein  product 
formed  is  not  indigestible.  These  liquids, 
when  added  to  coffee,  are  partially  acted 
upon  by  the  small  acid  content  of  the  brew, 
so  that  the  gastric  juice  action  is  not  so 
pronounced,  for  the  coagulation  was  started 
before  ingestion,  and  the  coagulable  con- 
stituent, casein,  is  more  dilute  in  the  cup 
as  consumed  than  it  is  in  milk.  Accord- 
ingly, the  particles  formed  by  it  in  the 
stomach  will  be  relatively  smaller  and  more 
quickly  and  easily  digested  than  milk  per 
se.  It  has  been  observed  that  coffee  con- 
taining milk  or  cream  is  not  as  stimulating 
as  black  coffee.     The  writer  believes  that 

^  Hekteon  and  LeConte. 

» Through    Tea   &    Coffee    Trade    Jour..    1914    (vol. 
xxvi  :   pp.   29  32). 




is  is  probably  due  to  mechanical  inclusion . 
caffein  in  the  casein  and  fat  particles, 

d  also  to  some  adsorption  of  the  alkaloid 
by  them.  This  would  materially  retard  the 
absorption  of  the  caffein  by  the  body, 
spread  the  action  over  a  longer  period  of 
time,  and  hence  decrease  the  maximum 
stimulation  attained. 

In  a  few  instances,  a  small  fraction  of 
one  percent  of  coffee  users,  there  is  a  cer- 
tain type  of  distress,  localized  chiefly  in  the 

imentary  tract,   caused  by  coffee,  which 

n  not  be  blamed  upon  the  much-maligned 
caffein.  The  irritating  elements  may  be 
generally  classified  as  compounds  formed 
upon  the  addition  of  cream  or  milk  to  the 
coffee  liquor,  volatile  constituents,  and 
products  formed  by  hydrolysis  of  the 
fibrous  part  of  the  grounds.  It  may  be 
generally  postulated  that  the  main  causa- 
tion of  this  discomfort  is  due  to  substances 
formed  in  the  incorrect  brewing  of  coffee, 
the  effect  of  which  is  accentuated  by  the 
addition  of  cream  or  milk,  when  the  condi- 
tion of  individual  idiosyncrasy  is  present. 

Without  enlarging  upon  his  reason,  Lo- 
rand'"  concludes  that  neither  tea  nor  coffee 
is  advisable  for  weak  stomachs.  Nalpasse," 
however,  believes  that  coffee  taken  after 
meals  makes  the  digestion  more  perfect  and 
more  rapid,  augmenting  the  secretions,  and 
that  it  agrees  equally  well  with  people  in- 
clined to  embonpoint  and  heavy  eaters 
whose  digestion  is  slow  and  difficult. 
Thompson^^  also  observes  that  coffee  drunk 
in  moderation  is  a  mild  stimulant  to  gastric 

Eder'^  reported,  as  the  result  of  an  in- 
quiry into  the  action  of  coffee  on  the  ac- 
tivity of  the  stomachs  of  ruminants,  that 
coffee  infusions  produced  a  transitory  in- 
crease in  the  number  and  intensity  of  the 
movements  of  the  paunch,  but  that  the  in- 
fluence exercised  was  very  irregular. 

An  elaborate  investigation  of  the  action 
of  tea  and  coffee  on  digestion  in  the  stomn, 
ach   was   made   by   Fraser,^*   in   which   hei 
found   that   both  retard   peptic   digestion,  | 
the  former  to   a  greater  degree  than  the' 
latter.    The  digestion  of  white  of  egg,  ham, 
salt  beef,  and  roast  beef  was  much  less  af- 
fected than  that  of  lamb,  fowl,  or  bread. 
Coffee  seemed  actually  to  aid  the  digestion 

'»  Old  Age  Deferred,  1910. 
^^  Loc.  cit.     (see  3). 
^Practical  Dietetics,  1017   (p.   254). 
^^  Zentr.  Biochem  Biophys,  1912    (vol.  xili :  p.  504). 
^Jour.  Anat.  d  Phyai.,  through  Tea  &  Coffee  Trade 
Jour.,  1913    (vol.  XXV  :  p.  345). 

of  egg  and  ham.  He  attributed  the  retard- 
ing effect  to  the  tannic  acid  of  the  tea  and 
the  volatile  constituents  of  the  coffee  —  the 
caffein  itself  favoring  digestion  rather  than 
otherwise.  Tea  increased  the  production  of 
i  gas  in  all  but  salt  foods,  whereas  coffee  did 
'  not.  Coffee  is,  therefore,  to  be  preferred  in 
cases  of  flatulent  dyspepsia. 

Hutchinson,  in  his  Food  and  Dietetics, 
opines : 

As  regards  the  practical  inferences  to  be 
drawn  from  experiences  and  observations,  it  may 
be  said  that  in  health  the  disturbance  of  diges- 
tion px'oduced  by  the  infused  beverages  (tea  and 
coffee)  is  negligible.  Roberts,  indeed,  goes  so 
far  as  to  suggest  that  the  slight  slowing  of  di- 
gestion which  they  produce  may  be  favored 
rather  than  otherwise,  as  tending  to  compensate 
for  too  rapid  digestibility  which  refinements  of 
manufacture  and  preparation  have  made  char- 
acteristic of  modern  foods. 

Regarding  increase  in  secretory  activity, 
Moore  and  Allanston"'  report  that  in  their 
experience  meat  extracts,  tea,  caffein  solu- 
tion, and  coffee  call  forth  a  greater  gastric 
secretion  than  does  water,  while  with  milk 
the  flow  of  gastric  juice  seems  to  be  re- 
tarded. Cushing'*  and  others  support  this 
statement.  This  action  is  partially  ex- 
plained by  Voit  on  the  grounds  that  all 
tasty  foods  increase  gastric  secretion,  the 
action  being  partly  psychological;  but 
Cushing  observed  the  same  effects  upon  in- 
troducing coffee  directly  into  the  stomachs 
of  animals. 

In  general,  a  moderate  amount  of  coffee 
stimulates  appetite,  improves  digestion  and 
relieves  the  sense  of  plenitude  in  the  stom- 
ach. It  increases  intestinal  peristalsis,  acts 
as  a  mild  laxative,  and  slightly  stimulates 
seei:£tion._ofbile.  Excessive  use,  however, 
profoundly  disturbs  digestive  function,  and 
promotes  constipation  and  hemorrhoids." 
There  is  much  evidence  to  support  the  view 
that  "neither  tea,  coffee,  nor  chicory  in 
dilute  solutions  has  any  deleterious  action 
on  the  digestive  ferments,  although  in 
strong  solutions  such  an  action  may  be 
manifest.'"'  After  conducting  exhaustive 
experiments  with  various  types  of  coffee, 
Lehmann''  concluded  that  ordinary  coffee  is 
without  effect  on  the  digestion  of  the  ma- 
jority of  sound  persons,  and  may  be  used 
with  impunity. 

^Lancet,  Dec  2,   1911. 
^^Pharmacology,  1913    (p.  258). 

"  Butler.  Materia  Medica,  Therapeutics  and  Pharma- 
cology, 1906   (p.  256). 

»«Tognmi,  K.     Biochem.  Zeit  ,  1908  (vol.  ix  :  p.  453). 
'» Munch.  Med.  Wochcnschr.  (vol.  Ix  :  pp.  281-85.  357- 

Naturwias.   Umschau.  d.  Chem.,  Ztg.  1913    (p.  4). 
Schxoeiz.  Wochenachr.  (vol.  11:  pp.  490-92). 



Coffee  in  the  Dietary  —  Food  Value 

There  are  three  things  to  be  considered 
in  deciding  upon  the  inclusion  of  a 
substance  in  the  dietary  —  palatability,  di- 
gestibility without  toxicity  or  disarrange- 
ment, and  calorific  value.  Coffee  is  as 
satisfactory  from  these  viewpoints  as  any 
other  food  product. 

The  palatability  of  a  well-made  cup  of 
good  coffee  needs  no  eulogizing;  it  speaks 
for  itself.  It  adds  enormously  to  the  at- 
tractiveness of  the  meal,  and  to  our  ability 
to  eat  with  relish  and  appetite  large 
amounts  of  solid  foods,  without  a  subse- 
quent uncomfortable  feeling.  Wiley^"  says 
that  the  feeling  of  drowsiness  after  a  full 
meal  is  a  natural  condition  incidental  to 
the  proper  conduct  of  digestion,  and  that 
to  drive  away  this  natural  feeling  with  cof- 
fee must  be  an  interference  with  the  normal 
condition.  However,  if  by  so  doing,  we  can 
increase  our  over-all  efficiency  without  ma- 
terial harm  to  our  digestive  organs  (and 
we  can  and  do),  the  procedure  has  much 
in  its  favor  both  psychologically  and 

The  fact  that  coffee  favors  digestion 
without  eventual  disarrangement  has  been 
demonstrated  above.  On  the  subject  of  the 
relative  agreement  with  the  constitution  of 
foods  of  daily  consumption.  Dr.  English" 

It  is  well  known  that  there  is  no  species  of 
diet  which  invariably  suits  all  constitutions,  nor 
will  that  which  is  palatable  and  salutary  at  one 
time  be  equally  palatable  and  salutary  at  an- 
other time  to  the  same  individual.  I  think  the 
most  natural  food  provided  for  us  is  milk ;  yet  I 
will  engage  to  show  twenty  instances  where  milk 
disagrees  more  than  coffee. 

Further  in  this  regard,  Hutchinson^" 
considers  that  ninety  percent  of  the  "dys- 
pepsias" attributed  to  coffee  are  due  to 
malnutrition,  or  to  food  simultaneously  in- 
gested, no  disease  known  to  the  medical 
profession  being  directly  attributable  to  it. 

No  one  cognizant  of  the  facts  will  con- 
tend that  a  cup  of  black  coffee  has  any  di- 
rect food  value ;  but  not  so  with  the  roasted 
bean.  This  has  quite  an  appreciable  content 
of  protein  and  fat,  both  substances  of  high 
calorific  value.  The  inhabitants  of  the 
Island  of  Groix  eat  the  whole  roasted  coffee 
bean  in  considerable  quantity,  and  seem  to 
obtain  considerable  nourishment  therefrom. 
Also,    the    Galla,    a    wandering    tribe    of 

*^  hoc.  cit.    (see  6). 

■•1  Through  Tea  d  Coffee  Trade  Jour.,  1916  (vol. 
XXX :  p.  443). 

*^Tea  d  Coffee  Trade  Jour.,  1909   (vol.  xvi  :  p.  271). 

Africa,  make  large  use  of  food  balls,  about 
the  size  of  billiard  balls,  consisting  of  pul- 
verized coffee  held  in  shape  with  fat.  One 
ball  is  said  to  contain  a  day's  ration;  and, 
because  of  its  food  content  and  stimulating 
power,  serves  to  sustain  them  on  long 
marches  of  days'  duration. 

When  an  infusion,  or  decoction,  of 
roasted  coffee  is  made,  about  1.25  percent 
of  the  extracted  matter  is  protein,  it  being 
accompanied  by  traces  of  dextrin  and 
sugar.  The  same  dearth  of  extraction  of 
food  materials  occurs  upon  infusing  coffee 
substitutes.  This  small  amount  can  have 
but  little  dietetic  significance.  However, 
upon  addition  of  sugar  and  of  milk  or 
cream,  with  their  content  of  protein,  fat, 
and  lactose,  the  calorific  value  of  .the  cup 
of  coffee  rises.  Lusk  and  Gephart"  give 
the  food  value  of  an  ordinary  restaurant 
cup  of  coffee  as  195.5  calories,  and  Locke" 
gives  it  as  156. 

Mattei""  found  that  8  cc.  of  an  infusion 
of  roaSited  Mocha  coffee  of  five-percent 
strength  suppressed  incipient  polyneuritis 
in  pigeons  within  a  few  hours'  time.  Their 
weight  did  not  improve,  but  otherwise  they 
were  completely  restored  to  health.  How- 
ever, in  from  four  to  six  weeks  after  the 
apparent  cure,  the  symptoms  rapidly  re- 
turned and  the  pigeons  perished,  with 
symptoms  of  paralysis  and  cerebral  com- 
plications. The  temporary  cure  was  prob- 
ably due  to  caffein  stimulation  and  sec- 
onciary  actions  of  the  volatile  constituents 
of  coffee,  which  may  be  related  to  the  vita- 
mines;  for  it  is  not  likely  that  the  vita- 
mines  would  withstand  the  heat  of  roasting. 
If  B-vitamine  does  occur  in  roasted  coffee, 
it  is  present  only  in  traces."" 

The  inclusion  of  coffee  in  the  average 
dietary  is  warranted  because  of  its  evident 
worth  as  an  aid  to  digestion  and  for  its  as- 
similating power,  thus  earning  its  charac- 
terization as  an  "adjuvant  food." 

Action  of  Coffee  on  Bacteria 

The  employment  of  coffee  as  an  aid  to 
sanitation  has  been  but  little  considered. 
Coffee,  when  freshly  roasted  and  ground,  is 
deodorant,  antiseptic,  and  germicidal, 
probably  due  to  the  empyreumatic  products 
developed  during  the  process  of  roasting. 
An  infusion  of  0.5  percent  inhibits  the 
growth  of  many  pathogenic  organisms,  and 

"  Prankel.   F.   H.      Tea  &   Coffee   Trade  Jour.,   191C 
(vol.  xxxi :  p.  446). 
**Food  Values,  1914    (p.   54). 
**^  PoHclin.,  1920   (no.  27:  p.   1011). 
"''Funk,  C.     The  Vitamines,  1922   (p.  270). 



those  of  10  percent  kill  anthrax  bacteria  in 
three  hours,  cholera  spirilla  in  four  hours, 
and  many  other  bacteria,  including  those 
producing  typhoid,  in  two  to  six  days." 

The  maintenance  of  a  low  rate  of  contrac- 
tion of  typhoid  fever  has  often  been  at- 
tributed to  drinking  of  coffee  instead  of 
water,  the  action  of  the  coffee  being  partly 
due  to  the  bactericidal  effect  of  the  caffeol 
and  partly  to  the  boiling  of  the  water  be- 
fore infusion.  The  stimulating  tendency  of 
the  caffein  to  sustain  and  to  "tide  over" 
those  of  low  vitalities  is  also  evidenced. 

Use  of  Coffee  in  Medicine 

Coffee  has  been  employed  in  medicinal 
practise  as  a  direct  specific,  as  a  preven- 
tive, and  as  an  antidote.  The  United  States 
Dispensatory*''  summarizes  the  uses  of  caf- 
fein and  coffee  as  follows : 

Caffein  is  a  valuable  remedy  in  practical 
medicine  as  a  cerebral  and  cardiac  stimulant 
and  as  a  diuretic.  In  undue  somnolence,  in  ner- 
vous headache,  in  narcotism,  also,  at  times 
when  the  exigencies  of  life  require  excessively 
prolonged  wakefulness,  caffein  may  be  used  as 
the  most  powerful  agent  known  for  producing 
wakefulness.  In  a  series  of  experiments, 
J.  Hughes  Bennett  found  that  within  narrow 
limits  there  is  a  direct  physiological  antagonism 
lietween  caffein  and  morphine.  Coffee  and  caf- 
fein in  narcotic?  poisoning  are  of  value  as  a 
means  of  keeping  the  patient  awake,  and  of 
stimulating  the  respiratory  centres. 

As  a  cardiac  stimulant,  caffein  may  be  used 
in  any  form  of  heart  failure:  the  indications  for 
its  use  are  those  which  call  for  the  employment 
of  digitalis.  It  is  superior  to  digitalis  in  never 
disagreeing  with  the  stomach,  in  having  no  dis- 
tinctive cumulative  tendency,  and  in  the  prompt- 
ness of  its  action.  It  is  pronouncedly  inferior 
to  digitalis  in  the  power  and  certainty  of  its 
action,  and  in  the  permanence  of  its  influence 
once  asserted.  As  a  diuretic  it  is  superior ;  it  is 
very  valuable  in  the  treatment  of  cardiac  drop- 
sies, and  is  often  useful  in  chronic  BrighVs 
disease  when  there  is  no  irritation  of  the 

On  account  of  its  tendency  to  produce  wakeful- 
ness, it  is  usually  better  to  mass  the  doses  early 
in  the  day,  at  least  six  hours  being  left  between 
the  last  dose  and  the  ordinary  time  for  sleep. 
From  eight  to  fifteen  grams  (of  caffein)  may  be 
given  in  the  course  of  a  day  in  severe  cases. 
If  tried,  it  would  probably  prove  a  useful  drug 
in  cases  of  sudden  collapse  from  various  causes. 

Good  effects  of  coffee  are  recounted  by 

It  removes  the  sensation  of  fatigue  in  the 
muscles,  and  increases  their  functional  activity; 
it  allays  hunger  to  a  limited  extent ;  it  strength- 

*°  Potter.  Materia  Medica,  Pharmacy  and  Thera^ 
peutics.  10th  ed..  1906  (n.  187). 

Culbreth.  Materia  Medica  and  Pharmacology,  2nd 
ed.  (p.  520). 

"Nineteenth  ed.   (p.  254). 

«Loc.  cit.     (see  32). 

ens  the  heart  action;  it  acts  as  a  diuretic, 
and  increases  the  excretion  of  urea  ;  it  has  a 
mildly  sudorific  infiuence ;  it  counteracts  ner- 
vous exhaustion  and  stinuilates  nerve  centers. 
It  is  used  sometimes  as  a  nervine  in  cases  of 
migraine,  and  there  are  many  persons  who  can 
sustain  prolonged  mental  fatigue  and  strain 
from  anxiety  and  worry  much  better  by  the  use 
of  strong  black  coffee.  In  low  delirium,  or  when 
the  nervous  system  is  overcome  by  the  use  of 
narcotics  or  by  excessive  hemorrhage,  strong 
black  coffee  is  serviceable  to  keep  the  patient 
from  falling  into  the  drowsiness  which  soon 
merges  into  coma.  In  such  cases  as  much  as 
half  a  pint  of  strong  black  coffee  may  be  in- 
jected into  the  rectum. 

Strong  coffee  with  a  little  lemon  juice  or 
brandy  is  often  useful  in  overcoming  a  malarial 
chill  or  a  paroxysm  of  astlima.  It  is  a  useful 
temporary  cardiac  stimulant  for  children  suffer- 
ing collapse. 

Dr.  Restrepo,"  of  Medellin,  Colombia, 
claims  to  have  cured  many  cases  of  chronic 
malaria  and  related  diseases  with  infusion 
of  green  coffee,  after  quinine  had  failed. 
Wallace"  states  that  tincture  of  green  cof- 
fee is  a  natural  and  efficacious  specific  for 
cholera,  and  that  she  knows  of  more  than 
a  thousand  cases  of  cholera  and  diarrhea 
which  have  been  treated  with  it  without  an 
isolated  case  of  failure.  Landanabileo  has 
been  quoted  as  using  raw  coffee  infusion  in 
hepatic  and  nephritic  diseases,  venal  and 
hepatic  colics,  and  in  diabetes. 

In  the  Civil  War,  surgeons  utilized  cof- 
fee in  allaying  malarial  fever  and  other 
maladies  with  which  they  had  to  contend, 
often  under  the  most  trying  conditions, 
and  with  severely  limited  means  of  combat- 
ing disease.'"  Its  effect  is  to  counteract  the 
depressant  action  of  low  and  miasmatic 
atmospheres,  opening  the  secretions  which 
they  have  checked.  Travelers  from  the 
colder  climes  soon  find  that  the  fragrant 
cup  of  coffee  is  a  corrective  to  derange- 
ments of  the  liver  resulting  from  climatic 

Dr.  Guillasse,  of  the  French  Navy,  in  a 
paper  on  typhoid  fever,  says: 

Coffee  has  given  us  unhoped  for  satisfaction, 
and  after  having  dispensed  it  we  find,  to  our 
great  surprise,  that  its  action  is  as  prompt  as  it 
is  decisive.  No  sooner  have  our  patients  taken 
a  few  tablespoonfuls  of  it,  than  their  features 
become  relaxed  and  they  come  to  their  senses. 
The  next  day  the  improvement  is  such  that  we 
are  tempted  to  look  upon  coffee  as  a  specific 
against  typhoid  fever.  Under  its  infiuence  the 
stupor  is  dispelled,  and  the  patient  arouses  from 

"Keable.   B.   B.      Coffee    (p.   97). 

"WaUace,  Mrs.  C.  L.  H.  "Cholera:  Its  Cause  and 
Cure."  The  Herald  of  Health,  through  Tea  d  Coffee 
Trade  Jour.,  1908   (vol.  xiv  :  p.  22). 

^  "S.  Culaplus",  Tea  d  Coffee  Trade  Jour.,  1913 
(vol.  XXV :  p.  239). 

"  Tea  d  Coffee  Trade  Jour.,  1913  (vol.  xxv  :  p.  458). 



the  state  of  somnolency  in  which  he  has  been 
since  the  invasion  of  the  disease.  Soon  all  the 
functions  take  their  natural  course,  and  he 
enters  upon  eonAalescence.°- 

Also  it  has  been  reported  that  in  extreme 
cases  of  yellow  fever,  coffee  has  been  used 
most  effectively  by  many  physicians  as  the 
main  reliance  after  all  other  well  known 
remedies  have  been  administered  and 

According  to  Lorand,"  the  use  of  coffee 
in  gout  is  strictly  prohibited  by  Umber  and 
Schittenhelm ;  but  he  considered  it  a  mis- 
take absolutely  to  forbid  coffee,  as,  when  a 
person  has  good  kidneys,  the  small  amount 
of  uric  acid  furnished  by  the  caffein  can 
readih'-  be  eliminated.  A  curious  remedy 
for  gout  and  rheumatism,  the  efficacy  of 
which  the  writer  scouts,  is  said  to  be'*  —  a 
pint  of  hot,  strong,  black  coffee,  which  must 
be  perfectly  pure,  and  seasoned  with  a  tea- 
spoonful  of  pure  black  pepper,  thoroughly 
mixed  before  drinking,  and  the  preparation 
taken  just  before  going  to  bed.  If  this  have 
any  value,  it  is  probably  purely  psychologi- 
cal in  its  function. 

Several  writers''  attribute  amblyopia  and 
other  affections  of  the  sight  to  coffee  and 
chicory,  without  giving  much  conclusive 
experimental  data.  Beer,°'  a  Vienna  ocu- 
list, however,  held  that  the  vapor  from 
pure,  hot,  freshly-made  coffee  is  beneficial 
,to  the  eyes. 

Coffee  and  caff'ein  are  physiologically  an- 
tagonistic to  the  common  narcotics,  nico- 
tine, morphine,  opium,  alcohol,  etc.,  and 
are  frequently  used  as  antidotes  for  these 
poisons.  Binz  found  that  dogs  that  have 
been  stupified  with  alcohol  could  be  awak- 
ened with  coffee.  It  may  thus  be  prescribed 
for  hard  drinkers  to  counteract  the  baleful 
excitability  produced  by  alcohol;  in  fact, 
many  topers  taper  off  after  a  long  debauch 
with  coffee  containing  small  amounts  of  al- 
coholic beverages.  Considering  its  ability 
to  counteract  the  slow  intoxication  of  to- 
bacco, it  may  be  inferred  that  coffee  is 
indispensable  for  hard  smokers. 

In  general,  the  medicinal  value  of  coffee 
may  be  said  to  be  directly  attributable  to 
its  caffein  content,  although  its  antiseptic 
properties  are  dependent  upon  the  volatile 
aromatic  constituents.     Its  function  is  to 

•'■'2  Thnrber,    F.    B.      Coffee   from    Plantation    to    Cup 
(p.   182). 

"^  Health  and  Lonrieviti)  Through  Rational  Diet. 

"*  Keable.  B.  B.  Coffee  (p.  98). 

==  Bulson.   A.   E.   J.     Am.   Jour.    Opthal.,   1905    (vol. 
xxii  :   pp  .00-64) 

Handhool;  of  Medical  Science  (vol.  Hi:  d.  190i.-t 

"•KealilP.  B.  B.     Coffee  (p.  98). 

raise  and  to  sustain  vitalities  which  have 
been  lowered  by  disease  or  drugs.  Al- 
though some  of  the  cures  attributed  to  it 
are  probably  purely  traditional;  still,  it 
must  be  admitted,  that  by  utilizing  its 
stimulating  qualities  in  many  illnesses  the 
patient  may  be  carried  past  the  danger 
point  into  convalescence. 

Physiological  Action  of  "Caffetannic 

It  has  been  demonstrated  in  chapter  XVII 
that-  there  is  no  definite  compound  ' '  caffe- 
tannic  acid,"  and  that  the  heterogeneous 
material  designated  by  this  name  does  not 
possess  the  properties  of  tanning.  Further 
substantiation  of  this  contention,  and  more 
evidence  of  the  innocuous  character  of  the 
tannin-like  compounds  in  coffee,  are  con- 
tained in  the  testimony  of  Sollmann." 
"Tannins  precipitate  proteins,  gelatine, 
and  connective  tissue,  and  thus  act  as 
astringents,  styptics,  and  antiseptics.  The 
different  tannins  are  not  equivalent  in 
these  respects.  Some  (which  are  perhaps 
misnamed)  such  as  those  of  coffee  and  ipe- 
cac, are  practically  non-precipitant.  .  .  . 
On  the  whole,  one  may  say  that  the  small 
quantities  of  tannin  ordinarily  taken  with 
the  food  and  drink  are  not  injurious,  but 
that  large  quantities  (excessive  tea  drink- 
ing) are  certainly  deleterious.  The  tannin 
of  coffee  is  scarcely  astringent,  and,  there- 
fore, lacks  this  action,"  which  is  proven  by 
the  fact  that  it  does  not  precipitate  pro- 

"It  has  been  claimed  that  'caffetannic 
acid'  injuries  the  stomach  walls,  but  there 
is  no  evidence  that  this  is  so."''  Wiley," 
in  reporting  some  of  his  experiments,  says : 
"Apparently  the  efforts  to  saddle  the  in- 
jurious effects  of  coffee-drinking  upon  caf- 
fetannic  acid  in  any  form  in  which  it  may 
exist  in  the  coffee-extract  are  not  supported 
by  these  recent  data."  The  fact  that  tan- 
nins retard  intestinal  peristalsis,  whereas 
coffee  promotes  this  digestive  action,  lends 
further  proof  to  the  non-existence  of  tannin 
in  coffee.  These  statements  by  eminent 
authorities  may  be  consolidated  into  the 
verity  that  there  is  no  tannin,  in  the  true 
sense  of  the  term,  in  coffee:  and  that  the 
constituents  of  the  coffee  brew  which  have 
been  so  designated  are  physiologically 

^-  A   Manual  of  Pharmacology    (pp.   137.  215). 
"Hawk.  Philip  B.     Loc.  cit.    (see  22). 
'*  Good  Housekeevinp.  Oct..  1917   (p.  144). 



Physiological  Action  of  Caffeol 

The  evidence  regarding  the  physiological 
action  of  caffeol  is  contradictory  in  many 
cases.  J.  Lehmann  found  in  1853,  that  the 
"erapyrenmatie  oil  of  coffee,  caffeorie,"  is 
active ;  but  more  recent  investigations  have 
yielded  results  at  variance  with  this. 
Hare  and  Marshall"*  believe  that  they 
proved  it  to  be  active.  E.  T.  Reichert," 
however,  found  it  inactive  in  dogs,  except- 
ing in  so  far  that,  when  given  intraven- 
ously, it  mechanically  interfered  with  the 
circulation.  With  it  Binz"'  Avas  able  to  pro- 
duce in  man  only  feeble  nervous  excite- 
ment, with  restlessness  and  increase  in  the 
rate  and  depth  of  respirations. 

The  general  effects,  as  summated  by  Soll- 
mann"'  are,  for  small  closes,  pleasant  stimu- 
lation ;  increased  respiration ;  increased 
heart  rate,  but  fall  of  blood  pressure ;  mus- 
cular restlessness ;  insomnia ;  perspiration  ; 
congestion;  for  large  doses,  increased  peri- 
stalsis and  defecation  :  depression  of  respira- 
tion and  heart ;  fall  of  blood  pressure  and 
temperature;  paralytic  phenomena.  It  is 
doubtful  whether  the  quantities  taken  in 
the  beverage  cause  any  direct  central 

Investigations  have  also  been  conducted 
with  the  various  known  constituents  of  this 
"coffee  oil."  Erdmann"*  found  that  in 
doses  of  between  0.5  and  0.6  gram  per  kilo 
of  body  weight,  furane-alcohol  kills  a  rab- 
bit by  respiratory  paralysis;  and  that  the 
symptoms  of  poisoning  are  a  short  primary 
excitement,  salivation,  diarrhea,  respira- 
tory depression,  continuous  fall  of  the  body 
temperature,  and  death  from  collapse  with 
respiratory  failure.  In  man,  doses  of  from 
0.6  to  1  gram  of  furane-alcohol  increased 
respiratory  activity  without  producing 
other  symptoms. 

However,  man  is  not  as  susceptible  to 
these  compounds  as  are  the  smaller  animals. 
But  even  if  their  relative  susceptibility  be 
assumed  to  be  the  same,  the  lethal  dose 
given  the  rabbit  is  equivalent  to  giving  a 
140-pound  man  one  dose  containing  the 
furane-alcohol  content  of  over  5,000  cups  of 
coffee.  Thus,  in  view  of  the  very  apparent 
minuteness  of  the  quantity  of  this  com- 
pound present  in  one  cup  of  coffee,  together 
with  the  fact  that  it  is  not  cumulative  in  its 
physiological  action,  the. importance  of  its 

»«J/ed.  News,   1886  (p.  52). 

"J/ed.  News.   1890  (n.   56). 

'-Centr.  In.  Med..   1900  (p.  21). 

'^  Loc.   cit.     (see  57 1. 

"^  Arch.  Exper.  Path.  Phnrm..   1902  (bd.  48). 

toxic  properties  becomes  very  inconsequen- 
tial to  even  the  most  profuse  and  inveterate 
coffee  drinkers. 

Burmann"  reported  the  volatile  principle 
to  have  a  reducing  action  on  the  hemo- 
globin; a  depressing  effect  on  the  blood 
pressure ;  a  depressant  action  on  the  central 
nervous  system,  disturbing  the  cardiac 
rhythm;  and  an  action  on  the  respiratory 
centers,  causing  dyspnea.  The  report  of 
Sayre""  regarding  the  minimum  lethal  dose 
of  the  concentrated  combined  active  prin- 
ciples of  coffee  obtained  from  dry  distilla- 
tion is,  for  frogs,  administered  intraperi- 
toneally  and  subcutaneously,  0.03  cubic 
centimeters  per  gram  of  body  weight ;  for 
guinea  pigs  per  stomach,  7.0  cc.  per  kilo- 
gram of  body  weight,  and  administered  in- 
travenously and  intraperitoneally,  about 
1.0  cc.  per  kilogram. 

This  evidence  regarding  the  physiologi- 
cal action  of  caffeol  can  not  in  any  wise  be 
construed  to  indicate  a  harmfulness  of  cof- 
fee. The  percentage  of  these  volatile  sub- 
stances in  a  cup  of  coffee  infusion  is  so  low 
as  to  be  relatively  negligible  in  its  action. 
And,  again,  the  caffein  content  of  the  brew, 
as  will  be  seen,  tends  to  counteract  any 
possible  desultory  effects  of  the  caffeol. 

General   Physiological   Action   of    Caffein 

More  attention  has  been  given  to  the 
study  of  the  physiological  action  of  caffein' 
than  to  that  of  the  other  individual  con- 
stituents of  coffee.  Since  certain  of  the 
effects  of  coffee  drinking  have  been  attribu- 
ted to  this  alkaloid,  a  brief  presentment 
of  the  pharmacology  of  caffein  will  be  given 
as  an  exposition  of  the  many  statements 
made  regarding  it.  According  to  the  Brit- 
ish Pharmaceutical  Codex"" : 

Caffein  exerts  thi-ee  important  actions:  (1)  on 
the  central  nervous  system:  (2)  on  muscles,  in- 
cluding cardiac:  and  (3)  on  the  kidney.  The 
action  on  the  central  nervous  system  is  mainly 
ou  that  part  of  the  hrain  connected  with  psychi- 
cal functions.  It  produces  a  condition  of  wake- 
fulness and  increased  mental  activity.  The 
interpretation  of  sensory  impressions  is  more 
perfect  and  correct,  and  thought  becomes  clearer 
and  quicker.  With  larger  doses  of  caffein  the 
action  extends  from  the  psychical  areas  to  the 
motor  area  and  to  the  cord,  and  the  patient  be- 
comes at  first  restless  and  noisy,  and  later  may 
show  convulsive  movements. 

Caffein  facilitates  the  performance  of  all 
forms  of  physical  work,  and  actually  increases 
the   total    work    which    can   be   obtained   from 

"^  Bull.  gen.  therap.  (vol.  clxvl :  p.  379). 

Zentr.  Biochem.  Biophya.  (vol.  xvl :  p.  79). 
""Bull.  Pharm..  1916  (vol.  xxx  :  pp.  276-78). 
•^1907    (p.    176). 



muscle.  On  the  normal  man,  however,  it  is  im- 
possible to  say  how  much  of  the  action  on  the 
muscle  is  central  and  how  much  peripheral,  but, 
as  fatigue  shows  itself  first  by  an  action  on  the 
center,  it  is  probable  that  the  action  of  eaffeiu 
in  diminishing  fatigue  is  mainly  central.  Caf- 
fein  accelerates  the  pulse  and  slightly  raises 
blood  pressure.  It  has  no  action  in  any  way 
resembling  digitalis ;  by  increasing  the  irritabil- 
ity of  the  cardiac  muscle,  its  prolonged  use 
rather  tends  to  fatigue  than  to  rest  the  heart. 

Caffein  and  its  allies  form  a  very  important 
group  of  diuretics.  The  urine  is  generally  of  a 
lower  specific  gravity  than  normal,  since  it  con- 
tains a  lesser  proportion  of  salt  and  urea ;  but 
the  total  excretion  of  solids,  both  as  regards 
urea,  uric  acid,  and  salts,  is  increased.  Caf- 
fein, by  exciting  the  medulla,  produces  an  initial 
vaso-constriction  of  the  kidneys,  which  tends  at 
first  to  retard  the  flow  of  urine.  So  in  recent 
years,  other  drugs  liave  been  introduced,  allies 
of  caffein,  which  act  like  it  on  the  kidneys,  but 
are  without  the  stimulant  action  on  the  brain. 
Theobromine  is  such  a  drug. 

Another  authority  states  that"^: 

One  of  the  most  constant  symptoms  produced 
in  man  by  over-doses  of  caffein  is  excessive  diu- 
resis, and  experiments  made  upon  the  lower  ani- 
mals show  that  caffein  acts  as  a  diuretic  not 
only  by  influencing  the  circulation,  but  also  by 
directly  affecting  the  secreting  cells,  the  proba- 
bilities being  in  favor  of  the  flrst  of  these 
theories  of  action.  According  to  Schroeder,  not 
only  the  water  but  also  the  solids  of  the  urine 
are  increased. 

The  question  whether  caffein  has  an  influ- 
ence upon  tissue  changes  and  the  consequent 
nitrogenous  elimination  can  not  be  considered  as 
distinctly  answered,  though  the  most  probable 
conclusion  is  that  the  action  of  caffein  upon  urea 
elimination  and  upon  general  nutrition  is  not 
direct  or  pronounced.  While  the  therapeutic 
dose  of  caffein  is  broken  up  in  the  body  with 
the  formation  of  methylxanthin, '  which  escapes 
with  the  urine,  the  toxic  dose  is  at  least  in 
part  eliminated  by  the  kidney  unchanged. 

The  metabolism  of  the  methyl  purins, 
of  which  group  caffein  is  a  member,  ap- 
pears to  vary  with  the  quantity  ingested. 
The  manner  in  which  the  methyl  group  is 
liberated  by  the  cell  protoplasm  is  said"'  to 
determine  the  amount  of  stimulus  which 
the  tissues  receive  from  these  substances. 
The  xanthin  group  is  almost  without  any 
excitatory  action,  and  its  metabolic  end 
products  are  constant.  Perhaps  the  varia- 
tion in  the  excretions  of  unchanged  methyl- 
purins  is  dependent  upon  the  amount  of 
total  reactive  energy  they  invoke. 

Baldi'"  found  that  caffein  in  small  doses 
increases  muscular  excitability  in  dogs  and 
frogs.  The  spinal  and  muscular  hyperic 
excitability  produced  by  caffein  is,  in  his 

«» D'.  8.  Dispensatory,  19th  ed.    (p.   253). 
"Hall.    I.    W.      The   Purin   Bodies    of  Food    Stuffs, 
1904    (p.   98). 
^*  Terapia  moderna,  Dec,  1891. 

opinion,  due  to  the  methyl  groups  attached 
to  the  xanthin  nucleus.  Fredericq"  states 
that  caffein  increases  the  irritability  of  the 
cardiac  vagus  and  accelerates  the  appear- 
ance of  pseudofatigue  of  the  vagus  which 
is  produced  by  prolonged  stimulation  of  the 
nerve.  The  action  of  caffein  on  the  mam- 
malian heart  has  also  been  investigated  by 
Pilcher,"  who  found  that,  following  the 
rapid  intravenous  injection  of  caffein,  there 
is  an  acute  fall  of  blood  pressure ;  and  with 
a  maximal  quantity  of  caffein,  10  milli- 
grams per  kilogram,  the  cardiac  volume 
and  the  amplitude  of  the  excursions  are 
usually  unchanged.  With  larger  quanti- 
ties, the  volume  progressively  increases  and 
the  amplitude  of  the  excursion  decreases. 

Salant"  found  that  the  intravenous  injec- 
tion of  15  to  25  milligrams  of  caffein  per 
kilogram  in  animals  was  followed  by  a  fall 
of  blood  pressure  amounting  to  7  to  35  per- 
cent in  most  cases,  which  was  transitory, 
although  in  some  animals  it  remained  un- 
changed. A  moderate  rise  was  rarely  ob- 
served. Caffein  aids  the  action  of  nitrates, 
acetanilid,  ethyl  alcohol  and  amyl  alcohol, 
and  increases  the  toxicity  of  barium  chlo- 
rid.  In  a  very  thorough  study  of  the 
toxicity  of  caffein  which  he  made  with 
Reiger,"  a  greater  toxicity  of  about  15  to 
20  percent  by  subcutaneous  injection  than 
by  mouth,  and  but  about  one-half  this 
when  injected  peritoneally,  was  found. 
Intramuscularly  the  toxicity  is  30  percent 
greater  than  subcutaneously.  In  making 
the  tests  on  animals,  they  found  that  in- 
dividuality, season,  age,  species,  and  certain 
pathological  conditions  caused  variation  in 
the  toxic  effect  of  the  administered  caffein. 
Low  protein  diet  tends  to  decrease  resist- 
ance to  caffein  in  dogs,  and  a  milk  or  meat 
diet  does  the  same  for  growing  dogs.  Caf- 
fein is  not  cumulative  for  the  rabbit  or  dog. 

As  a  result  of  experiments  on  the  action 
of  caffein  on  the  bronchiospasm  caused  by 
peptone  (Witte),  silk  peptone,  B-imidoazo- 
lyl-ethylamin.  curare,  vasodilation,  and 
mucarin,  Pal"  concluded  that  caffein  stimu- 
lates certain  branches  of  the  peripheral 
sympathetic  and  is  thus  enabled  to  widen 
the  bronchi  or  remove  bronchiospasm. 

According  to  Lapicque'",  caffein  produces 
a  change  in  the  excitability  of  the  medulla 
of  the  frog  similar  to  that  produced  by  rais- 

^^  Arch,  intern,  physiol.    (vol.  xiii :  pp.   107-14). 
"/.  Pharmachol.    (vol.   iii  :   p.   609). 
"./.  Pharmachol.    (vol.  iii:  p.  468). 
''*  J.  Pharmachol.    (vol.  Iii:  p.  455). 
"  Wien.  Deut.  med.   Wochenschr.    (vol.   xxxviii :   pp. 
1774  76). 

"  Comp.  rend.  soc.  biol.    (vol.  Ixxiv  :  p.   32). 




ing  the  temperature  of  the  nerve  centers. 
Schiirhoff''  has  pointed  out  that  the  con- 
tinued use  of  large  quantities  of  caffein  will 
produce  cardiac  irregularity  and  sleepless- 

Cochrane"  cited  three  cases  where  caffein 
was  hypodermically  administered  in  cases 
of  acute  indigestion,  etc.,  and  concluded 
that  the  cases  prove  that  caffein,  or  a  com- 
pound containing  it  as  a  synergist,  does 
indirectly  make  the  injection  of  morphia  a 
safe  proceeding,  and  directly  increases  the 
force  of  the  heart  and  arterial  tension. 
However,  Wood'"  found  that  medium  doses 
of  caffein  do  not  produce  any  marked  rise 
in  blood  pressure,  and  cause  a  reduction  in 
pulse  rate.  He  attributes  the  contradictory 
results  which  prior  investigations  gave,  to 
employment  of  unusually  large  doses  and 
to  inaccurate  experimental  methods. 

Caffein  was  found  by  Nonnenbruch  and 
Szyszka""  to  have  a  slight  action  toward  ac- 
celerating the  coagulation  time  of  the  blood, 
being  active  over  several  hours.  It  inhibits 
coagulation  in  vitrio.  Its  action  in  the  body 
apparently  rests  on  an  increase  of  the  fibrin 
ferment.  There  is  no  reason  to  believe  that 
the  behavior  is  dependent  on  a  toxic  action, 
but  there  is  probably  an  action  on  the 
spleen ;  for  in  several  rabbits  from  which 
the  spleen  was  removed,  no  action  was 

Experiments  conducted  by  Levinthal" 
gave  no  positive  information  as  to  the  for- 
mation of  uric  acid  from  caffein  in  the 
human  organism.  The  elimination  of  caf- 
fein has  also  been  studied  by  Salant  and 
Reiger"',  who  found  that  larger  amounts  of 
caffein  are  demethylated  in  carnivora  than 
in  herbivora,  and  resistance  to  caffein  is 
inversely  as  demethylation,  caffein  being 
much  more  toxic  in  the  former  class.  In  a 
similar  investigation,  Zenetz"^  observed  that 
caffein  is  very  slightly  eliminated  from  the 
system  by  the  kidneys,  and  that  its  action 
on  the  heart  is  cumulative;  therefore  he 
concludes  that  it  is  contra-indicated  in  all 
renal  diseases,  in  arterio-sclerosis,  and  in 
cardiac  affections  secondary  to  them.  The 
inaccuracy  of  these  conclusions  regarding 
the  non-elimination  of  caffein  and  those  of 

"  D.  A.  Apoth.-Ztg.,  1911-12  (vol.  xxxii :  p.  4). 

"J/ed.  Record,  N.  Y.,  1916  (vol.  xxx  :  p.  68). 

^Therap.  Gazette.  1912   (vol.  xxxvi :  pp.  6-13). 

"  Deut.  Arch.  Klin.  Med.,  1920  (vol.  cxxxiv  :  pp. 

"Z.  phpsioi.  Chem.     (vol.  Ixxvii :  p.  259). 

*>  Bull.  Bur.  of  Chem.   (no.  157). 

»» Pharm.  J.,  Mar.  31,  1900,  through  Brit.  Med.  J.. 
Bpit.,  1900  (vol.  i:  p.  35). 

Albanese,"  Bondzynski  and  Gottlieb", 
Leven'",  Schurtzkwer",  and  Minkowski'',  has 
been  shown  by  Mendel  and  Wardelf,  who 
point  out  that  many  of  these  experimenters 
worked  with  dogs,  in  which  the  chief  end- 
product  of  purin  metabolism  is  not  uric 
acid,  but  allantoin.  They  observe  that  the 
increase  in  excretion  of  uric  acid  after  the 
addition  of  caffein  to  the  diet  seems  to  be 
proportional  to  the  quantity  of  caffein 
taken,  and  equivalent  to  from  10  to  15  per 
cent  of  the  ingested  caffein.  The  remainder 
of  the  caffein  is  probably  eliminated  as 

Regarding  the  alleged  cumulative  action 
of  caffein,  Pletzer",  Liebreich,"  Szekacs'^ 
Pawinski,"'  and  Seifert"*  all  concluded  from 
their  investigations  that  the  action  of  caf- 
fein is  usually  of  brief  duration,  and  does 
not  have  a  cumulative  effect,  because  of 
its  rapid  elimination;  so  that  there  is  no 
danger  of  intoxication. 

Dr.  Oswald  Schmiedeberg  says: 

Caffein  is  a  means  of  refreshing  bodily  and 
mental  activity,  so  that  this  may  be  prolonged 
when  the  condition  of  fatigue  has  already  begun 
to  produce  restraint,  and  to  call  for  more  severe 
exertion  of  the  will,  a  state  which,  as  is  well 
known,  is  painful  or  disagreeable. 

This  advantageous  effect,  in  conditions  of 
fatigue,  of  small  quantities  of  caffein,  as  it  is 
commonly  taken  in  coffee  or  tea,  might,  how- 
ever, by  continued  use  become  injurious,  if  it 
were  in  all  cases  necessarily  exerted ;  that  is 
to  say,  if  by  oaffein  the  muscles  and  nerves 
were  directly  spurred  on  to  increased  activity. 
This  is  not  the  case,  however,-  and  just  in  this 
lies  the  peculiarity  of  the  effect  in  question. 
The  muscles  and  the  simultaneously-acting 
nerves  only  under  the  influence  of  caffein  re- 
spond more  easily  to  the  impulse  of  the  will, 
but  do  not  develop  spontaneous  activity ;  that 
is,  without  the  co-operation  of  the  will. 

The  character  of  oaffein  action  makes  plain 
that  these  food  materials  do  not  injure  the  or- 
ganism by  their  caffein  content,  and  do  not  by 
continued  use  cause  any  chronic  form  of  illness. 

According  to  Dr.  Holl  ing  worth's"'  deduc- 
tions, caffein  is  the  only  known  stimulant 
that  quickens  the  functions  of  the  human 

^  Arch.  f.  exper.  Path.  u.  Pharmakol.,  1895  (vol. 
XXXV  :   p.  449). 

^Ibid.,  1895  (vol.  xxxvi:  p.  45).  IMd  ,  1896  (vol. 
xxxvii :  p.  385). 

'^  Arch,  de  physiol.  norm,  et  path.,  1868  (vol.  i:  p. 

*'  Inaug.  Diss.,  Konigsberg,  1882. 

'^  Arch,  f,  exper.  Path.  u.  Pharmakol,  1898  (vol. 
xli:   p.   375). 

"''Jour.  Am.  Med.  Assoc,  1917  (vol.  Ixviii :  pp.  1805- 

^Berliner  Klin.  Wochenschrift.  1889    (no.  40). 

0^  Encijc.  dcr  Therapie,  1896   (vol.  i). 

"Pester,  Med.-Chir.  Presse,  1885   (no.  39). 
Orrosi  Hetilap,  1885   (nos.  32-33). 

**  Zeitschrift  f.  Klin.   Med..  1893    (vol.  xxii'). 

"  Mitt,     aus    der     Wurzburger    Med.     Klinik,     1885 
(vol.   i). 

"-Veto  York  Herald,  Mar.  24.  1912. 



body  without  a  subsequent  period  of  de- 
pression. His  explanation  for  this  behavior 
is  that  "caffein  acts  as  a  lubricator  for  the 
nervous  system,  having  an  actual  physical 
action  ^yhereby  the  nerves  are  enabled  to 
do  their  work  more  easily.  Other  stimu- 
lants act  on  the  nerves  themselves,  causing 
a  waste  of  energy,  and  consequently,  ac- 
cording to  nature's  law,  a  period  of  de- 
pression follows,  and  the  whole  process 
tends  to  injure  the  human  machine."  In 
not  a  single  instance  during  his  experi- 
ments at  Columbia  University  did  depres- 
sion follow  the  use  of  caffein. 

Of  course,  cafifein,  like  any  other  alka- 
loid, if  used  to  excess  will  prove  harmful, 
due  to  the  over-stimulation  induced  by  it. 
However,  taken  in  moderate  quantities,  as 
in  coffee  and  tea  by  normal  persons,  the 
conclusions  of  Hirsch™  may  be  taken  as  cor- 
rect, namely :  caffein  is  a  mild  stimulant, 
without  direct  effect  on  the  muscles,  the 
effect  resulting  from  its  own  destruction  and 
being  temporary  and  transitory;  it  is  not 
a  depressant  either  initially  or  eventually ; 
and  is  not  habit-forming  but  a  true  stimu- 
lant, as  distinguished  from  sedatives  and 
habit-forming  drugs. 

Caffein  and  Mental  and  Motor  Efficiency 

The  literature  on  the  influence  of  caffein 
on  fatigue  has  been  summarized,  and  the 
older  experiments  clearly  pointed  out,  by 
Rivers"'.  A  summary  of  the  most  important 
researches  Avhich  have  had  as  their  object 
the  determination  of  the  influence  of  caf- 
fein on  mental  and  motor  processes  has 
been  made  by  HolIingworth°*,  from  whose 
monograph  much  of  the  following  material 
has  been  taken. 

Increase  in  the  force  of  muscular  con- 
tractions was  demonstrated  in  1892  by  De 
Sarlo  and  Barnardini""  for  caffein  and  by 
Kraepelin  for  tea.  These  investigators  used 
the  dynamometer  as  a  measure  of  the  force 
of  contraction ;  however,  most  of  the  sub- 
sequent work  on  motor  processes  has  been 
by  the  ergographic  method.  Ugolino 
Mosso™,  Koch"\  Rossi'";  Sobieranski"'^ 
Hoch  and  Kraepelin,'""  Destree,'°°  Benedi- 

^  Tea  &  Coffee  Trade  Jour.,  1914  (vol,  xxvi :  pp. 

»'  The  Influence  of  Alcohol  and  Other  Drugs  on 

98  "The  Influence  of  Caffeine  on  Mental  and  Motor 
Efficiency."     Archives  of  Psychology,  1912   (no.  22). 

^  Revista  sper.  di.  Freniatria  (vol.  xviii :  p.   1). 

^ooArchiv.  ital.  de  Biol..  1893   (vol.  xix  :  p.  241). 

101  Inaug.  Diss.,  Marburs.  1894. 

^"^  Revista  sper.  di  Freniatria.  1S94  Cvol.  xx  :  D.  458). 

w3  CentralU.  f.  Physiol.,  1896  (vol.  x  :  p.  126). 

■^'>*  Psychol.  Arhrit..  1S96   (vol.  1:  p.  378). 

^°^Jour.  Med.  de  Brvxellcs,  1897. 

centi,"'"  Schumberg,"*'  Hellsten/"'  and  Jo- 
teyko,"*°  have  all  observed  a  stimulating  ef- 
fect of  caffein  on  ergographic  performance. 
Only  one  investigation  of  those  reported  by 
Rivers  failed  to  find  an  appreciable  effect, 
that  of  Oseretzkowsky  and  Kraepelin,"" 
while  Fere"'  affirms  that  the  effect  is  only 
an  acceleration  of  fatigue. 

In  spite  of  the  general  agreement  as  to 
the  presence  of  stimulation  there  is  some 
dissension  regarding  whether  only  the 
height  of  the  contractions  or  their  number 
or  both  are  affected.  As  might  be  expected 
from  the  great  diversity  of  methods  em- 
ployed, the  quantitative  results  also  have 
varied  considerably.  Carefully  controlled 
experiments  by  Rivers  and  Webber""  "con- 
firm in  general  the  conclusion  reached  by  , 
all  previous  workers  that  caffein  stimulates  ■ 
the  capacity  for  muscular  work;  and  it  is 
clear  that  this  increase  is  not  due  to  the 
various  psychical  factors  of  interest,  sen- 
sory stimulation,  and  suggestion,  which  the 
experiments  were  especially  designed  to  ex- 
clude. The  greatest  increase  .  .  .  falls, 
however,  far  short  of  that  described  by 
some  previous  w^orkers,  such  as  Mosso ;  and 
it  is  probable  that  part  of  the  effect  de- 
scribed by  these  workers  was  due  to  the  fac- 
tors in  question." 

Investigations  of  mental  processes  under 
the  influence  of  caffein  have  been  much  less 
frequent,  most  notable  among  which  are 
those  of  Dietl  and  Vintschgau,"'  Dehio,'" 
Kraepelin  and  Hoch,"''  Ach,"'  Lang- 
f eld,"'  and  Rivers."'  Kraepelin""  observes : 
"We  know  that  tea  and  coffee  increase 
our  mental  efficiency  in  a  definite  way,  and 
we  use  these  as  a  means  of  overcoming  men- 
tal fatigue  .  .  .  In  the  morning  these 
drinks  remove  the  last  traces  of  sleepiness 
and  in  the  evening  when  we  still  have  intel- 
'  lectual  tasks  to  dispose  of  they  aid  in  keep- 
ing us  awake. ' '  Their  use  induces  a  greater 
briskness  and  clearness  of  thought,  after 

^'^  Moleschott's   Untersuchungen,  1899    ^vol.   xvi :   p. 

-"' Archiv.     f.    Anat.    u.    Physiol.     (Physiol.    AMh,), 
Suppl.  Bd.,  1899  (p.  289). 

^'^  Skand.  Arch.  f.  Physiol.,  1904   (vol.  xvi:  p.  197). 

109  Travaux  du  Lah.   de  Physiol.  Inst.   Solraii,   1904 
(vol.  vi:  p.  361). 

^"^^  Psychol.  Arbeit.,  1901  Cvol.  iii :  p.  617). 

"1 C.  R.   de  la  Soc.   de  Biol.   Paris,   1901    (pp.    593- 

^^-Op.   at.     (p.  38).      (See  97.) 

^'^^  PflUf/ers  Archiv.,  1877  (vol.  xvi:  p  .316). 

^^*  Diss..  Dorpat..   1887. 

'-P  Psychol.  Arbeit.,  1896  (vol.  i:  p.  431). 

'-^^  Psychol.  Arbeit..   1901    Cpp.   203-289). 

'^"Psychol.  Rev.,  1911   (vol.  xviil :  p.  424). 
."^Op,  at      (see  97). 
■  "»  Ueber  die  Beeinfliissung  einfacher  vsvchischer  Vor- 
rjilngc  diirch  einige  Arzeneimittel  (p.  224). 



^'hich  secondary  fatigue  is  either  entirely 
ibsent  or  is  very  slight. 
Tendency    toward    habituation    of    the 
jpyschic    functions     to     caffein    has    been 
[studied     by     Wedemeyer'™,     who     found 
Hhat  in  the  regular  administration  of  it  in  /■ 
the  course  of  four  to  five  weeks  there  is  a/ 
measurable    weakening    of    its    action    on 
psychic  processes. 

Rivers"',  who  seems  to  have  been  the  first 
to  appreciate  fully  the  genuine  and  prac- 
tical importance  of  thoroughly  controlling 
'the  psychological  factors  that  are  likely  to 
play  a  role  in  such  experiments,  concludes 
that  "caffein  increases  the  capacity  for  both 
muscular  and  mental  work,  this  stimulating 
action  persisting  for  a  considerable  time 
after  the  substance  has  been  taken  without 
there  being  any  evidence,  with  moderate 
doses,  of  reaction  leading  to  diminished 
capacity  for  work,  the  substance  thus  really 
diminishing  and  not  merely  obscuring  the 
effects  of  fatigue. ' ' 

Subsequent  to  these  investigations  was 
that  of  Hollingworth'"  which  is  at  once  the 
most   comprehensive,   carefully  conducted, 

of  individuals  for  a  long  period  of  time, 
under  controlled  conditions;  to  study  the 
way  in  which  this  influence  is  modified  by 
such  factors  as  the  age,  sex,  weight,  idio- 
syncrasy, and  previous  caffein  habits  of  the 
subjects,  and  the  degree  to  which  it  depends 
on  the  amount  of  the  dose  and  the  time  and 
conditions  of  its  administration ;  and  to  in- 
vestigate the  influence  of  caffein  on  the  gen- 
eral health,  quality  and  amount  of  sleep, 
and  food  habits  of  the  individual  tested. 

To  obtain  this  information  the  chief  tests 
employed  were  the  steadiness,  tapping,  co- 
ordination, typewriting,  color-naming,  cal- 
culations, opposites,  cancellation,  and  dis- 
crimination tests,  the  familiar  size-weight 
illusion,  quality  and  amount  of  sleep,  and 
general  health  and  feeling  of  well-being. 
A  brief  review  of  the  results  of  these  tests 
is  given  in  the  tabular  summary. 

From  these  Hollingworth  concluded 
that  caffein  influenced  all  the  tests  in  a 
given  group  in  much  the  same  way.  The 
effect  on  motor  processes  comes  quickly  and 
is  transient,  while  the  effect  on  higher  men- 
tal processes  comes  more  slowly  and  is  more 

Effect  of  Caffein  ox  Mental  and  Motor  Processes 
Schematic  Summary  of  All  Results 

St.  =  Stimulation.      0: 

Motor  speed 


Xo    effect.      Ret.  =  Retardation. 

PRIMARY    effect 

Small       Medium    Large 









1.  Tapping     

2.  Three-hole     

3.  Typewriting 

(a)  Speed    

(b)  Errors     

4.  Color-naming    

5.  Opposites    

6.  Calculation     

7.  Discrimination  reaction  time 

8.  Cancellation   

9.  S-W   illusion    

10.  Steadiness     

11.  Sleep  quality    Individual    differences    de- 

12.  Sleep   quantity    pending    on    body    weight 

13.  General  health    and     conditions     of      ad- 


Secondary  Action  Time 
Reaction  Hours 


.75  - 1.5 
1  -1.5 

in  Hours 



Fewer  for  all  doses 
St.  St.  St. 

St.  St.  St. 

St.  St.  St. 

Ret.  0"  St. 

Ret.  ?  St. 

0  0  0 




Results  show  only  in  total 
day"s  work 
2-2.5  3-4 

2.5  -  3  Next  day 

2.5  Next  day 

,2-4  Next  day 

3  -  5  No  data 

2  ? 


and  scientifically  accurate  one  yet  per- 
formed. He  employed  an  ample  number  of 
subjects  in  his  experimentation ;  and  both 
his  subjects,  and  the  assistants  who  re- 
corded the  observations,  were  in  no  wise 
cognizant  of  the  character  or  quantity  of 
the  dose  of  caffein  administered,  the  other 
experimental  conditions  being  similarly 
rigorous  and  extensive. 

The  purpose  of  his  study  was  to  deter- 
mine both  qualitatively  and  quantitatively 
the  effect  of  caffein  on  a  wide  range  of 
mental  and  motor  processes,  by  studying 
the  performance  of  a  considerable  number 

^  Arch.  exp.  Path.  Pharm.,  1920  (vol.  Ixxxv :  pp. 
339-58) . 

^^^Op.   cit.   (p.   50K      (See  97.) 
^^  Loc.  cit.    (see  95). 

persistent.  Whether  this  result  is  due  to 
quicker  reaction  on  the  part  of  motor- 
nerve  centers,  or  whether  it  is  due  to  a 
direct  peripheral  effect  on  the  muscle  tissue 
is  uncertain,  but  the  indications  are  that 
caffein  has  a  direct  action  on  the  muscle 
tissue,  and  that  this  effect  is  fairly  rapid  in 
appearance.  The  two  principal  factors 
which  seem  to  modify  the  degree  of  caffein 
influence  are  body  weight  and  presence  of 
food  in  the  stomach  at  the  time  of  ingestion 
of  the  caffein.  In  practically  all  of  the 
tests  the  magnitude  of  the  caffein  influence 
varied  inversely  with  the  body  weight,  ^nd 
was  most  marked  when  taken  on  an  empty 
stomach  or  without  food  substance.  This 
variance  in  action  was  also  true  for  both 



the  quality  and  amount  of  sleep,  and 
seemed  to  be  accentuated  when  taken  on 
successive  days;  but  it  did  not  appear  to 
depend  on  the  age,  sex,  or  previous  caffein 
habits  of  the  individual.  Those  who  had 
given  up  the  use  of  caffein-eontaining  bev- 
erages during  the  experiment  did  not  re- 
port any  craving  for  the  drinks  as  such,  but 
several  expressed  a  feeling  of  annoyance  at 
not  having  some  sort  of  a  warm  drink  for 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  he  also  found 
a  complete  absence  of  any  trace  of  second- 
ary depression  or  of  any  sort  of  secondary 
reaction  consequent  upon  the  stimulation 
which  was  so  strikingly  present  in  many  of 
the  tests.  The  production  of  an  increased 
capacity  for  work  was  clearly  demonstrated, 
the  same  being  a  genuine  drug  effect,  and 
not  merely  the  effect  of  excitement,  interest, 
sensory  stimulation,  expectation,  or  sugges- 
tion. However,  this  study  does  not  show 
whether  this  increased  capacity  comes  from 
a  new  supply  of  energy  introduced  or  ren- 
dered available  by  the  drug  action,  or 
whether  energy  already  available  comes  to 
be  employed  more  effectively,  or  whether 
fatigue  sensations  are  weakened  and  the  in- 
dividual's standard  of  performance  thereby 
raised.  But  they  do  show  that  from  a 
standpoint  of  mental  and  productive  physi- 
cal efficiency  "the  widespread  consumption 
of  caffeinic  beverages,  even  under  circum- 

stances in  which  and  by  individuals  for 
whom  the  use  of  other  drugs  is  stringently 
prohibited  or  decried,  is  justified." 


Brief  summarization  of  the  information 
available  on  the  pharmacology  of  coffee  in- 
dicates that  it  should  be  used  in  modera- 
tion, particularly  by  children,  the  permis- 
sible quantity  varying  with  the  individual 
and  ascertainable  only  through  personal 
observation.  Used  in  moderation,  it  will 
prove  a  valuable  stimulant  increasing  per- 
sonal efficiency  in  mental  and  physical 
labor.  Its  action  in  the  alimentary  regime 
is  that  of  an  adjuvant  food,  aiding  diges- 
tion, favoring  increased  flow  of  the  diges- 
tive juices,  promoting  intestinal  peristalsis, 
and  not  tanning  any  portion  of  the  diges- 
tive organs.  It  reacts  on  the  kidneys  as  a 
diuretic,  and  increases  the  excretion  of  uric 
acid,  which,  however,  is  not  to  be  taken  as 
evidence  that  it  is  harmful  in  gout.  Coffee 
has  been  indicated  as  a  specific  for  various 
diseases,  its  functions  therein  being  the 
raising  and  sustaining  of  low  vitalities.  Its 
effect  upon  longevity  is  virtually  nil.  A 
small  proportion  of  humans  who  are  very 
nervous  may  find  coffee  undesirable;  but 
sensible  consumption  of  coffee  by  the  aver- 
age, normal,  non-neurasthenic  person  will 
not  prove  harmful  but  beneficial. 

Chapter  XIX 


The  geographical  distribution  of  the  coffees  grown  in  North  America, 
Central  America,  South  America,  the  West  India  Islands,  Asia, 
Africa,  the  Pacific  Islands,  and  the  East  Indies  —  A  statistical  study 
of  the  distribution  of  the  principal  kinds  —  A  commercial  coffee 
chart  of  the  world's  leading  growths,  with  market  names  and  general 
trade  characteristics 

A  STUDY  of  the  geographical  distri- 
bution of  the  coffee  tree  shows  that 
it  is  grown  in  well-defined  tropical 
limits.  The  coffee  belt  of  the  world  lies 
between  the  tropic  of  cancer  and  the  tropic 
of  Capricorn.  The  principal  coffee  consum- 
ing countries  are  nearly  all  to  be  found  in 
the  north  temperate  zone,  between  the 
tropic  of  cancer  and  the  arctic  circle. 

The  leading  commercial  coffees  of  the 
world  are  listed  in  the  accompanying  com- 
mercial coffee  chart,  which  shows  at  a 
glance  their  general  trade  character.  The 
cultural  methods  of  the  producing  coun- 
tries are  discussed  in  chapter  XX ;  statistics 
in  chapter  XXII ;  and  the  trade  character- 
istics, in  detail,  in  chapter  XXIV,  which 
considers  also  countries  and  coffees  not  so 
important  in  a  commercial  sense.  Mexico 
is  the  principal  producing  country  in  the 
northern  part  of  the  western  continent,  and 
Brazil  in  the  southern  part.  In  Africa,  the 
eastern  coast  furnishes  the  greater  part  of 
the  supply;  while  in  Asia,  the  Netherlands 
Indies,  British  India,  and  Arabia  lead. 

Within  the  last  two  decades  there  has 
been  an  expansion  of  the  production  areas 
in  South  America,  Africa,  and  in  southeast- 
ern Asia :  and  a  contraction  in  British  India 
and  the  Netherlands  Indies. 

The  Shifting  Coffee  Currents  of  the  World 

Seldom  does  the  coffee  drinker  realize 
how  the  ends  of  the  earth  are  drawn  upon 

to  bring  the  perfected  beverage  to  his  lips. 
The  trail  that  ends  in  his  breakfast  cup,  if 
followed  back,  w^ould  be  found  to  go  a 
devious  and  winding  way,  soon  splitting  up 
into  half-a-dozen  or  more  straggling 
branches  that  would  lead  to  as  many  widely 
scattered  regions.  If  he  could  mount  to  a 
point  where  he  could  enjoy  a  bird's-eye 
view  of  these  and  a  hundred  kindred  trails, 
he  would  find  an  intricate  criss-cross  of 
streamlets  and  rivers  of  coffee  forming  a 
tangled  pattern  over  the  tropics  and  reach- 
ing out  north  and  south  to  all  civilized 
countries.  This  would  be  a  picture  of  the 
coffee  trade  of  the  world. 

It  would  be  a  motion  picture,  with  the 
rivulets  swelling  larger  at  certain  seasons, 
but  seldom  drying  up  entirely  at  any  time. 
In  the  main  the  streamlets  and  rivers 
keep  pretty  much  the  same  direction  and 
volume  one  year  after  another,  but  then 
there  is  also  a  quiet  shifting  of  these  cur- 
rents. Some  grow  larger,  and  other  dimin- 
ish gradually  until  they  fade  out  entirely. 
In  one  of  the  regions  from  which  they 
take  their  source  a  tree  disease  may 
cause  a  decline;  in  another,  a  hurricane 
may  lay  the  industry  low  at  one  quick 
stroke;  and  in  still  another,  a  rival  crop 
may  drain  away  the  life-blood  of  capital. 
But  for  the  most  part,  when  times  are 
normal,  the  shift  is  gradual;  for  interna- 
tional trade  is  conservative,  and  likes  to  run 
where  it  finds  a  well-worn  channel. 




In  recent  times,  of  course,  the  big  dis- 
turbing element  in  the  coffee  trade  was  the 
"World  War.  Whole  countries  were  cut  out 
of  the  market,  shipping  was  drained  away 
from  every  sea  lane,  stocks  were  piled  high 
in  exporting  ports,  prices  were  fixed,  im- 
ports were  sharply  restricted,  and  the  whole 
business  of  coffee  trading  was  thrown  out 
of  joint.  To  what  extent  has  the  world 
returned  to  normal  in  this  trade?  Were 
the  stoppages  in  trade  merely  temporary 
suspensions,  or  are  they  to  prove  perma- 
nent? How  are  the  old,  long-worn  chan- 
nels filling  up  again,  now  that  the  dams 
have  been  taken  away? 

We  are  now  far  enough  removed  from 
the  war  to  begin  to  answer  these  questions. 
We  find  our  answer  in  the  export  figures  of 
the  chief  producing  countries,  which  for  the 
most  part  are  now  available  in  detail  for 
one  or  two  post-war  years.  These  figures 
are  given  in  the  tables  below ;  and  for  com- 
parison, there  are  also  given  figures  show- 
ing the  distribution  of  exports  in  1913  and 
in  an  earlier  year  near  the  beginning  of  the 
century.  These  figures,  of  course,  do  not 
necessarily  give  an  accurate  index  to 
normal  trade ;  as  in  any  given  year  some 
abnormal  happening,  such  as  an  exception- 
ally large  crop  or  a  revolution,  may  affect 
exports  drastically  as  compared  with  years 
before  and  after.  But  normally  the  pro- 
portions of  a  country's  exports  going  to  its 
various  customers  are  fairly  constant  one 
year  after  another,  and  can  be  taken  for 
any  given  year  as  showing  approximately 
the  coffee  currents  of  that  period. 

The  figures  following  are  for  the  calendar 
year  unless  the  fiscal  year  is  indicated. 
Where  figures  could  not  be  obtained  from 
the  original  statistical  publications,  they 
have  been  supplied  as  far  as  possible  from 
consular  reports. 

Brazil.  The  war  naturally  increased  the 
dependence  of  Brazil  on  its  chief  customer, 
and  the  proportion  of  the  total  crop  coming 
to  this  country  since  the  war  has  continued 
to  be  large.  Shipments  to  United  States 
ports  in  1920  represented  about  fifty-four 
percent  of  the  total  exports.  Figures  for 
that  year  indicate  also  that  France  and 
Belgium  were  working  back  to  their  normal 
trade;  but  that  Spain,  Great  Britain,  and 
the  Netherlands  were  taking  much  less 
coffee  than  in  the  year  just  before  the  war. 
Germany  was  buying  strongly  again,  her 
purchases  of  72,000,000  pounds  being  about 

half  as  much  as  in  1913.  Shipments  to 
Italy  were  four  times  as  heavy  as  in  1913. 
The  natural  return  to  normal  was  much 
interfered  with  by  speculation  and  valor- 
ization. Brazil  seems  to  have  come  through 
the  cataclysmic  period  of  the  war  in  better 
style  than  might  have  been  expected. 

Coffee  Exports  from  Brazil 

1900  1913  1920 

Exported    to          Pounds  Pounds  Pounds 

United  States.  .566,686,343  650,071,337  826,425,340 

France    78,408, .S62  244,295,282  203,694,212 

Great     Britain.      6,442,739  32,559,715  9,597,378 

Germany    235,131,881  246,767,144  72,196,934 

Aus.-Hunsary    .  71,696,556  134,495,310 

Netherlands     ..102,711,887  196,169,240  49,760,767 

Italy     17,559,107  31,364,656  132,543,798 

Spain    868,617  14,407,906  6,057,833 

Belgium    41,500,638  58,858,562  42,309,469 

Other  countries.  59,432,882  145,896,327  181,796,919 

Total     1,180,439,514  1,754,885,479  1,524,382,650 

The  1900  figures  are  for  the  ports  of  Ric, 
Santos,  Bahia,  and  Victoria. 

"Other  countries"  in  1913  included  Ar- 
gentina, 32,941,182  pounds;  Sweden,  28,- 
045,737  pounds;  Cape  Colony,  15,930,731 
pounds;  Denmark,  6,252,931  pounds.  In 
1920  they  included  Argentina,  37,736,498 
pounds;  Sweden,  51,026,591  pounds;  Den- 
mark, 18,764,483  pounds;  Cape  Colony, 
26,936,653  pounds. 

Venezuela.  Venezuela's  coffee  trade  was 
deeply  affected  by  the  war;  both  because 
the  Germans  were  prominent  in  the  in- 
dustry, and  because  the  regular  shipping 
service  to  Europe  was  discontinued.  Large 
amounts  of  coffee  were  piled  up  at  the 
ports  and  elsewhere ;  and  when  the  restric- 
tions were  swept  away  in  1919,  an  abnormal 
exportation  resulted.  Although  Germany 
had  been  one  of  the  chief  buyers  before  the 
war,  Venezuela  was  by  no  means  dependent 
on  the  German  market.  In  fact,  her  com- 
bined shipments  to  France  and  the  United 
States,  just  before  the  war,  were  three  times 
as  great  as  her  exports  to  Germany.  These 
two  countries  took  two-thirds  of  her  total 
exports  in  1920.  Spain  and  the  Nether- 
lands were  also  prominent  buyers. 

Coffee  Exports  from   Venezuela 

1906  1913  1920 

Exported    to  Pounds  Pounds  Pounds 

United     States.    35,704,398  45,570,268  43,670,191 

Prance     21,748,370  46,413,174  4,647,978 

Germany    5,270.814  32,203,972  546,363 

Aus. -Hungary    .         289,851  3,015,723 

Spain    3,133,012  7,372,839  15,210,756 

Netherlands     .  .    28,549,920  2,903,806  1,836,209 

Italy     315,293  2,805,948  719,850 

Great  Britain.  .         404,720  98,796  1,518,175 

Other  countries     2,663,507  1,631,143  5,577,110 

Total    98,079,885     142,015,669       73,726,632 

Colombia.  Colombian  statistics  of  for- 
eign trade  are  issued  very  irregularly,  and 



The  World's  Leading  Growths,  with  Market  Names  and  General 

Trade  Characteristics 

Grand  Division 


Shipping  Ports 

Best   Known 
Market   Names 

Trade   Characteristics 



Vera  Cruz 

Coa tepee 

Greenish    to   yellow    bean ; 



mild  flavor. 



Puerto  Barrios 


Waxy,  bluish  bean ;  mellow 





La  Libertad 

Santa  Ana 
Santa  Tecla 

Smooth,  green  bean ;  neu- 
tral flavor. 


Costa  Rica 

I'uerto  Limon 

Costa  Ricas 

Blue-greenish    bean ;    mild 





Cape  Haitien 


Blue     bean ;     rich,     fairly 

If  Indies 

acid ;  sweet  flavor. 


Santo  Domingo 

Santo  Domingo 

Santo  Domingo 

Flat,  greenish-yellow  bean ; 
strong  flavor. 



Blue  Mountain 

Bluish-green  bean ;  rich, 
full  flavor. 

Porto  Rico 


Porto  Ricans 

Gray-blue  bean ;  strong, 
heavy  flavor. 



Sa  van  ill  a 


Greenish-yellow  bean ;  rich. 

^   America 

Manizales,  Bogota 

mellow  flavor. 


La  Gualra 


Greenish-yellow  bean ;  mild, 



mellow  flavor. 




Small  bean ;  mild  flavor. 

Rio  de  Janeiro 


Large  bean ;  sti-ong  cup. 





Small,  short,  green  to  yel- 
low bean ;  unique,  mild 




Small   to  large,  blue-green 


Coorg  (Kurg) 

bean ;  strong  flavor. 

East  India 

Malay   States 

Penang     (Geo't'n) 


Liberian   and   Robusta 



Liberian,  Robusta 

growths  from  Malaysia. 



Ayer  Bangles 

Large,  yellow  to  brown 
bean ;  heavy  body ;  ex- 
quisite flavor. 



Cheribon,   Kroe 

Small,  blue  to  yellow  bean  ; 
light  in  cup. 




Large,  yellow  bean ;  aro- 
matic cup. 





Large,  blue  to  yellow  bean ; 
very  like  Mocha. 





Large,    blue,    flinty    bean ; 




mildly  acid. 




Yellow  and  brown  large 
bean ;  mild  cup. 



no  figures  are  available  to  afford  compari- 
son between  pi*e-war  and  post-war  trade. 
The  figures  below,  however,  -will  show  the 
comparative  amounts  of  coffee  going  to  the 
chief  buying  countries  at  different  periods. 
From  these  it  will  be  seen  that,  the  countries 
mainly  interested  in  the  trade  in  Colombian 
coffee  are  those  prominent  in  the  trade  in 
other  tropical  American  sections.  England, 
France,  Germany,  and  the  United  States 
took  the  great  bulk  of  the  exports.  A  con- 
sular report  written  after  the  outbreak  of 
the  war  says : 

Prior  to  the  war  the  United  States  took  about 
seventy  percent  of  Colombia's  coffee  crop ;  tlie 
remainder  being  about  equally  divided  between 
England.  France,  and  Germany,  with  England 
taking  the  largest  share. 

Coffee  Exports  fkom  Colombia  * 
(Prom  Barranquilla  only) 

1899                  1905  1916 

Exported    to          Pounds             Pounds  Pounds 

•Great    Britain.    22,573,828         7,268,429  442,026 

France     6,873,722             496,120  1,685,454 

Germany    9,348,028          8,568,131  

United     States.    17,991,500       43.518,704  134,292,858 

Other  countries 7,396,385  23,753,678 

Total    56,787,078       67,247,769     160,174,016 

*  Tliese  figures  are  taken  from  a  consular  report, 
which  gave  statistics  only  for  the  port  of  Barran- 
quilla and  did  not  include  the  total  shipments  from 
that  port.  Shipments  from  Cartagena,  the  only  other 
exporting  port  of  any  consequence,  amounted  to 
7,836,505  pounds,  destination  not  stated.  The  Bar- 
ranquilla figures,  in  the  absence  of  oflicial  statistics, 
can  be  taken  as  fairly  representative  of  the  total 
trade  so  far  as  destination  is  concerned.  They  are 
for  fiscal  years,  ending  June  30. 

"Other  countries"  in  1916  included 
Italy,  1,135,137  pounds ;  Venezuela,  20,564,- 
321  pounds;  Dutch  West  Indies,  400,132 

Central  America.  The  three  largest  pro- 
ducing countries  of  Central  America, 
Guatemala,  Salvador,  and  Costa  Rica,  w^ere 
all  closely  linked  to  Germany  by  the  coffee 
trade  before  the  war.  German  capital  was 
heavily  invested  in  coffee  plantations;  Ger- 
man houses  had  branches  in  the  principal 
cities ;  and  German  ships  regularly  served 
the  chief  ports.  Accordingly,  when  the 
Mockade  became  effective,  these  countries 
were  placed  in  a  difficult  position.  But 
fortunately  for  them,  a  special  effort  had 
Ibeen  made  shortly  before  by  Pacific-coast 
interests  in  the  United  States  to  divert  a 
part  of  the  coffee  trade  to  San  Francisco  \ 
The  market  to  the  east  being  shut  off,  these 
countries  turned  naturally  to  the  north. 
This  trade  with  the  United  States  has  ap- 
parently been  firmly  established,  and  there 
lias  not  yet  been  much  of  a  return  to  Ger- 
man ports. 

1  See  chapter  XXX. 

Guatemala.  Of  the  three  countries 
named,  Guatemala  was  the  most  heavily 
involved  in  German  trade.  In  1913  she 
sent  to  Germany  53,000,000  pounds  of 
coffee,  a  fifth  more  than  in  1900.,  Her  ship- 
ments of  more  than  10,000,000  pounds  to 
the  United  Kingdom  were  about  the  same 
as  at  the  beginning  of  the  century.  The 
war  turned  both  these  currents  into  United 
States  ports,  and  they  continued  to  tlow  in 
that  direction  through  1920.  The  figures 
follow : 

Coffee  Exports  from  Guatemala 

1900  191i3  1920 

Exported  to                Pounds  Pounds  Pounds 

Germany    44.416,064  53,232,910  452,206 

United  States    .  .  .    14,057,120  21,188,444  78,226,508 

United    Kingdom.    11,467.680  10,666,604  2,341,217 

Other    countries..      3,041,584  6,641.936  13,185,638 

Total    72.982,448     91,729,894     94,205,569 

"Other  countries"  in  1913  included  Aus- 
tria-Hungary, 4,205,400  pounds;  Nether- 
lands, 407,900  pounds.  In  1920,  they  in- 
cluded Netherlands,  10,355,625  pounds; 
Sweden,  422,421  pounds;  Norway,  57,408 
pounds;  Spain,  97,519  pounds;  France, 
27,956  pounds. 

Salvador.  Salvador  is  one.  of  the  coun- 
tries in  which  the  publication  of  foreign- 
trade  statistics  has  been  irregular  in  the 
past,  and  none  is  available  to  show  the  full 
trade  in  coffee  at  the  beginning  of  the 
century.  A  consular  report  gives  figures 
for  the  first  half  of  1900.  The  most  recent 
statistics  show  that  the  United  States  still 
holds  much  of  the  trade  gained  during  the 
war,  although  Salvador  is  sending  to  Scan- 
dinavian countries  many  millions  of  pounds 
of  her  coffee  that  came  to  the  United  States 
in  wartime. 

Coffee  Exports  from   Salvador 

1900  (1st  6mos.)      1913  1920 

Exported   to          Pounds             Pounds  Pounds 

United     States.      6,700,101       10,779,655  46,262,256 

France     22,948,712       15,955,920  6,686,714 

Germany      6,607,892        12,120,133  813, 16Q 

Great     Britain.      4,396,465          3,415,187  4,226,061 

Italy     4,322,003  9,538,976 

Aus.-Hungary    .     1,335,626  3,557,482 

Belgium    210,834                  5,508  3,104 

Spain    24,799             377,729  364,296 

Other    countries             3,920         7,193,107  24,509,071 

Total    46.550.352       62,943.697       82,^64,668 

"Other  countries"  in  1913  included  Nor- 
way, 2,070,220  pounds;  Sweden,  2,238,332 
pounds;  Netherlands,  738,694  pounds; 
Chile,  609,441  pounds;  Russia,  95,625 
pounds;  Denmark,  140,665  pounds.  In 
1920,  they  included  Norway,  10,726,375 
pounds;  Chile,  1,772,346  pounds;  Nether- 
lands, 1,071,614  pounds ;  Sweden,  9,635,947 
pounds;  Denmark,  1,061,772  pounds. 

AL  J.     A  HO  r  T     COFFK  K 

A  Fi.ouKisiiiNG  Coffee  Estate  in  Chiapas,  Mexico 

i..\1!oi;ei!S  BRI^■GI^G  ia  the  Day's  I'ickings,  2seak  Bogota,  Columuia 


L,»  „..„.. 

man  capital  was  heavily  invested  in  Costa 
^^ica  before  the  war,  and  all  three  nations 
^ftere  interested  in  the  coffee  trade.  For 
^Tiany  years  England  had  maintained  the 

lead  as  a  coffee  customer,  and  shipments 

continued  in  large  volume  after  the  war. 

The  following  figures  are  for  the  crop  year 

ending  September  30 : 

Coffee   Exports 
xported   to  Pounds 

United  States  ..     6,388,236 
Great    Britain.    27,756,661 

France     1.241,816 

Germany    2.676,841 

Other   countries         147.925 


tOM    Costa    Rica 
















Total    38,211,479 

In  1900  total  shipments  were  35,496,055 
pounds,  of  which  20,587,712  pounds  went 
to  Great  Britain;  8,874,014  pounds  to  the 
United  States;  and  3,904,566  pounds  to 

"Other  countries"  in  1903  included 
Spain.  49,189  pounds;  Italy,  4,104  pounds. 
In  1921,  they  included  Netherlands,  837,- 
496  pounds :  'Spain,  308,308  pounds ;  Chile, 
9,259  pounds. 

Mexico.  Mexico  has  naturally  sent  most 
of  her  coffee  across  the  border  into  the 
United  States,  and  she  continued  to  do  so 
during  and  after  the  war.  But  she  had 
worked  up  a  very  important  trade  with 
Europe,  chiefly  with  Germany ;  and  German 
capital,  and  German  planters  and  mer- 
chants were  prominent  in  the  industry. 
France  and  England  also  were  interested 
in  the  trade,  and  purchased  annually  sev- 
eral million  pounds.  During  the  war,  as 
shown  by  the  exports  in  its  final  year,  this 
trade  almost  entirely  ceased,  and  the 
United  States  and  Spain  remained  as  the 
only  consumers  of  Mexican  coffee.  Details 
of  the  after-war  trade  are  not  yet  available 
in  published  statistics.  In  the  following 
table,  1900  and  1918  are  calendar  years, 
and  1913  is  a  fiscal  year. 

Coffee  Exports  from  Mexico 
.  Exported   to  Pounds 

United  States.  28.882.954 
Germany  .....  10,074,001 
Aus.-Hunjrary   .         163.934 

Belgium    25,855 

Spain .  546,132 

France     3,927,294 

Netherlands  ...  220.607 
Great  Britain .  3,848,605 
Cuba     ...-...•.:         467;201 

Italy    , .         157,653 

Other  couptries 

Total    '. 48,314,236 





















In  1913  "other  countries"  included 
Panama,  342,131  pounds;  Canada,  276,567 
pounds;  Sweden,  3,079  pounds;  British 
Honduras,  33,179  pounds;  Denmark,  112 

Jamaica.  The  French,  more  than  any 
other  peoples  in  Europe,  have  cultivated  a 
taste  for  coffee  from  the  West  Indies;  and 
France  normally  has  led  all  other  countries 
in  shipments  from  the  larger  producing 
islands,  including  Jamaica,  although  the 
island  is  a  British  possession.  In  the 
year  before  the  war,  France  bought  nearly 
4,000,000  pounds  of  Jamaican  coffee,  more 
than  half  the  total  production.  In  the  year 
1900-01  also  she  took  about  4,000,000 
pounds,  leading  all  other  countries.  This 
trade  was  very  much  cut  down  during  the 
war.  but  was  not  wiped  out.  As  shown  in 
the  figures  for  1918,  England  largely  took 
the  place  of  France  in  that  year,  and 
Canada  increased  her  purchases  several 
hundred  percent. 

Coffee  Exports  from  Jamaica 

1901  (fls.yr.) 



Exported   to 




Great    Britain 

.      1,849,456 







United     States 

.      2,976.512 




.      3,958,304 



Aus. -Hungary 





Barbados     . . . 



Other  countries        508,704 




.      9,621,584 




countries ' ' 

in     1901 


British  West  Indies,  316,512  pounds.  In 
1913,  they  included  Netherlands,  125,216 
pounds;  is^rway,  28,896  pounds;  Sweden, 
70,224  pounds ;  Italy,  46,592  pounds ;  Aus- 
tralia, 71,456  pounds. 

Haiti.  Prior  to  the  taking  over  of  the 
administration  of  the  customs  of  Haiti  by 
the  United  States,  detailed  statistics  of  the 
exports  are  almost  wholly  lacking.  France 
took  most  of  the  annual  production,  con- 
tinuing a  trade  that  dated  back  to  old 
colonial  times.  An  American  consular 
report  says: 

Before  the  war  there  was  no  market  for  Hai- 
tian coffee  in  the  United  States,  practically  the 
entire  crop  going  to  Europe,  with  France  as  the 
largest  consumer.  However,  there  has  been  for 
some  time  past  a  determined  effort  made  to 
create  a  demand  in  the  United  States,  and  this 
is  said  to  be  meeting  with  ever-increasing  suc- 

The  actual  success  achieved  can  be  meas- 
ured by  the  following  figures  for  the  fiscal 
year  ended  September  30.,' 1920: 



Coffee   Exports   from    Haiti 
Exported  to  Pounds 

United    States    27,647,077 

France     23,921,083 

Great  Britain   39,583 

Other  countries    10,362,351 

Total 61,970,094' 

These  figures  do  not  include  6,322,167 
pounds  of  coffee  triage,  or  waste,  of  which 
the  United  States  took  2,028,352  pounds; 
France,  1,491,507  pounds. 

Dominican  Republic.  The  comparatively 
small  production  of  the  Dominican  Repub- 
lic was  divided  among  the  United  States 
and  three  or  four  European  countries  be- 
fore the  war.  Since  the  war  the  exports 
have  been  scattered  among  the  former 
customers  in  varying  amounts.  Germany 
is  again  a  buyer,  although  her  purchases 
have  not  come  back  to  anything  like  the 
pre-war  level. 

Coffee  Exports  from  the  Dominican  Republic 

1906  1913  1920 

Exported    to          Pounds  Pounds  Pounds 

United     States.         564,291  506,456  529,831 

France     569,215  1,248,418  454,165 

Germany    1,562,193  327,843  69,224 

Italy     *  195,294  51,543 

Cuba     *  25,628  132,569 

Great     Britain.                     *  660  54,114 

Other   countries        221,028  8,154  70,220 

Total    2,916,727         2,312,453  1,361,666 

*No  shipments,  or  included  in  "other  countries." 

"Other  countries"  in  1920  included  only 
the  Netherlands. 

PoRTO  Rico.  In  spite  of  several  attempts 
on  the  part  of  Porto-Rican  planters  to 
make  their  product  popular  in  the  markets 
of  the  United  States,  the  American  con- 
sumer has  never  found  the  taste  of  that 
coffee  to  his  liking.  The  big  market  for 
the  Porto-Rican  product  has  been  Cuba, 
which  has  depended  on  her  neighbor  for 
most  of  her  supply.  This  demand  takes  a 
large  part  of  the  annual  crop,  including 
the  lower  grades.  The  better  grades,  be- 
fore the  war,  went  largely  to  Europe, 
mostly  to  the  Latin  countries.  During  the 
war,  the  Cuban  mai-ket  carried  the  Porto- 
Rican  planters  through,  although  shipments 
of  considerable  size  continued  to  go  to 
France  and  Spain.  Recovery  of  the  pre- 
war trade  with  Europe,  however,  has  been 
slow,  Spain  being  the  only  country  to  take 
over  1,000,000  pounds  in  1920.  Shipments 
to  that  country  totaled  3,472,204  pounds; 
those  to  France,  900,868  pounds.  Both 
countries  increased  their  purchases  con- 
siderably in  1921. 

Coffee  Exports  from  Porto  Rico 

1900-01  (fls.yr.)  1913  1921 

Exported    to  Pounds  Pounds  Pounds 

United     States.  29,565  628,843  211,531 

France     3,348,025  6,0'20,170  1,625,065 

Spam    2,590,096  6,851,235  5,705,932 

Aus.-Hungary    .  386,158  6,729,726 

Germany    493,891  876,315  363,993 

Belgium     9,964  25,867  234  019 

Italy     611,033  3,498,157  43,484 

Netherlands     .  .  8,860  497,938  25  199 

Sweden     32,390*  633,046  266,550 

Cuba     4,633,538  23,179,690  21,135,397 

Other   countries  13,720  393,586  356.709 

Total      12,157,240        49,334,573        29,967,879 

*  Includes  Norway. 

Hawaii.  The  war  disarranged  Hawaii's 
coffee  trade  very  little,  as  she  had  for  many 
years  been  shipping  chiefly  to  continental 
United  States.  Recently  a  considerable 
trade  with  the  Philippines  has  developed. 

Coffee  Exports  from  Hawaii 

1901-02  (fls.yr.)  1913  1921 

Exported    to          Pounds  Pounds  Pounds 

United     States.      1,082,994  3,393,009  4,183,046 

Canada     77,900  10,200  11  355 

Japan     24,155  49,167  23,950 

Germany    2,100  1,612 

Philippines    ...                     *  932,640  747,700- 

Other    countries          23,349  49,179  13,070 

Total    1,210,498         4,435, 807         4,979,121 

*No  exports,  or  included  in  "other  countries." 

Aden.  Lying  on  the  edge  of  the  war 
area  and  on  the  road  to  India,  Aden  felt 
the  full  force  of  the  disarrangement  of 
commercial  traffic  by  the  war.  Ordinarily,. 
Aden  is  not  only  the  chief  outlet  for  the 
coffee  of  the  interior  of  Arabia  —  the  orig- 
inal "Mocha"  —  but  it  is  also  the  tranship- 
ping point  for  large  amounts  from  Africa 
and  India.  The  figures  given  below  relate 
for  the  most  part  to  this  transhipped 
coffee.  Exports  of  coffee  from  Aden  go. 
chiefly  to  the  United  Kingdom,  France,  and 
the  United  States,  and  to  other  ports  of 
Arabia  and  Africa.  Before  the  war  no» 
great  proportion  went  to  the  Central 
Powers.  The  following  figures  apply  to 
fiscal  years  ending  March  31 : 

Coffee  Exports  from  Aden 

1901  (fls.yr.)      1914  (fls.yr.)  1921  (fls.yr.) 

Exported    to  Pounds  Pounds  Pounds 

Great     Britain.  1,563,632  696,976  466,928 

United     States.  2,412,368  4,300,128  2,507,344 

France 3,789,296  2,975,840  814.016 

Egypt     1,024,576  3,108,336 

Arab.   Gulf  Pts.  860,160  852,320  606,592 

Germany    247,184  465,136 

Aus.-Hungary    .  341,152  553,952 

Italy     197,568  811,664  7,504 

Br.     Somaliland  280,224  23,408 

♦Africa     337,344  2,390,640  292,880 

Other  countries  1,114,848  2,500,456  1,659,504 

Total    12,168,352       15,570,520         9,463,104 

•Including  adjacent  islands,  but  exclusive  of  British 

"Other  countries"  in  1914  included 
Australia,  222,320  pounds;  Perim,  142,016 
pounds;  Zanzibar,  148,848  pounds;  Mauri- J| 




ius,  154,672  pounds;  Seychelles,  116,704 
founds;  Sweden,  118,720  pounds;  Norway, 
^9,168  pounds ;  Russia,  196,448  pounds.  In 
1921,  they  included  Denmark,  120,624 
pounds ;  Spain,  124,208  pounds';  Massowah, 
110,704  pounds. 

British  India.    As  India's  trade  before 

le  war  was  chiefly  with  the  mother  coun- 

ry,   with  France,    and   with    Ceylon,   the 

I'eturn  to  normal  has  been  rapid.     In  the 

rear  following  the  war,   these   three   cus- 

)mers  were  again  credited  with  the  largest 

^mounts  exported  from  India,  except  for 

lipments  to  Greece,  W'hich  took  little  before 

le  war.     The  following  figures  are  for  the 

iscal  years  ending  March  31 : 

Coffee   Exports  from  British  India 

1901  (fla.yr.)  1914  (fls.yr.)  1920(fla.yr.) 

Exported    to          Pounds  Pounds  Pounds 

Jreat     Britain.    15,678,768  10,343,536  8,138,144 

Ceylon      1,088,528  l,428i,112  1,423,072 

France   8,430.016  10  924,816  9,256,352 

Belgium     617,792  1,021,664 

Germany    126,560  1,033,088  25,312 

Aus.-Hungary    .         123,312  1,358,896  8,400 

Italy     23,968  22,624  30.912 

United     States.           54,096  16,576 

Turkey   in   Asia        232,176  501,984  986,720 

♦Africa     118,272  113,344  619,696 

Other  countries     1,106,784  2,360,736  10,021,648 

Total    27,600,272       29,108,800       30,526,832 

♦Including  adjacent  islands. 

"Other  countries"  in  1914  included 
Netherlands,  238,560  pounds;  Australia, 
748,608  pounds;  Bahrein  Islands,  757,568 
pounds.     In   1920,   they   included   Greece, 

6,487,376  pounds;  Australia,  481,152 
pounds ;  Bahrein  Islands,  1,081,696  pounds ; 
Aden  and  dependencies,  459,984  pounds; 
other  Arabian  ports,  890,176  pounds. 

Dutch  East  Indies.  The  war  played 
havoc  with  the  coffee  trade  of  the  Dutch 
East  Indies,  taking  away  shipping,  closing 
trade  routes,  and  causing  immense  quanti- 
ties of  coffee  to  pile  up  in  the  warehouses. 
When  the  war  ended,  this  coffee  was  re- 
leased; and  trade  was  consequently  again 
abnormal,  although  in  the  opposite  direc- 
tion from  that  it  took  during  war  years. 
The  1920  figures  indicate  that  the  trade  is 
working  back  into  its  old  channels. 

Coffee  Exports  from 

Dutch   East 





Exported    to 




Netherlands     . 




Great    Britain 











Germany    .... 








United     States 




Singapore    .  .  . 




Other  countries     2,965,000 







♦Includes  shipments  "for  orders." 

t  These  figures  cover  only  Java  and  Madura. 

"Other  countries"  in  1920  included, 
Norway,  2,606,421  pounds ;  Sweden,  728,580 
pounds;  Australia,  1,553,495  pounds; 
British  India,  1,912,541  pounds;  Italy,  1,- 
964,109  pounds;  Denmark,  1,191,643 
pounds ;  Belgium,  166,092  pounds. 






Chapter   XX 

The  early  days  of  coffee  culture  in  Abyssinia  and  Arabia  —  Coffee 
cultivation  in  general  —  Soil,  climate,  rainfall,  altitude,  propagation, 
preparing  the  plantation,  shade  and  wind  breaks,  fertilising,  prun- 
ing, catch  crops,  pests,  and  diseases  —  How  coffee  is  grown  around 
the   ivorld  —  Cidtivation   in   all   the   principal   producing   countries 

^OR  the  beginnings  of  coffee  culture 
we  must  go  back  to  the  Arabian 
colony  of  Harar  in  Abyssinia,  for 
lere  it  was,  about  the  fifteenth  century, 
that  the  Arabs,  having  found  the  plant 
growing  wild  in  the  Abyssinian^  highlands, 
first  gave  it  intensive  cultivation.  The  com- 
plete story  of  the  early  cultivation  of  cofl'ee 
in  the  old  and  new  worlds  is  told  in  chapter 
II,  which  deals  with  the  history  of  the 
propagation  of  the  coffee  plant. 

La  iloque  ^  was  the  first  to  tell  how  the 
plant  was  cultivated  and  the  berries  pre- 
pared for  market  in  Arabia,  where  it  was 
brought  from  Abyssinia. 

The  Arabs  raised  it  from  seed  grown  in 
nurseries,  transplanting  it  to  plantations 
laid  out  in  the  foot-hills  of  the  mountains, 
to  which  they  conducted  the  mountain 
streams  by  ingeniously  constructed  small 
channels  to  water  the  roots.  They  built 
trenches  three  feet  wide  and  five  feet  deep, 
lining  them  with  pebbles  to  cause  the  water 
to  sink  deep  into  the  earth  with  which  the 
trenches  were  filled,  to  preserve  the  mois- 
ture from  too  rapid  evaporation.  These 
were  so  constructed  that  the  water  could 
be  turned  off  into  other  channels  when  the 
fruit  began  to  ripen.  In  plantations  ex- 
posed to  the  south,  a  kind  of  poplar  tree 
was  planted  along  the  trenches  to  supply 
needful  shade. 

La  Roque  noted  that  the  coffee  trees  in 
Yemen  were  planted  in  lines,  like  the  apple 
trees  in  Normandy;  and  that  when  they 

^  La    Roque,    .lean.      Voyage   de    I'AraMe   Heureuae, 
Paris.   17] 5.      (p.   280.) 

were  much  exposed  to  the  sun,  the  shade 
poplars  were  regularly  introduced  between 
the  rows. 

Such  cultivation  as  the  plant  received  in 
early  Abyssinia  and  Arabia  was  crude  and 
primitive  at  best.  Throughout  the  inter- 
vening centuries,  there  has  been  little  im- 
provement in  Yemen ;  but  modern  cultural 
methods  obtain  in  the  Harar  district  in 

Like  the  Arabs  in  Yemen,  the  Harari 
cultivated  in  small  gardens,  employing  the 
same  ingenious  system  of  irrigation  from 
mountain  springs  to  water  the  roots  of  the 
plants  at  least  once  a  week  during  the  dry 
season.  In  Yemen  and  in  Abyssinia  the 
ripened  berries  were  sun-dried  on  beaten- 
earth  barbecues. 

The  European  planters  who  carried  the 
cultivation  of  the  bean  to  the  Far  East  and 
to  America  followed  the  best  Arabian  prac- 
tise, changing,  and  sometimes  improving 
it,  in  order  to  adapt  it  to  local  conditions. 

Cofee  Cidtivation  in  General 

Today  the  commercial  growers  of  coffee 
on  a  large  scale  practise  intensive  cultiva- 
tion methods,  giving  the  same  care  to  pre- 
paring their  plantations  and  maintaining 
their  trees  as  do  other  growers  of  grains 
and  fruits.  As  in  the  more  advanced 
methods  of  arboriculture,  every  effort  is 
made  to  obtain  the  maximum  production  of 
quality  coffee  consistent  with  the  smallest 
outlay  of  money  and  labor.  Experimental 
stations  in  various  parts  of  the  world  are 
constantly  working  to  improve  methods  and 




products,  and  to  develop  types  that  will 
resist  disease  and  adverse  climatic  condi- 

While  cultivation  methods  in  the  differ- 
ent producing  countries  vary  in  detail  of 
practise,  the  principles  are  unchanging. 
Where  methods  do  differ,  it  is  owing  prin- 
cipally to  local  economic  conditions,  such  as 
the  supply  and  cost  of  labor,  machinery, 
fertilizers,  and  similar  essential  factors. 

Implements    Used    in    Early   Arabian    Coffee 

1,  Plow.     2  and  3,  Mattocks.     4,  Hatchet  and  sickle. 
Top,   Seeder  implement 

Soil.  Rocky  ground  that  pulverizes 
easily  —  and,  if  possible,  of  volcanic  origin 
—  is  best  for  coffee;  also,  soil  rich  in  de- 
composed mold.  In  Brazil  the  best  soil  is 
known  as  terra  roxa,  a  topsoil  of  red  clay 
three  or  four  feet  thick  with  a  gravel  sub- 

Climate.  The  natural  habitat  of  the 
coffee  tree  (all  species)  is  tropical  Africa, 
Mhere  the  climate  is  hot  and  humid,  and  the 
soil  rich  and  moist,  yet  sufficiently  friable 
to  furnish  well  drained  seed  beds.  These 
conditions  must  be  approximated  when  the 
tree  is  grown  in  other  countries.  Because 
the  trees  and  fruit  generally  can  not  with- 
stand frost,  they  are  restricted  to  regions 
where  the  mean  annual  temperature  is 
about  70°   F.,  with  an  average  minimum 

about  55°,  and  an  average  maximum  of 
about  80°.  Where  grown  in  regions  subject 
to  more  or  less  frost,  as  in  the  northernmost 
parts  of  Brazil's  coffee-producing  district, 
which  lie  almost  within  the  south  temperate 
zone,  the  coffee  trees  are  sometimes  frosted, 
as  was  the  case  in  1918,  when  about  forty 
percent  of  the  Sao  Paulo  crop  and  trees 

Generally  speaking,  the  most  suitable 
climate  for  coffee  is  a  temperate  one  within 
the  tropics;  however,  it  has  been  success- 
fully cultivated  between  latitudes  28°  north 
and  38°  south. 

Rainfall,  Although  able  to  grow  satis- 
factorily only  on  well  drained  land,  the 
coffee  tree  requires  an  abundance  of  water, 
about  seventy  inches  of  rainfall  annually, 
and  must  have  it  supplied  evenly  through- 
out the  year.  Prolonged  droughts  are 
fatal ;  while,  on  the  other  hand,  too  great  a 
supply  of  water  tends  to  develop  the  wood 
of  the  tree  at  the  expense  of  the  flowers  and 
fruit,  especially  in  low-lying  regions. 

Altitude.  Coffee  is  found  growing  in  all 
altitudes,  from  sea-level  up  to  the  frost-line, 
which  is  about  6,000  feet  in  the  tropics. 
Rohusta  and  liberica  varieties  of  coffee  do 
best  in  regions  from  sea-level  up  to  3,000 
feet,  while  arabica  flourishes  better  at  the 
higher  levels. 

Carvalho  says  that  the  coffee  plant  needs 
sun,  but  that  a  few  hours  daily  exposure  is 
sufficient.  Hilly  ground  has  the  advantage 
of  offering  the  choice  of  a  suitable  exposure, 
as  the  sun  shines  on  it  for  only  a  part  of 
the  day.  Whether  it  is  the  early  morning 
or  the  afternoon  sun  that  enables  the  plant 
to  attain  its  optimum  conditions  is  a  ques- 
tion of  locality. 

In  Mexico,  Romero  tells  us,  the  highlands 
of  Soconusco  have  the  advantage  that  the 
sun  does  not  shine  on  the  trees  during  the 
whole  of  the  day.    On  the  higher  slopes  of 

Cross  Section  of  Mountain  Slope  in  Yemen,   Arabia,   Showing  Coffee  Terraces 
These  miniature  plantations  are  found  chiefly  along  the  caravan  route  between  Hodeida  and   Sanaa 



Cleauinu  Virgin    Fokest  for  a  Coffee  Estate  in  Mexico 

Coffee  Xubsery  Under  a  Bamboo  Roof  in  Colombia 



the  Cordilleras  —  from  2,500  feet  above 
sea-level  —  clouds  prevail  during  the  sum- 
mer season,  when  the  sun  is  hottest,  and 
are  frequently  present  in  the  other  seasons, 
after  ten  o'clock  in  the  morning.  These 
keep  the  trees  from  being  exposed  to  the 
heat  of  the  sun  during  the  whole  of  the  day. 
Perhaps  to  this  circumstance  is  due  the 
superior  excellence  of  certain  coffees  grown 
in  Mexico,  Colombia,  and  Sumatra  at  an 
altitude  of  3,000  feet  to  4,000  feet  above 

Richard  Spruce,  the  botanist,  in  his  notes 
on  South  America,  as  quoted  by  Alfred 
Russel  Wallace,"  refers  to  "a  zone  of  the 
equatorial  Andes  ranging  between  4,000 
and  6,000  feet  altitude,  where  the  best 
flavored  coffee  is  grown." 

Propagation.  Coffee  trees  are  grown 
most  generally  from  seeds  selected  from 
trees  of  known  productivity  and  longevity ; 
although  in  some  parts  of  the  world  propa- 
gation is  done  from  shoots  or  cuttings.  The 
seed  method  is  most  general,  however,  the 
seeds  being  either  propagated  in  nursery 
beds,  or  planted  at  once  in  the  spot  where 
the  mature  tree  is  to  stand.     In  the  latter 

^Encyclopedia  Britannica,  11   ed.,   Cambridge,   1910. 
(vol.   i:   p.   118.) 

case  —  called  planting  at  stake  —  four  or 
five  seeds  are  planted,  much  as  corn  is 
sown ;  and  after  germination,  all  but  the 
strongest  plant  are  removed. 

Where  the  nursery  method  is  followed, 
the  choicest  land  of  the  plantation  is 
chosen  for  its  site ;  and  the  seeds  are 
planted  in  forcing  beds,  sometimes  called 
cold-frames.  When  the  plants  are  to  be 
transplanted  direct  to  the  plantation,  the 
seeds  are  generally  sown  six  inches  apart 
and  in  rows  separated  by  the  same  distance, 
and  are  covered  with  only  a  slight  sprink- 
ling of  earth.  When  the  plants  are  to  be 
transferred  from  the  first  bed  to  another, 
and  then  to  the  plantation,  the  seeds  are 
sown  more  thickly;  and  the  plants  are 
"pricked"  out  as  needed,  and  set  out  in 
another  forcing  bed. 

During  the  six  to  seven  weeks  required 
for  the  coffee  seed  to  germinate,  the  soil 
must  be  kept  moist  and  shaded  and  thor- 
oughly weeded.  If  the  trees  are  to  be 
grown  without  shade,  the  young  plants  are 
gradually  exposed  to  the  sun,  to  harden 
them,  before  they  begin  their  existence  in 
the  plantation  proper. 

Considerable  experimental  work  has  been 
done  in  renewing  trees  by  grafting,  notably 








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«  **•*    '«.    . 

Coffee  Tree  Nursery,  Panajabal,  Pochuta,  Guatemala 


Drying  Grounds  and  Factory  in  the  Preanger  Regency 

--»=.-  „-.-»;  -mi 

Native  TKAMSFohx,  Field  to  Factoky,  at  Duamaga,  Neau  liuiXEN/^ouu 



Coffee  Growing  Under  Shade,  Porto  Rico 

in  Java ;  but  practically  all  commercial 
planters  follow  the  seed  method. 

Preparing  the  Plantation.  Before 
transplanting  time  has  come,  the  plantation 
itself  has  been  made  ready  to  receive  the 
young  plants.  Coffee  plantations  are  gen- 
erally laid  out  on  heavily  wooded  and  slop- 
ing lands,  most  often  in  forests  on  moun- 
tainsides and  plateaus,  where  there  is  an 
abundance  of  water,  of  which  large  quan- 
tities are  used  in  cultivating  the  trees  and 
in  preparing  the  coffee  beans  for  market. 
The  soil  most  suitable  is  friable,  sandy,  or 
even  gravelly,  with  an  abundance  of  rocks 
to  keep  the  soil  comparatively  cool  and  well 
drained,  as  well  as  to  supply  a  source  of 
food  by  action  of  the  weather.  The  ideal 
soil  is  one  that  contains  a  large  proportion 
of  potassium  and  phosphoric  acid ;  and  for 
that  reason,  the  general  practise  is  to  burn 
off  the  foliage  and  trees  covering  the  land 
and  to  use  the  ashes  as  fertilizer. 

In  preparing  the  soil  for  the  new  planta- 
tion under  the  intensive  cultivation  method, 
the  surface  of  the  land  is  lightly  plowed, 
and  then  followed  up  with  thorough  cul- 
tivation. "When  transplanting  time  comes, 
which  is  when  the  plant  is  about  a  year  old, 
and  stands  from  twelve  to  eighteen  inches 
high     with     its     first     pairs     of    primary 

branches,  the  plants  are  set  out  in  shallow 
holes  at  regular  intervals  of  from  eight  to 
twelve,  or  even  fourteen,  feet  apart.  This 
gives  room  for  the  root  system  to  develop, 
provides  space  for  sunlight  to  reach  each 
tree,  and  makes  for  convenience  in  cultivat- 
ing and  harvesting.  Liherica  and  robusta 
type  trees  require  more  room  than  arahica. 
When  set  twelve  feet  apart,  which  is  the 
general  practise,  with  the  same  distance 
maintained  between  rows,  there  are  approxi- 
mately four  hundred  and  fifty  trees  to  the 
acre.  In  the  triangle,  or  hexagon,  system 
the  trees  are  planted  in  the  form  of  an 
equilateral  triangle,  each  tree  being  the 
same  distance  (usually  eight  or  nine  feet) 
from  its  six  nearest  neighbors.  This  sys- 
tem permits  of  600  to  800  trees  per  acre. 

Shade  and  Wind  Breaks.  Strong,  chilly 
winds  and  intensely  hot  sunlight  are  foes 
of  coffee  trees,  especially  of  the  arahica 
variety.  Accordingly,  in  most  countries  it 
is  customary  to  protect  the  plantation  with 
wind-breaks  consisting  of  rugged  trees,  and 
to  shade  the  coffee  by  growing  trees  of 
other  kinds  between  the  rows.  The  shade 
trees  serve  also  to  check  soil  erosion :  and 
in  the  case  of  the  leguminous  kinds,  to 
furnish  nutriment  to  the  soil.  Coffee  does 
best  in  shade  such  as  is  afforded  bv  the  silk 



oak  (Grevillea  rohusta).  In  Shade  in 
Coffrf  Culture  {Bulletin  25,  1901,  division 
of  botany,  United  States  Department  of 
Agriculture),  0.  F.  Cook  goes  extensively 
into  this  subject. 

The  methods  emploj^ed  in  the  care  of  a 
coffee  plantation  do  not  differ  materially 
from  those  followed  by  advanced  orchard- 
ists  in  the  colder  fruit-belts  of  the  world. 
After  the  young  plants  have  gained  their 
start,  they  are  cultivated  frequently,  prin- 
'cipally  to  keep  out  the  weeds,  to  destroy 
pests,  and  to  aerate  the  earth.  The  imple- 
ments used  range  from  crude  hand-plows  to 
horse-drawn  cultivators.. 

Fertilizing.  Comparatively  little  fer- 
tilizing is  done  on  plantations  established 
on  virgin  soil  until  the  trees  begin  to  bear, 
which  occurs  when  they  are  about  three 
years  of  age.  Because  the  coffee  tree  takes 
potash,  nitrogen,  and  phosphoric  acid  from 
the  soil,  the  scheme  of  fertilizing  is  to 
restore  these  elements.  The  materials  used 
to  replace  the  soil-constituents  consist  of 
stable  manure,  leguminous  plants,  coffee- 
tree  prunings,  leaves,  certain  weeds,  oil 
cake,  bone  and  fish  meal,  guano,  wood 
ashes,  coffee  pulp  and  parchment,  and  such 
chemical  fertilizers  as  superphosphate  of 
lime,    basic    slag,    sulphate    of    ammonia, 

nitrate  of  lime,  sulphate  of  potash,  nitrate 
of  potash,  and  similar  materials. 

The  relative  values  of  these  fertilizers 
depend  largely  upon  local  climate  and  soil 
conditions,  the  supply,  the  cost,  and  other 
like  factors.  The  chemical  fertilizers  are 
coming  into  increasing  use  in  the  larger  and 
more  economically  advanced  producing 
countries.  Brazil,  particularly,  is  showing 
in  late  years  a  tendency  toward  their  adop- 
tion to  make  up  for  the  dwindling  supply 
of  the  so-called  natural  manures.  As  the 
coffee  tree  grows  older,  it  requires  a  larger 
supply  of  fertilizer. 

Pruning.  On  the  larger  plantations, 
pruning  is  an  important  part  of  the  cul- 
tivation processes.  If  left  to  their  own 
devices,  coffee  trees  sometimes  grow  as  high 
as  forty  feet,  the  strength  being  absorbed 
by  the  wood,  with  a  consequent  scanty  pro- 
duction of  fruit.  To  prevent  this  undesir- 
able result,  and  to  facilitate  picking,  the 
trees  on  the  more  modern  plantations  are 
pruned  down  to  heights  ranging  from  six 
to  twelve  feet.  Except  for  pruning  the 
roots  when  transplanting,  the  tree  is  per- 
mitted to  grow  until  after  producing  its 
first  full  crop  before  any  cutting  takes 
place.  Then,  the  branches  are  severely  cut 
back ;  and  thereafter,  pruning  is  carried  on 

The   Famous   Boekit  Gompong  Estate,  Near   Padang,  on  Sumatra's  West  Coast 
Showing  the  healthy,  regrular  appearance  of  well-cultivated    coffee    bushes,    twenty-six    years    old. 
note  the  line  of  feathery  bamboo  wind-breaks 




Coffee  Estate  in  Antioquia,  Colombia,  Showing  Wind-Breaks 

annually.  Topping  and  pruning  begin  be- 
tween the  first  and  the  second  years. 

Coffee  trees  as  a  rule  produce  full  crops 
from  the  sixth  to  the  fifteenth  year,  al- 
though some  trees  have  given  a  paying  crop 
until  twenty  or  thirty  years  old.  Ordinarily 
the  trees  bear  from  one-half  pound  to  eight 
pounds  of  coffee  annually,  although  there 
are  accounts  of  twelve  pounds  being  ob- 
tained per  tree.  Production  is  mostly  gov- 
erned by  the  cultivation  given  the  tree,  and 
by  climate,  soil,  and  location.  When  too 
old  to  bear  profitable  yields,  the  trees  on 
commercial  plantations  are  cut  down  to  the 
level  of  the  ground;  and  are  renewed  by 
permitting  only  the  strongest  sprout  spring- 
ing out  of  the  stump  to  mature. 

Catch  Crops.  On  some  plantations  it 
has  become  the  practise  to  grow  catch  crops 
between  the  rows  of  coffee  trees,  both  as 
a,  means  of  obtaining'  additional  revenue 
and  to  shade  the  young  coffee  plants.  Corn, 
beans,  cotton,  peanuts,  and  similar  plant-s 
are  most  generally  used. 

Pests  and  Diseases.  The  coffee  tree,  its 
wood,  foliage,  and  fruit,  have  their  enemies, 
chief  among  which  are  insects,  fungi, 
rodents  (the  "'coffee  rat"),  birds,  squirrels. 

and  —  according  to  Rossignon  —  elephants, 
buffalo,  and  native  cattle,  which  have  a 
special  liking  for  the  tender  leaves  of  the 
coffee  plant.  Insects  and  fungi  are  the 
most  bothersome  pests  on  most  plantations. 
Among  the  insects,  the  several  varieties  of 
borers  are  the  principal  foes,  boring  into 
the  wood  of  the  trunk  and  branches  to  lay 
larvae  which  sap  the  life  from  the  tree. 
There  are  scale  insects  whose  excretion 
forms  a  black  mold  on  the  leaves  and 
affects  the  nutrition  by  cutting' off  the  sun- 
light. Numerous  kinds  of  beetles,  cater- 
pillars, grasshoppers,  and  crickets  attack 
the  coffee-tree  leaves,  the  so-called  "leaf- 
miner"  being  especially  troublesome.  The 
Mediterranean  fruit  fly  deposits  larvae 
which  destroy  or  lessen  the  worth  of  the 
coffee  berry  by  tunneling  within  and  eating 
the  contents  of  the  parchment.  The  coffee- 
berry  beetle  and  its  grub  also  live  within 
the  coffee  berry. 

Among  the  most  destructive  fungoid  dis- 
eases is  the  so-called  Ceylon  leaf  disease, 
which  is  caused  by  the  Hemileia  vastatrix,  a 
fungus  related  to  the  wheat  rust.  It  was 
this  disease  which  ruined  the  coffee  industry 
in  Ceylon,  where  it  first  appeared  in  1869, 



and  since  has  been  found  in  other  coffee- 
producing  regions  of  Asia  and  Africa. 
America  has  a  similar  disease,  caused  by  the 
Sphaerostilhe  flavida,  that  is  equally  de- 
structive if  not  vigilantly  guarded  against. 
(See  chapters  XV  and  XVI.) 

The  coffee-tree  roots  also  are  subject  to 
attack.  There  is  the  root  disease,  prevalent 
in  all  countries,  and  for  wh'ch  no  cause 
has  yet  been  definitely  assigned,  although 
it  has  been  determined  that  it  is  of  a 
fungoid  nature.  Brazil,  and  some  other 
American  coft'ee-producing  countries,  have 
a  serious  disease  caused  by  the  eelworm, 
and  for  that  reason  called  the  eelworm 

Coffee  planters  combat  pests  and  diseases 
principally  with  sprays,  as  in  other  lines  of 
advanced  arboriculture.  It  is  a  constant 
battle,  especially  on  the  large  commercial 
plantations,  and  constitutes  a  large  item  on 
the  expense  sheet. 

Cultivation  hy  Countries 

Coffee-cultivation  methods  vary  some- 
what in  detail  in  the  different  producing 
countries.  The  foregoing  description  covers 
the  underlying  principles  in  practise 
throughout  the  world;  while  the  following 
is   intended   to   show   the   local  variations 

in  vogue  in  the  principal  countries  of 
production,  together  with  brief  descriptions 
of  the  main  producing  districts,  the  alti- 
tudes, character  of  soil,  climate,  and  other 
factors  that  are  peculiar  to  each  country. 
In  general,  they  are  considered  in  the  order 
of  their  relative  importance  as  producing 

Brazil.  In  Brazil,  the  Giant  of  South 
America,  and  the  world's  largest  coffee 
producer,  the  methods  of  cultivation  natur- 
ally have  reached  a  high  point  of  develop- 
ment, although  the  soil  and  the  climat3 
were  not  at  first  regarded  as  favorable. 
The  year  1723  is  generally  accepted  as  the 
date  of  the  introduction  of  the  coft'ee  plant 
into  Brazil  from  French  Guiana.  Coffee 
planting  was  slow  in  developing,  however, 
until  1732,  when  the  governor  of  the  states 
of  Para  and  Maranhao  urged  its  cultiva- 
tion. Sixteen  years  later,  there  were  17,000 
trees  in  Para.  From  that  year  on,  slow 
but  steady  progress  was  made ;  and  by  1770, 
an  export  trade  had  been  begun  from  the 
port  of  Para  to  countries  in  Europe. 

The  spread  of  the  industry  began  about 
this  time.  The  coffee  tree  was  introduced 
into  the  state  of  Rio  de  Janeiro  in  1770. 
From  there  its  cultivation  was  gradually 

Up-to-Date   Weeding   and  Hakeowing,  Sao  Paulo 



Photograph  by  Courtesy  of  J.   Aron  &  Co. 

General  View  of  Fazenda  Uumont,  Ribeirao  Preto,  Sao  Paulo,   Brazil 

extended  into  the  states  of  Sao  Paulo,  Minas 
Geraes,  Bahia,  and  Espirito  Santo,  which 
have  become  the  great  coffee-producing  sec- 
tions of  Brazil.  The  cultivation  of  the 
plant  did  not  become  especially  noteworthy 
until  the  third  decade  of  the  nineteenth 
century.  Large  crops  were  gathered  in  the 
season  of  1842  -  43 ;  and  by  the  middle  of 
the  century,  the  plantations  were  producing 
annually  more  than  2,000,000  bags. 

Brazil's  commercial  coffee-growing  region 
has  an  estimated  area  of  approximately 
1,158,000  square  miles,  and  extends  from 
the  river  Amazon  to  the  southern  border  of 
the  state  of  Sao  Paulo,  and  from  the 
Atlantic  coast  to  the  western  boundary  of 
the  state  of  Matto  Grosso.  This  area  is 
larger  than  that  section  of  the  United 
States  lying  east  of  the  Mississippi  River, 
with  Texas  added.  In  every  state  of  the 
republic,  from  Ceara  in  the  north  to  Santa 
Catharina  in  the  south,  the  coffee  tree  can 
be  cultivated  profitably;  and  is,  in  fact,, 
more  or  less  grown  in  every  state,  if  only 
for  domestic  use.  However,  little  attention 
is  given  to  coffee-growing  in  the  north,  ex- 
cept in  the  state  of  Pernambuco,  which  has 
only  about  1,500,000  trees,  as  compared, 
with  the  764.000,000  trees  of  Sao  Paulo  in 

The  chief  coffee-growing  plantations  in 
Brazil  are  situated  on  plateaus  seldom  less 
than  1,800  feet  above  sea-level,  and  ranging 

up  to  4,000  feet.  The  mean  annual  tem- 
perature is  approximately  70°  F.,  rang- 
ing from  a  mean  of  60.8°  in  winter  to  a 
mean  of  72°  in  summer.  The  temperature 
has  been  known,  however,  to  register  32° 
in  winter  and  97.7°   in  summer. 

"While  coffee  trees  will  grow  in  almost 
any  part  of  Brazil,  experience  indicates 
that  the  two  most  fertile  soils,  the  terra 
roxa  and  the  massape,  lie  in  the  "coffee 
belts."  The  terra  roxa  is  a  dark  red  earth, 
and  is  practically  confined  to  Sao  Paulo, 
and  to  it  is  due  the  predominant  coffee 
productivity  of  that  state.  Massape  is  a 
yellow,  dark  red  —  or  even  black  —  soil, 
and  occurs  more  or  less  contiguous  to  the 
terra  roxa.  With  a  covering  of  loose  sand, 
it  makes  excellent  coffee  land. 

Brazil  planters  follow  the  nursery-propa- 
gated method  of  planting,  and  cultivate, 
prune,  and  spray  their  trees  liberally. 
Transplanting  is  done  in  the  months  from 
November  to  February. 

Coffee-growing  profits. have  shown  a  de- 
cided falling  off  in  Brazil  in  recent  years. 
In  1900  it  was  not  uncommon  for  a  coffee 
estate  to  yield  an  annual  profit  of  from  100 
to  250  percent.  Ten  years  later  the  average 
returns  did  not  exceed  twelve  percent. 

In  Brazil's  coffee  belt  there  are  two  sea- 
sons —  the  wet,  running  from  September 
to  March ;  and  the  dry,  running  from  April 
to  August.     The  coffee  trees  are  in  bloom 





from  September  to  December.  The  blos- 
soms last  about  four  days,  and  are  easily 
beaten  off  by  light  winds  or  rains.  If  the 
rains  or  winds  are  violent,  the  green  berries 
may  be  similarly  destroyed ;  so  that  great 
damage  may  be  caused  by  unseasonable 
rains  and  storms. 

The  harvest  usually  begins  in  April  or 
May,  and  extends  well  into  the  dry  season. 
Even  in  the  picking  season,  heavy  rains 
and  strong  winds  —  especially  the  latter  — 
may  do  considerable  damage;  for  in  Brazil 
shade  trees  and  wind-breaks  are  the  excep- 

Approximately  twenty-five  percent  of  the 
Sao  Paulo  plantations  are  cultivated  by 
machinery,  A  type  of  cultivator  very  com- 
mon is  similar  to  the  small  corn-plow  used 
in  the  United  States.  The  Planet  Junior, 
manufactured  by  a  well  known  United 
States  agricultural-machinery  firm,  is  the 
most  popular  cultivator.  It  is  drawn  by  a 
small  mule,  with  a  boy  to  lead  it,  and  a 
man  to  drive  and  to  guide  the  plow. 

The  preponderance  of  the  coffee  over 
other  industries  in  Sao  Paulo  is  shown  in 
many  ways.  A  few  years  ago  the  registra- 
tion of  laborers  in  all  industries  was  about 
450,000;  and  of  this  total,  420,000  were 
employed  in  the  production  and  transpor- 
tation of  coffee  alone.  Of  the  capital  in- 
vested in  all  industries,  about  eighty-five 
percent  was  in  coffee  production  and  com- 
merce, including  the  railroads  that  de- 
pended upon  it  directly.  An  estimated 
value  of  $482,500,000  was  placed  upon  the 

Copyright  by  Brown  &  Uawsui 

Picking  Coffee  in  Sao  Paulo 

plantations  in  the  state,  including  land,, 
machinery,  the  residences  of  owners,  and 
laborers'  quarters. 

In  all  Brazil,  there  are  approximately 
1,200,000,000  coffee  trees.  The  number  of 
bearing  coffee  trees  in  Sao  Paulo  alone  in- 
creased from  735,000.000  in  1914-15  to: 
834,000,000 'in  1917-18.  The  crop  in  1917- 
18  was  1,615,000,000  pounds,  one  of  the 
largest  on  record.  In  the  agricultural  vear 
of  1922-23  there  were  764,969,500  coffee 
trees  in  bearing  in  Sao  Paulo,  and  in  Sao 
Paulo,    Minas,    and    Parana,    824,194,500. 

Plantations  having  from  300,000  to  400,- 
000  trees  are  common.  One  plantation  near 
Ribeirao  Preto  has  5,000,000  trees,  and 
requires  an  army  of  6,000  laborers  to  work 

y   •:    .1.    A:,  i:    \    (V. 

Intensive  Cultivation  METiions  in  the  Kibeirao  Preto  District,  Sao  Paulo 




1?                  ^ 


^- ■...•,     !'■  '     ■     ^:'.^.dMM 

^^H^^^^^HBHt'l^  JjTfl 

Pliotograph  by  Courtesy  of  J.  Aion  k  Co. 

Private    Railroad    on  a  Sao  Paulo  Coffee  Fazenda 
Showing   coffee  trees  and   laborers'    houses  in   the  middle   distance  at  right 

it.  Another  planter  owns  thirty-two  ad- 
jacent plantations  containing,  in  all,  from 
7,500,000  to  8,000,000  coffee  trees  and 
gives  employment  to  8,000  persons.  There 
are  fifteen  plantations  having  more  than 
1,000,000  trees  each,  and  five  of  these  have 
more  than  2,000,000  trees  each.  In  the 
munieipalitv  of  Ribeirao  Preto  there  were 
30,000,000  trees  in  1922. 

The  largest  coffee  plantations  in  the  world 
are  the  Fazendas  Dumont  and  the  Fazendas 
Schmidt.  The  Fazendas  Dumont  were 
valued,  in  1915,  in  cost  of  land  and  im- 
provements, at  $5,920,007;  and  since  those 
figures  were  given  out,  the  value  of  the 
investment  has  much  increased.  Of  the 
various  Fazendas  Schmidt,  the  largest, 
owned  by  Colonel  Francisco  Schmidt,  in 
1918  had  9.000.000  trees  with  an  annual 
yield  of  200,000  bags,  or  26,400,000  pounds, 
of  coffee.  Other  large  plantations  in  Sao 
Paulo  with  a  million  or  more  trees,  are  the 
Companhia  Agricola  Fazenda  Dumont,  2,- 
420,000  trees;  Companhia  Sao  Martinho, 
2,300,000  trees ;  Companhia  Dumont,  2,000,- 
000  trees :  »Sao  Paulo  Coffee  Company, 
1,860,000  trees;  Christiana  Oxorio  de 
Oliveira.  1.790.000  trees;  Companhia  Guata. 
para  1.550.000  trees;  Dr.  Alfredo  Ellis, 
1,271,000  trees;  Companhia  Agricola  Ara- 
qua,  1,200,000  trees;  Companhia  Agricola 
Ribeirao  Preto,  1,138,000  trees;  Rodriguez 
Alves  Irmaos,  1,060,000  trees;  Francisca 
Silveira  do  Val,  1,050,000  trees;  Luiza  de 
Oliveira  Azevedo,  1,045,000  trees;  and  the 
Companhia  Cafeeria  Sao  Paulo,  1,000,000 

The  average  annual  yield  in  Sao  Paulo  is 
estimated  at  from  1,750  to  4,000  pounds 

from  a  thousand  trees,  while  in  exceptional 
instances  it  is  said  that  as  much  as  6,000 
pounds  per  1,000  trees  have  been  gathered.^ 
Dift'erences  in  local  climatic  conditions,  in 
ages  of  trees,  in  richness  of  soil,  and  in  the 
care  exercised  in  cultivation,  are  given  as 
the  reasons  for  the  wide  variation. 

The  oldest  coffee-growing  district  in  Sao 
Paulo  is  Campinas,     There  are  136  others. 

Bahia  coffee  is  not  so  carefully  cultivated 
and  harvested  as  the  Santos  coffee.  The 
introduction  of  capital  and  modern  methods 
would  do  much  for  Bahia,  which  has  the 
advantage  of  a  shorter  haul  to  the  New 
York  and  the  European  markets. 

On  the  average,  something  like  seventy 
percent  of  the  world's  coffee  crop  is  grown 
in  Brazil,  and  two-thirds  of  this  is  produced 
in  Sao  Paulo.  Coffee  culture  in  many  dis- 
tricts of  Sao  Paulo  has  been  brought  to  the 
point  of  highest  development;  and  yet  its 
product  is  essentially  a  quantity,  not  a 
quality,  one. 

Colombia.  In  Colombia^coffee  is  the 
J2rineipal  crop  gro\\'n  tor  export  It  is 
produced  m  nearly — aii — depSHments  at 
elevations  ranging  from  3,500  feet  to  6,500 
feet.  Chief  among  the  coffee-growing  de- 
partments are  Antioquia  (capital,  Medel- 
lin)  ;  Caldas  (capital,  Manizales)  ;  Mag- 
daleuaL^(capitfil,  Santa  Marta)  ;  Sgntander 
(capital,  Bucaramanga)  ;  Tolima'~(' capital, 
Ibague)  ;  and  the  Federal  TPistric^  (capital, 
Bogota).  'I'he  department  of  Cundm'a- 
marca  produces  a  coffee  that  is  counted  one 
of  the  best  of  Colombian  grades.  The  finest 
grades  are  grown  in  the  foot-hills  of  the 
Andes,  in  altitudes  from  3,500  to  4,500  feet 
above  sea  level. 



The  Conducting  Sluiceway  at  Guatapaea 

The  running  water  carries  tlie  picljecl  coffee  berries  to  pulpers    and   washing   tanks 

CuilEE    ritlvl.NG    AM)    l-'lKLI)    Tl!A.\Sl'OI!T 














I'icKiNG  Coffee  on  a   LIogota    Plantation 

Methods  of  planting,  cultivation,  gather- 
ing, and  preparing  the  Colombian  coffee 
crop  for  the  market  are  substantially  those 
that  are  common  in  all  cofifee-producing 
_eountries,  although  they  differ  in  some  small 
particulars.  About  700  trees  are  usually 
planted  to  the  acre,  and  native  trees  fur- 
nish the  necessary  shade.  The  average 
yield  is  one  pound  per  tree  per  year. 

While  Coffea  arabica  has  been  mostly  cul- 
tivated in  Colombia,  as  in  the  other  coun- 
tries of  South  America,  the  liherica  variety 
has  not  been  neglected.  Seeds  of  the 
liherica  tree  were  planted  here  soon  after 
1880,  and  were  moderately  successful. 
Since  1900,  more  attention  has  been  given 
to  liherica,  and  attempts  have  been  made 
to  grow  it  upon  banana  and  rubber  planta- 
tions, which  seem  to  provide  all  the  shade 
protection  that  is  needed.  Liherica  coffee 
trees  begin  to  bear  in  their  third  year. 
From  the  fifth  year,  when  a  crop  of  about 
650  pounds  to  the  acre  can  reasonably  be 
expected,  the  productiveness  steadily  in- 
creases until  after  fifteen  or  sixteen  years, 
when  a  maximum  of  over  one  thousand 
pounds  an  acre  is  attained. 

Antioquia  is  the  largest  coffee  producing 
department  in  the  republic,  and  its  coffee 
is  of  the  highest  grade  grown.     Medellin, 

the  capital,  where  the  business  interests  of 
the  industry  are  concentrated,  is  a  hand- 
some white  city  located  on  the  banks  of  the 
Aburra  river,  in  a  picturesque  valley  that 
is  overlooked  by  the  high  peaks  of  the 
Andean  range.  It  is  a  town  of  about 
80,000  inhabitants,  thriving  as  a  manufac- 
turing center,  abundant  in  modern  improve- 
ments, and  is  the  center  of  a  coffee  produc- 
tion of  500,000  bags  known  in  the  market 
as  Medellin  and  Manizales.  Another  center 
in  this  coffee  region  is  the  town  of  Mani- 
zales, perched  on  the  crest  of  the  Andean 
spurs  to  dominate  the  valley  extending  to 
Medellin  and  the  Cauca  valley  to  the 
Pacific.  There-about  many  small  coffee 
growers  are  settled,  and  several  hundred 
thousand  bags  of  the  beans  pass  through 

One  of  the  interesting  plantations  of  the 
country  was  started  a  few  years  ago  in  a 
remote  region  by  an  enterprising  American 
investor.  It  was  located  on  the  slopes  of 
the  Sierra  Nevada  mountains  3,000  to  5,000 
feet  above  sea-level,  about  twenty-five  miles 
from  the  city  of  Santa  Marta.  An  extended 
acreage  of  forest-covered  land  was  acquired, 
about  600  acres  of  which  were  cleared  and 
either  planted  in  coffee  or  reserved  for 
pasturage  and  other  kinds  of  agriculture. 



When  the  plantation  came  to  maturity,  it 
had  nearly  300,000  trees.  In  1919.  there 
were  425,000  trees  producing  3,600  hun- 
dred-weight of  coffee. 

A  typical  Colombian  plantation  is  the 
Namay,  owned  by  one  of  the  bankers  of  the 
iBanco^de  Colombia  of  Bogota.  It  is  located 
'a  good  half  day's  travel  by  rail  and  horse- 
back from  the  city,  about  5,000  feet  above 
the  level  of  the  sea.  There  are  1,000  acres 
in  the  plantation,  with  250,000  trees  having 
an  ultimate  productive  capacity  of  nearly 
2,000  bags  a  year.  During  crop  times, 
which  are  from  May  to  July,  about  two 
hundred  families  are  needed  on  an  estate 
oi  this  size. 

Venezuela.  Seeds  of  the  coffee  plant 
were  brought  into  Venezuela  from  Marti- 
nique in  1784  by  a  priest  who  started  a 
small  plantation  near  Caracas.  Five  years 
later,  the  first  export  of  the  bean  was 
made,  233  bags,  or  about  30,000  pounds. 
Within  fifty  years,  production  had  in- 
creased to  upward  of  50,000,000  pounds 
annually ;  and  by  the  end  of  the  nineteenth 
century,  to  more  than  100,000,000  pounds. 

Situated  between  the  equator  and  the 
twelfth  parallel  of  north  latitude,  in  the 
world's  coffee  belt,  this  country  has  an 
area  equal  to  that  of  all  the  United  States 
east  of  the  Mississippi  river  and  north  of 

the  Ohio  and  Potomac  rivers,  or  greater 
than  that  of  France,  Germany,  and  the 
Netherlands  combined  —  599,533  square 

The  chain  of  the  Maritime  Andes,  reach- 
ing eastward  across  Colombia  and  Vene- 
zuela, approaches  the  Caribbean  coast  in 
the  latter  country.  Along  the  slopes  and 
foot-hills  of  these  mountains  are  produced 
some  of  the  finest  grades  of  South  American 
coffee.  Here  the  best  coffee  grows  in  the 
tierra  templada  and  in  the  lower  part  of  the 
tierra  fria,  and  is  known  as  the  cafe  de 
tierra  fria,  or  coffee  of  the  cold,  or  high, 
land.  In  these  regions  the  equable  climate, 
the  constant  and  adequate  moisture,  the 
rich  and  well-drained  soil,  and  the  protect- 
ing forest  shade  afford  the  conditions  under 
which  the  plant  grows  and  thrives  best.  On 
the  fertile  lowland  valleys  nearer  the  coast 
grows  the  cafe  de  tierra  caliente,  or  coffee 
of  the  hot  land. 

Coffee  growing  has  become  the  main 
agricultural  pursuit  of  the  country.  In 
1839  it  was  estimated  that  there  were  8,900 
acres  of  land  planted  in  coffee,  and  in  1888 
there  were  168,000,000  coffee  trees  in  the 
country  on  346,000  acres  of  land.  In  the 
opening  years  of  the  twentieth  century  not 
far  from  250,000  acres  were  devoted  to  this 
cultivation,  comprised  in  upward  of  33,000 

The  long  pipe  crossing 

On  the  Altamira  Hacienda,    Venezuela 
the  center  of  the  picture  is  a  water    sluiceway    bringing 

coffee    down    from    the    hills 




}■                " 



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*»-      . 


Carmen    Hacienda,  Fronting  on  the  Escalante  Kivek,  Venezuela 

plantations.  The  average  yield  per  acre  is 
about  250  pounds.  The  trees  are  usually 
planted  from  two  to  two  and  a  quarter 
meters  apart,  and  this  gives  about  800  trees 
to  the  acre.  The  triangle  system  is  un- 

In  this  country,  the  coffee  tree  bears  its 
first  crop  when  four  or  five  years  old.  The 
trees  are  not  subject  to  unusual  hazards 
from  the  attacks  of  injurious  insects  and 
animals  or  from  serious  parasitic  diseases. 
Nature  is  kind  to  them,  and  their  only  seri- 
ous contention  for  existence  arises  from  the 
luxuriant  tropical  vegetation  by  which  they 
are  surrounded.  On  the  whole  their  culti- 
vation is  comparatively  easy.  On  the  best 
managed  estates  there  are  not  more  than 
1,000  trees  to  a  fanegada  —  about  one  and 
three-quarters  acres  of  land  —  and  it  is 
calculated  that  an  average  annual  yield  for 
such  a  fanegada  should  be  about  twenty 
quintals,  a  little  more  than  2,032  pounds  of 
merchantable  coffee.  It  is  to  be  noted, 
however,  that  the  average  yield  per  tree 
throughout  Venezuela  is  low  —  not  more 
than  four  ounces. 

There  are  no  great  coffee  belts  as  in 
Mexico  and  Central  America.  Many  dis- 
tricts are  days'  rides  apart.  The  planta- 
tions are  isolated,  and  there  is  lacking  a  co- 
operative spirit  among  the  growers. 

Methods  of  cultivating  and  preparing  the 
berry  for  the  market  are  substantially  those 
that  prevail  elsewhere  in  South  America. 

Most  plantations  are  handled  in  ordinary, 
old-fashioned  ways;  but  the  better  estates 
employ  machinery  and  methods  of  the  most 
advanced  and  improved  character  at  all 
points  of  their  operation,  from  the  planting 
of  the  seed  to  the  final  marketing  of  the 

Java.  Java,  the  oldest  coffee-producing 
country  in  which  the  tree  is  not  indigenous, 
was  producing  a  high-grade  coffee  long 
before  Brazil,  Colombia,  and  Venezuela 
entered  the  industry;  and  it  held  its 
supremacy  in  the  world's  trade  for  many 
years  before  the  younger  American  pro- 
ducing countries  were  able  to  surpass  its 
annual  output.  The  first  attempt  to  intro- 
duce the  plant  into  Java  took  place  in  1696, 
the  seedlings  being  brought  from  Malabar 
in  India  and  planted  at  Kadawoeng,  near 
Batavia.  Earthquake  and  flood  soon  de- 
stroyed the  plants;  and  in  1699  Henricus 
Zwaardecroon  brought  the  second  lot  of 
seedings  from  Malabar.  These  became  the 
progenitors  of  all  the  arahica  coffees  of  the 
Dutch  East  Indies.  The  industry  grew, 
and  in  1711  the  first  Java  coffee  was  sold  at 
public  auction  in  Amsterdam.  Exports 
amounted  to  116,587  pounds  in  1720;  and 
in  1724  the  Amsterdam  market  sold  1,396,- 
486  pounds  of  coffee  from  Java. 

From  the  early  part  of  the  nineteenth 
century  up  to  1905,  cultivation  was  carried 
on  under  a  Dutch  government  monopoly — 






•/:-^  -  :<y^^- 

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^••;f  r>^r:-i 

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A  Heavy  Fruiting  of  Coifea  Robusta  in  Java 

excepting  for  the  five  years,  1811  - 16, 
when  the  British  had  control  of  the  island. 
The  government  monopoly  was  first  estab- 
lished when  Marshal  Daendels,  acting  for 
the  crown  of  Holland,  took  control  of  the 
islands  from  the  Netherlands  East  India 
Company.  Before  that  time,  the  princes  of 
Preanger  had  raised  all  the  coffee  under 
the  provisions  of  a  treaty  made  in  the 
middle  of  the  eighteenth  century,  by  which 
they  paid  an  annual  tribute  in  coffee  to  the 
company  for  the  privilege  of  retaining 
their  land  revenues.  When  the  Dutch  gov- 
ernment recovered  the  islands  from  the. 
British,  the  plantations,  which  had  been  per- 
mitted to  go  to  ruin,  were  put  in  order 
again,  and  the  government  system  re-estab- 

A  modification  of  the  first  monopoly  plan 
of  the  government  was  put  into  effect  later 
in  the  regime  of  Governor  Van  den  Bosch, 
^nd  was  maintained  until  into  the  twentieth 
century.  Under  the  Daendels  plan,  each 
native  family  was  required  to  keep  1000 
coffee  trees  in  bearing  on  village  lands,  and 
to  give  to  the  government  two-fifths  of  the 
crop,  delivered  cleaned  and  sorted,  at  the 
government  store.  The  natives  retained  the 
other  three-fifths.  Under  the  Van  den 
Bosch  system,  each  family  was  required  to 

raise  and  care  for  650  trees  and  to  deliver 
the  crop  cleaned  and  sorted  to  the  govern- 
ment stores  at  a  fixed  price.  The  govern- 
ment then  sold  the  coffee  at  public  auctions 
in  Batavia,  Padang,  Amsterdam,  or  Rotter- 

This  method  of  fostering  the  new  in- 
dustry resulted  in  government  control  of 
fully  four-fifths  of  the  area  under  the  crop, 
only  the  small  balance  being  owned  or 
worked  independently  by  private  enter- 
prise. For  many  years  after  the  cultiva- 
tion had  been  fully  started,  this  condition 
of  the  business  persisted.  Most  of  the  pri- 
vately-operated plantations  had  been  in 
existence  before  the  government  had  set  up 
its  monopoly  system.  Others  were  on  the 
estates  of  native  princes  who,  in  treating 
with  the  Dutch,  had  been  able  to  retain 
some  of  their  original  sovereign  rights. 
While  these  plans  worked  well  in  encourag- 
ing the  industry  at  the  outset,  they  were  not 
conducive  to  the  fullest  possibilities  in  pro- 
duction. Forced  labor  on  the  government 
plantations  was  naturally  apt  to  be  slow, 
careless,  and  indifferent.  Private  owner- 
ship and  operation  bettered  this  somewhat, 
•^he  private  estates  being  able  to  show  an- 
nual yields  of  from  one  to  two  pounds  per 
tree  as  compared  with  only  a  little  more 



than  one-half  pound  per  tree  on  govern- 
ment-controlled estates. 

In  the  course  of  time,  the  system  of  pri- 
vate ownership  gradually  expanded  beyond 
that  of  the  government;  and  before  the  end 
of  the  nineteenth  century,  private  owners 
were  growing  and  exporting  more  coffee 
than  did  the  Javanese  government.  The 
government  withdrew  from  the  coffee  busi- 
ness in  Java  in  1905,  and  the  last  govern- 
ment auction  was  held  in  June  of  that  year. 
The  monopoly  in  Sumatra  was  given  up  in 
1908.  After  that,  however,  coffee  con- 
tinued to  be  grown  on  government  lands, 
but  in  much  less  quantity  than  in  the  years 
immediately  preceding.  The  Dutch  govern- 
ment withdrew  from  all  coffee  cultivation 
in  1918  - 19. 

According  to  statistics,  the  ground  under 
cultivation  for  all  kinds  of  coffee  in  Java 
and  the  other  islands  of  the  Dutch  East 
Indies  in  1919  was  142,272  acres,  of  which 
112,138  acres  were  in  Java.  Of  this  area, 
110.903  acres  were  planted  with  robust  a, 
15,314  acres  with  arabica,  4,940  with 
liherica,  and  11,115  with  other  varieties. 

There  were  more  than  400  European- 
managed  estates  in  1915,  covering  a  planted 
area  of  about  209,000  acres.  Three  hun- 
dred and  thirty  of  these  estates,  represent- 

ing 165,000  acres,  were  in  Java.  On  that 
island  production  in  1904  was  47,927,000 
pounds;  in  1905,  59,092,000  pounds;  in 
1906,  66,953,000  pounds;  in  1907,  31,044,- 
000  pounds ;  1908,  39,349,000  pounds.  The 
total  crop  in  1919  for  all  the  Netherlands 
East  Indies  was  97,361,000  pounds,  as 
against  140,764,800  pounds  for  1918. 

Intensive  cultivation  methods  on  the 
European-operated  plantations  in  Java 
have  been  practised  for  many  years;  and 
the  Netherlands  East  Indies  government 
has  long  maintained  experimental  stations 
for  the  purpose  of  improving  strains  and 
cultivation  methods. 

In  some  parts  of  the  island,  especially  in 
the  highlands,  the  climate  and  soil  are  ideal 
for  coffee  culture.  The  robusta  tree  grows 
satisfactorily  even  at  altitudes  of  less  than 
1,000  feet  in  some  regions ;  but  its  bearing 
life  is  only  about  ten  years,  as  compared 
with  the  thirty  years  of  the  arabica  at 
altitudes  of  from  3,000  to  4,000  feet.  The 
low-ground  trees  generally  produce  earlier 
and  more  abundantly.  On  some  of  the 
highland  plantations,  pruning  is  not  prac- 
tised to  any  great  extent,  and  the  trees 
often  reach  thirty  or  forty  feet  in  height. 
This  necessitates  the  use  of  ladders  in  pick- 

lloAD  TiiuouGU  A  Coffee  Estate  in  East  Java 



Native  Picking  Coffee,  Sumatha 

ing;  but  frequently  the  yield  per  tree  has 
been  from  six  to  seven  pounds. 

Coffee  is  produced  commercially  in  near- 
ly every  political  district  in  Java,  but  the 
bulk  of  the  yield  is  obtained  from  East 
Java,  The  names  best  known  to  European 
and  American  traders  are  those  of  the 
regencies  of  Besoeki  and  Pasoeroean ;  be- 
cause their  coffees  make  up  eighty-seven 
percent  of  Java's  production.  Some  of  the 
other  better  known  districts  are :  Preanger, 

Cheribon,  Kadoe,  Samarang,  Soerabaya,  and 

The  arabica  variety  has  practically  been 
driven  out  of  the  districts  below  3,500  feet 
altitude  by  the  leaf  disease,  and  has  been 
succeeded  by  the  more  hardy  robust  a  and 
Uherica  coffees  and  their  hybrids.  Illus- 
trating the  importance  of  robusta  coffee, 
Netherlands  East  India  government  in  a 
statement  issued  August,  1919,  estimated 
the  area  under  cultivation  on  all  islands  as 
follows:  robusta,  eighty-four  percent; 
arabica,  five  and  one-half  percent;  liberica, 
four  and  one-half  percent.  The  balance, 
six  percent,  was  made  up  of  scores  of  other 
varieties,  among  the  most  important  being 
the  canepliora,  Ugandae,  baukobensis,  sua- 
kurensis,  Qwillou,  stenophylla,  and  rood- 
bessige.  All  of  these  are  similar  to  robusta, 
and  are  exported  as  robiista-achtigen 
(robusta-like) .  The  liberica  group  includes 
the  excelsa,  abeokuta,  Dewevrei,  arnoldi- 
aiia,  aruwimiensis,  and  Dybowskii. 

Sumatra.  Practically  all  the  coffee  dis- 
tricts in  Sumatra  are  on  the  west  coast, 
where  the  plant  was  first  propagated  early 
in  the  eighteenth  century.  Padang,  the 
capital  city,  is  the  headquarters  for 
Sumatra  coffee.  With  climate  and  soil 
similar  to  Java,  the  island  of  Sumatra  has 
the  added  advantage  that  its  land  is  not 
"coffee  moe'\  or  coffee  tired,  as  is  the  case 










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-   I 

Palatial  Bungalow  of  Administkator,  Db  vmaga,    in    the    Preanger  District,  Java 

A  L  I.     ABO  U  T     C  O  F  1^^  K  E 

"111    li\iL    Sau.iau    \i;,-,.skl    Lc)A1)I.\(,    ;.s    f.vuA.s,,    ICuau; 

i.NTElUOl!    OF    A    DLTCH    CoI  1  KKCLLA^sI.NU    FACTOUY,    TADA-NLi 




Administkatoe's   Bungalow   on  the    Gadoeng   Batoe   Estate,    Sumatra 

in  parts  of  Java.  Some  of  the  world's  best 
coffees  are  still  coming  from  Sumatra;  and 
the  island  has  possibilities  that  could  make 
it  an  important  factor  in  production. 
Sumatra  produced  287,179  piculs  of  coffee 
in  1920.  The  total  production  of  all  the 
islands  that  year  was  807,591  piculs. 

The  districts  of  Ankola,  Siboga,  Ayer 
Bangles,  Mandheling,  Palembang,  Padang, 
and  Benkoelen,  on  the  west  coast,  have 
some  of  the  largest  estates  on  the  island; 
and  their  products  are  well  known  in  inter- 
national trade.  The  east  coast  has  recently 
gone  in  for  heavy  plantings  of  rohusta. 

As  in  Java,  coifee  for  a  century  or  more 
was  cultivated  under  the  government-mo- 
nopoly scheme.  The  compulsory  system  was 
given  up  in  this  island  in  1908,  three  years 
after  it  was  abandoned  in  Java. 

Other  East  Indies.  Coffee  is  grown  in 
several  of  the  other  islands  in  the  Dutch 
East  Indian  archipelago,  chiefly  on  the 
Celebes,  Bali,  Lombok,  the  Moluccas,  and 
Timor.  Most  of  the  estates  are  under 
native  control,  and  the  methods  of  cultiva- 
tion are  not  up  to  the  standard  of  the 
European-owned  plantations  on  the  larger 
islands  of  Java  and  Sumatra.  The  most 
important  of  these  islands  is  Celebes,  where 
the  first  coffee  plant  was  introduced  from 
Java  about  1750,  but  where  cultivation  was 
not  carried  on  to  any  great  extent  until 

about  seventy-five  years  later.  In  1822  the 
production  amounted  to  10,000  pounds;  in 
1917,  the  yield  was  1,322,328  pounds. 

Salvador.  Coffee,  which  is  far  and  away 
the  most  important  crop  in  Salvador,  con- 
stitutes in  value  more  than  one-half  the 
total  exports.  It  has  been  cultivated  since 
about  1852,  when  plants  were  brought  from 
Havana;  but  the  development  of  the  in- 
dustry in  its  early  years  was  not  rapid. 
The  first  large  plantations  were  established 
in  1876  in  La  Paz,  and  that  department  has 
become  the  leading  coffee-producing  section 
of  the  country. 

The  berry  is  grown  in  all  districts  that 
have  altitudes  of  from  1,500  to  4,000  feet. 
Besides  those  of  La  Paz,  the  most  produc- 
tive plantations  are  in  the  departments  of 
Santa  Ana,  Sonsonate,  San  Salvador,  San 
Vincente,  San  Miguel,  Santa  Tecla,  and 
Ahuachapam.  In  contrast  with  several  of 
the  adjoining  Central  American  republics, 
native  Salvadoreans  are  the  owners  of  most 
of  the  coffee  farms,  very  few  having  passed 
into  the  hands  of  foreigners.  The  laborers 
are  almost  entirely  native  Indians.  A  con- 
siderable part  of  the  work  of  cultivating 
and  preparing  the  berry  for  the  market  is 
still  done  by  hand;  but  in  recent  years 
machinery  has  been  set  up  on  the  large 
estates  and  for  general  use  in  the  receiving 



Well  Cultivated  Young  Coffee  Tkees  in  Blossom 

Entrance  to  a  Finca  in  the  Highlands 



It  is  estimated  that  now  about  166,000 
acres  are  under  coffee,  nearly  all  the  land 
in  the  country  suitable  for  that  purpose. 
As  in  most  other  coffee-raising  countries, 
the  trees  begin  bearing  when  they  are  two 
or  three  years  old,  reach  full  maturity  at 
the  age  of  seven  or  eight  years,  and  con- 
tinue to  bear  for  about  thirty  years.  In- 
tensive cultivation  and  a  more  extensive 
use  of  fertilizers  have  been  urged  as  neces- 
sary in  order  to  increase  the  crop ;  but,  so 
far,  with  not  much  effect,  the  importation 
of  fertilizer  being  still  very  small.  Crop 
gathering  begins  in  the  lowlands  in  No- 
vember, and  gradually  proceeds  into  the 
higher  regions,  month  by  month,  until  the 
picking  in  the  highest  altitudes  is  finished 
in  the  following  March. 

Guatemala.  Guatemala  began  intensive 
coffee  growing  about  1875.  Coffee  had  been 
known  in  the  country  in  a  small  way  from 
about  1850,  but  now  serious  attention  began 
to  be  given  to  its  cultivation,  and  it  quickly 
advanced  to  an  industrial  position  of  im- 
portance. Within  a  generation  it  became 
the  great  staple  crop  of  the  country. 

Guatemala  has  an  area  of  48,250  square 
miles,  about  the  size  of  the  state  of  Ohio. 
Its  population  is  about  2,000,000.  Three 
mountain  ranges,  intersecting  magnificent 
table  lands,  traverse  the  country  from  north 
to  south ;  and  there  is  the  great  coffee  terri- 
tory. The  table  lands  are  from  2,500  to 
5,000  feet  above  sea-level,  and  have  a  tem- 
perate climate  most  agreeable  to  the  coffee 
tree.  On  the  lower  heights  it  is  necessary 
to  protect  the  young  trees  from  the  extreme 
heat  of  the  sun ;  and  the  banana  is  most 
approved  for  this  purpose,  since  it  raises 
its  own  crop  at  the  same  time  that  it  is 
giving  shade  to  its  companion  tree.  On  the 
higher  levels  the  plantations  need  protec- 
tion from  the  cold  north  winds  that  blow 
strongly  across  the  country,  especially  in 
December,  January,  and  February.  The 
range  of  hills  to  the  north  is  the  best 
protection,  and  generally  is  all  sufficient. 
When  the  weather  becomes  too  severe,  heaps 
of  rubbish  mixed  with  pitch  are  thrown  up 
to  the  north  of  the  fields  of  coffee  trees  and 
set  afire,  the  resultant  dense  smoke  driving 
down  between  rows  of  trees  and  saving 
them  from  the  frost. 

Named  in  the  order  of  their  productivity, 
the  coffee  districts  are  Costa  Cuea,  Costa 
Grande,  Barberena,  Tumbador,  Coban, 
Costa  de  Cucho,   Chicacao,   Xolhuitz,   Po- 

IxDiANs  Picking  Coffee,  Guatemala 

chuta,  Malacatan,  San  Marcos,  Chuva, 
Panan,  Turgo,  Escuintla,  San  Vincente, 
Pacaya,  Antigua,  Moran,  Amatitlan,  Sumat- 
an,  Palmar,  Zunil,  and  Motagua. 

Estimates  of  coffee  acreage  vary.  One 
authority,  too  conservatively,  perhaps,  puts 
the  figure  at  145,000.  Another  estimate  is 
260,000  acres.  Under  cultivation  are  from 
70,000,000  to  100,000,000  trees  from  which 
an  annual  crop  averaging  about  75,000,000 
pounds  is  raised,  and  the  exceptional 
amounts  of  nearly  90,000,000  and  97,000,000 
pounds  have  been  harvested.  Several 
plantations  of  size  can  be  counted  upon  for 
an  annual  production  of  more  than  1,000,- 
000  pounds  each. 

Before  the  World  War  German  interests 
dominated  the  coffee  industry,  handling 
fully  eighty  percent  of  the  crop,  and  grow- 
ing nearly  half  of  it. 

Planting  and  cultivation  methods  in 
Guatemala  are  about  the  same  as  those 
prevailing  in  other  countries.  The  trees 
are  usually  in  flower  in  February,  March, 
and  April,  and  the  harvesting  season  ex- 
tends from  August  to  January,  All  work 
on  the  plantation  is  done  by  Indian 
laborers  under  a  peonage  system,  families 
working  in  companies :  wages  are  small,  but 
sufficient,  conditions  of  living  being  easy. 
As   elsewhere   in   these   tropical   and   sub- 



tropical  countries,  scarcity  of  labor  is 
severely  felt,  and  is  a  grave  obstacle  to  the 
development  of  the  industry  in  a  land  that 
is  regarded  as  particularly  well  adapted 
to  it. 

Haiti.  Haiti,  the  magic  isle  of  the  Indies, 
has  grown  coffee  almost  from  the  beginning 
of  the  introduction  of  the  tree  into  the 
western  hemisphere.  Its  cultivation  was 
started  there  about  1715,  but  the  trees  were 
largely  permitted  to  fall  into  a  wild  natural 
state,  and  little  attention  was  given  to  them 
or  to  the  handling  of  the  crop.  Fertility  of 
soil,  climate,  and  moisture  are  favorable, 
and  the  advancement  of  the  industry  has 
been  retarded  only  by  the  political  condi- 
tions of  the  negro  republic  and  a  general 
lack  of  industry  and  enterprise  on  the  part 
of  the  people. 

Haiti  is  an  island  with  three  names. 
Haiti  is  used  to  describe  the  island  as  a 
whole,  and  to  denote  the  Republic  of  Haiti, 
which  occupies  the  western  third  of  its  area. 
The  island  is  also  known  as  Santo  Domingo, 
and  San  Domingo,  names  likewise  applied 
to  the  Dominican  Republic  which  occupies 
the  eastern  two-thirds  of  the  land  unit. 

Plantations  now  existing  in  Haiti  have 
had,  with  rare  exceptions,  a  life  of  more 
than  ten  or  twenty  years.  It  is  estimated 
that  they  cover  about  125,000  acres,  with 
about  400  trees  to  the  acre. 

When  the  French  acquired  the  island  in 
1789,  the  annual  production  was  88,360,502 
pounds.  During  the  following  century  that 
amount  was  not  approached  in  any  year, 
the  nearest  to  it  being  72,637,716  pounds 
in  1875.  The  lowest  annual  production 'was 
20,280,589  pounds  in  1818.  The  range  dur- 
ing the  hundred  years,  1789  - 1890,  was, 
with  the  exceptions  noted,  from  45,000,000 
to  71,000,000  pounds. 

Mexico.  Opinions  differ  as  to  the  exact 
date  when  coffee  was  introduced  into 
Mexico.  It  is  said  to  have  been  trans- 
planted there  from  the  West  Indies  near  the 
end  of  the  eighteenth  century.  A  story  is 
current  that  a  Spaniard  set  out  a  few  trees, 
on  trial,  in  southern  Mexico,  in  1800,  and 
that  his  experiments  started  other  Mexican 
planters  along  the  same  line.  Coffee  was 
grown  in  the  state  of  Vera  Cruz  early  in 
the  nineteenth  century;  and  the  books  of 
the  Vera  Cruz  custom  house  record  that 
1,101  quintals  of  coffee  were  exported 
through  that  port  during  the  years  1802, 
1803,  and  1805. 

In  the  Coatepec  district,  which  eventually 
became  famous  in  the  annals  of  Mexican 
coffee  growing,  trees  were  planted  about  the 
year  1808.  Local  history  says  that  seeds 
were  brought  from  Cuba  by  Arias,  a  part- 
ner of  the  house  of  Pedro  Lopez,  owners  of 
the  large  hacienda  of  Orduna  in  Coatepec. 


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B   .|#.5 
1     ■     ' 




The  Coffee  Plakter's  Life  in  Guatemala  Is   0>'e  of  Pleasantness  and  Peace 





The  seeds  were  given  to  a  priest,  Andres 
Dominfriiez,  who  sowed  them  near  Teocelo. 
When  he  had  succeeded  in  starting  seed- 
lings, he  gave  them  away  to  other  planters 
there-about.  The  plants  thrived,  and  this 
was  the  beginning  of  coffee  cultivation  in 
that  section  of  the  country. 

It  was,  however,  nearly  ten  years  later 
before  the  cultivation  was  on  a  scale  ap- 
proaching industrial  and  commercial  im- 
portance. About  1816  or  1818  a  Spaniard, 
named  Juan  Antonio  Gomez,  introduced  the 
plant  into  the  neighborhood  of  Cordoba, 
This  city,  now  on  the  line  of  the  Mexican 
and  Vera  Cruz  Railroad,  200  miles  from 
Mexico  City,  and  sixty  miles  from  Vera 
Cruz,  is  2,500  feet  above  sea-level,  and  is 
situated  in  the  most  productive  tropical 
region  of  the  country. 

Having  been  started  in  Coatepec  and 
Cordoba,  the  industry  was  centered  for  a 
long  time  in  the  state  of  Vera  Cruz.  For 
many  years  practically  all  the  coffee 
grown  commercially  in  Mexico  was  pro- 
duced in  that  state.  Gradually  the  new 
pursuit  spread  to  the  mountains  in  the 
adjacent  states  of  Oaxaca  and  Puebia, 
where  it  was  taken  up  by  the  Indians  al- 
most entirely,  and  is  still  followed  by  them, 
but  not  on  a  large  scale. 

Although  cultivation  is  now  widely  dis- 
tributed in  most  of  the  more  southern 
states  of  the  republic,  the  principal  coffee 
territory  is  still  in  Vera  Cruz,  where  lie 
the  districts  of  Cordoba,  Orizaba,  Huat- 
usco,  and  Coatepec.  In  the  same  region 
are  the  Jalapa  district,  and  the  mountains 
of  Puebia,  where  a  great  deal  of  coffee  is 
grown.  Farther  south  are  the  Oaxaca 
districts  on  the  mountain  slopes  of  the 
Pacific  coast,  and  still  farther  south  the 
districts  of  the  state  of  Chiapas.  Planting 
in  the  Pluma  district  in  Oaxaca  was  begun 
about  fifty  years  ago,  and  it  now  produces 
annually,  in  good  years,  nearly  1,000,000 
pounds.  The  youngest  district  in  this  sec- 
tion is  Soconusco,  one  of  the  most  prolific 
in  the  republic,  having  been  developed 
within  the  last  thirty  years.  The  region  is 
near  the  border  of  Guatemala,  and  the 
coffee  is  held  by  many  to  possess  some  of 
the  quality  of  the  coffee  of  that  country. 
The  influence  of  Guatemalan  methods  has 
been  felt  also  in  its  cultivation  and  hand- 
ling, especially  in  increasing  plantation 
productiveness.  On  the  gulf  slope  of 
Oaxaca,  there  are  plantations  that  annu- 
ally produce  222,000  to  550,000  pounds. 
Several  United  States  companies  have  be- 
come interested  in  coffee  growing  in  this 



state,  and  their  output  in  recent  years  has 
been  put  upon  the  market  in  St.  Louis. 

Two  principal  varieties  of  coffee  are 
recognized  in  Mexico.  A  sub-variety  of 
Coffea  arabica  is  mostly  cultivated.  This 
is  an  evergreen,  growing  only  from  five 
to  seven  feet.  It  flourishes  well  at  differ- 
ent altitudes  and  in  different  climes,  from 
the  temperate  plains  of  Puebla  to  the  hot, 
damp,  lower  lands  of  Vera  Cruz  and 
Oaxaca,  and  other  Pacific-coast  regions. 
The  range  of  elevation  for  it  is  from  1,500 
to  5,000  feet,  and  it  is  satisfied  with  a 
temperature  as  low  as  55°  or  as  high  as 
80°,  with  plenty  of  natural  humidity  or 
with  irrigation  in  the  dry  season.  The 
other  variety  is  called  the  "myrtle"  and 
is  widely  grown,  although  not  in  large 
quantities.  It  is  distinguished  from 
arahica  by  the  larger  leaf  of  the  tree  and 
by  the  smaller  corolla  of  the  flower.  It  is 
a  hardier  plant  than  the  arahica  and  will 
stand  the  higher  temperature  of  low  alti- 
tudes, thriving  at  an  elevation  of  from  500 
to  3,000  feet  above  sea-level.  Mostly  it  is 
cultivated  in  the   Cordoba  district. 

It  is  claimed  by  many  that  the  Mexican 
coffee  of  best  quality  is  grown  in  the 
western  regions  of  the  table  lands  of 
Colima  and  Michoacan,  but  only  a  small 
quantity  of  that  is  available  for  export. 
The  ■  state  of  Michoacan  is  especially 
favored  by  climate,  altitude,  soil,  and  sur- 
roundings to  produce  coffee  of  exception- 
ally high  grade,  and  the  Uruapan  is  con- 
sidered to  be  its  best. 

Trees  flower  in  January  and  March,  and 
in  high  altitudes  as  late  as  June  or  July. 
Berries  appear  in  July  and  are  ripe  for 
gathering  in  October  or  November,  the 
picking  season  lasting  until  February. 

Trees  begin  to  yield  when  two  or  three 
years  old,  producing  from  two  to  four 
ounces.  They  reach  full  production,  which 
is  about  one  and  a  half  pounds,  at  the  age 
of  six  or  seven  years,  though  in  the  dis- 
tricts of  Chiapas,  Michoacan,  Oaxaca,  and 
Puebla,  annual  yields  of  three  to  five 
pounds  per  tree  have  been  reported. 

Since  the  World  War  American  buyers 
have  shown  greater  interest  in  the  Tapa- 
chula  coffee  grow^n  in  Chiapas. 

Porto  Rico.  Coffee  culture  in  Porto 
Rico  dates  from  1755  or  even  earlier,  hav- 
ing been  introduced  from  the  neighboring 
islands  of  Martinique  and  Haiti.  Count 
O'Reilly,    writing    of    the    island    in    the 


Mexicain  Coffee  Pickeu,  Coatepec  Distkict 

eighteenth  century,  mentions  that  the 
coffee  exports  for  five  years  previous  to 
1765  amounted  in  value  to  $2,078.  Old 
records  show  that  in  1770  there  was  a  crop 
of  700,000  pounds  and  that  seems  to  be 
the  first  evidence  that  the  new  industry 
was  growing  to  any  noticeable  propor- 
tions. For  a  hundred  years,  at  least,  only 
slow  progress  was  made.  In  1768  the  king 
of  Spain  issued  a  royal  decree  exempting 
coffee  growers  on  the  island  from  the  pay- 
ment of  taxes  or  charges  for  a  period  of 
five  years;  but  even  that  measure  was  not 
materially  successful  in  stimulating  in- 
terest and  in  developing  cultivation. 

Porto  Rico  is  a  good  coffee-growing 
country ;  soil,  climate,  and  temperature  are 
well  adapted  to  the  berry.  The  coffee  belt 
extends  through  the  western  half  of  the 
island,  beginning  in  the  hills  along  the 
south  coast  around  Ponce,  and  extending 
north  through  the  center  of  the  island 
almost  to  Arecibo,  near  the  west  end  of  the 
north  coast.  But  some  coffee  is  grown  in 
the  other  parts  of  the  island,  in  sixty-four 
of  the  sixty-eight  municipalities.  Mountain 
sections  are  considered  to  be  superior. 

The  largest  plantations  are  in  the  region 
which  includes  the  municipalities  of 
Utuado,  Adjuntas,  Lares,  Las  Marias, 
Yauco,  Maricao,  San  Sebastian,  Mayaguez, 
Ciales,  and  Ponce.  With  the  exception  of 
Ponce  and  Mayaguez,  all  these  districts  are 
back  from  the  coast ;  but  insular  roads  of 



recent  construction  make  them  now  easily 
accessible,  and  there  is  no  point  on  the 
island  more  than  twenty  miles  distant 
from  the  sea. 

From  the  Sierra  Luquillo  range,  which 
rises  to  a  height  of  1,500  feet,  and  from 
Yauco,  Utuado,  and  Lares,  come  excellent 
coffees ;  and.  on  the  whole,  these  are  con- 
sidered to  be  the  best  coffee  regions  of  the 
island.  A  fine  grade  of.  coffee  is  also  grown 
in  the  Ciales  district.  Figures  compiled 
by  the  Treasury  Department  of  the  insular 
government  for  the  purpose  of  taxation 
showed  that  for  the  tax  year  1915-16 
there  were  167,137  acres  of  land  planted 
to  coffee  and  valued  at  $10,341,592,  an 
average  of  .$61.87  per  acre.  In  1910, 
there  were  151,000  acres  planted  in  coffee. 
In  1916  there  were  more  than  5,000  sep- 
arate coffee  plantations. 

Originally  the  coffee  trees  of  Porto  Rico 
were  all  of  the  arahica  variety.  In  recent 
years  numerous  others  have  been  intro- 
duced, until  in  1917  there  were  more  than 
2,500  trees  of  new  descriptions  on  the 

The  virgin  land  in  the  interior  of  the 
island  is  admirably  adapted  to  the  coffee 
tree,  and  less  labor  is  required  to  prepare 
it  for  plantation  purposes  than  in  many 

other  coffee-growing  countries.  It  is 
cleared  in  the  usual  manner,  and  the  trees 
are  planted  about  eight  feet  apart,  an 
average  of  680  trees  to  the  acre.  The  seeds 
are  planted  in  February;  and  if  the  seed- 
lings are  transplanted,  that  is  done  when 
they  are  a  year  or  a  year  and  a  half  old. 
The  guama,  a  big  strong  tree  of  dense 
foliage,  is  used  for  a  wind-break  on  the 
ridges;  and  the  guava,  for  shade  in  the 
plantation.  Plow  cultivation  is  generally 
impossible  on  account  of  the  lay  of  the 
land,  and  only  hoeing  and  spade  work  are 
done.  Pruning  is  carefully  attended  to  as 
the  trees  become  full  grown. 

Flowering  is  generally  in  February  and 
March,  or  even  later.  Heavy  rains  in 
April  make  a  poor  crop.  Harvesting  be- 
gins in  September  and  extends  into  Jan- 
uary, during  which  time  ten  pickings  are 

The  average  yield  per  acre  is  between 
200  and  300  pounds;  but  expert  authority 
—  Prof.  O.  F.  Cook  —  in  a  statement  made 
to  the  Committee  on  Insular  Affairs  of  the 
United  States  House  of  Representatives,  in 
1900,  held  that  under  better  cultural 
methods  the  yield  could  be  increased  to 
800  or  900  pounds  per  acre.  One  estima- 
tor has  calculated  that  an  average  planta- 

Keceiving  and  Measuring  the  Ripe  Bebbies    fbom    the    Pickers,    Mexico 





lion  of  100  acres  had  cost  its  owner  at  the 
end  of  six  or  seven  years,  the  bearing  age, 
,i1)ont  $13,100  with  yields  of  75  pounds  per 
ii'-re  in  the  third  and  in  the  fourth  years, 
Li  to  pounds  per  acre  in  the  fifth  year,  and 

M)  pounds  in  the  sixth  year,  the  income 
:  rom  which  would  practically  have  met 
•lie  cost  to  that  time.     It  is  held  by  the 

tue  authority  that   an   intensively   culti- 

tted,  well-situated  farm  of  selected  trees, 
bSO  to  the  acre,  should  yield  some  880 
pounds  of  cleaned  coffee  to  the  acre. 

Costa  Rica.  Costa  Rica  ranks  next  to 
<luatemala  and  Salvador  among  the  Cen- 
tral American  countries  as  a  producer  of 
coffee,  showing  an  average  annual  yield 
ill    recent   years  of   35,000,000   pounds   as 

nipared  with  Guatemala's  80,000,000 
,iiid  Salvador's  75,000,000  pounds.  Nica- 
i'a2"ua  has  an  average  annual  production  of 
::0^000,000  pounds. 

Coffee  was  introduced  into  Costa  Rica 
in  the  latter  part  of  the  eighteenth 
century;  one  authority  saying  that  the 
plants  were  brought  from  Cuba  in  1779 
by  a  Spanish  voyager,  Navarro,  and  an- 
other saying  that  the  first  trees  were 
])lanted  several  years  later  by  Padre 
Carazo,  a  Spanish  missionary  coming  from 
Jamaica.      For   more   than   a   century   six 

big  coffee  trees  standing  in  a  courtyard 
in  the  city  of  Cartago  were  pointed  out  to 
visitors  as  the  very  trees  that  Carazo  had 

The  coffee-producing  districts  are  prin- 
cipally on  the  Pacific  slope  and  in  the 
central  plateaus  of  the  interior.  Planta- 
tions are  located  in  the  provinces  of  Car- 
tago, Tres  Rios,  San  Jose,  Heredia,  and 
Alajuela.  In  the  province  of  Cartago 
are  several  extensive  new  estates  on  the 
slope  to  the  Atlantic  coast.  The  San  Jos4 
and  the  Cartago  districts  are  considered 
by  many  to  be  the  best  naturally  for  the 
coffee  tree.  The  soil  is  an  exceedingly  rich 
black  loam  made  up  of  continuous  layers 
of  volcanic  ashes  and  dust  from  three  to 
fifteen  feet  deep.  Preferable  altitudes  for 
plantations  range  from  3,000  to  4,500  feet, 
although  a  height  of  5,000  feet  is  not  out 
of  use  and  there  are  some  estates  that  do 
fairly  well  on  levels  as  low  as  1,500  feet. 

India.  Tradition  has  it  that  a  Moslem 
pilgrim  in  the  seventeenth  century 
brought  from  Mecca  to  India  the  first 
coffee  seeds  known  in  that  country.  They 
were  planted  near  a  temple  on  a  hill  in 
Mysore  called  Baba  Budan,  after  the  pil- 
grim ;  and  from  there  the  cultivation  of 
coffee    gradually    spread    to    neighboring 

The  Modern  Iuea  in  CutiEK  Culiivaxion,  Costa  Rica 



Picking  Costa  Kica  Coptee 

districts.  Aside  from  this  legend,  nothing 
further  is  heard  about  coffee  in  India  until 
the  early  part  of  the  nineteenth  century, 
when  its  existence  there  was  confirmed  by 
the  granting  of  a  charter  to  Fort  Gloster, 
near  Calcutta,  authorizing  that  place  to 
become  a  coffee  plantation. 

Planting  was  begun  on  the  flat  land  of 
the  plains,  but  the  trees  did  not  thrive. 
Then  the  cultivation  was  extended  to  the 
hills  in  southern  India,  especially  in 
Mysore,  where  better  success  was  achieved. 
The  first  systematic  plantation  was  estab- 
lished in  1840.  For  the  most  part,  the 
production  has  always  been  confined  to 
southern  India  in  the  elevated  region  near 
the  southwestern  coast.  The  coffee  district 
comprises  the  landward  slopes  of  the 
"Western  Ghats,  from  Kanara  to  Travan- 

About  one-half  of  the  coffee-producing 
area  is  in  Mysore;  and  other  plantations 
are  in  Kurg  (Coorg),  the  Madras  districts 
of  Malabar,  and  in  the  Nilgiri  hills,  those 
regions  having  86  percent  of  the  whole 
area  under  cultivation.  Some  coffee  is 
grown  also  in  other  districts  in  Madras, 
principally  in  Madura,  Salem,  and  Coim- 
bator,  in  Cochin,  in  Travancore,  and,  on  a 
restricted  scale,  in  Burma,  Assam,  and 
Bombay.  The  area  returned  as  under 
coffee  in  1885  was  237,448  acres;  in  1896, 
as  303,944  acres.  Since  then  there  has 
been  a  progressive  decrease  on  account  of 
damage  from  leaf  diseases  difficult  to 
combat,  and  by  competition  with  Brazilian 

Coffee  Estate  in  the  Mountains  of  Costa  Rica 



Bikd's-Eye  View  of  a  Coffee  Estate  in  Mysore,    India 

New  land  that  had  just  been  planted 
with  icoffee  in  plantations  reported  for 
1919  -  20  amounted  to  7,012  acres ;  while 
the  area  abandoned  was  8,725  acres,  rep- 
resenting a  net  decrease  in  cultivated  area 
of  1,713  acres. 

Of  the  total  area  devoted  to  coffee  cul- 
tivation (126,919  acres),  49  percent  was 
in  Mysore,  which  yielded  35  percent  of 
the  total  production ;  ^vhile  Madras,  with 
23  percent  of  the  total  area,  yielded  38 
percent  of  the  production.  The  total  pro- 
duction for  the  year  1920  -  21  is  reported  as 
26.902,471  pounds. 

Yield  varies  throughout  the  country  ac- 
cording to  the  methods  of  cultivation  and 
the  condition  of  the  season.  On  the  best 
estates  in  a  good  season,  the  yield  per 
acre  may  be  as  high  as  1,100  or  1,200 
pounds,  and  on  poor  estates  it  may  not  be 
over  200  or  300  pounds.  The  arabica 
variety  is  chiefly  cultivated.  The  rohusta 
and  Maragogipe  have  been  tried,  but  with- 
out much  success. 

A  representative  plantation  is  the  San- 
taverre  in  Mysore,  comprising  400  acres, 
at  an  elevation  of  from  4,000  to  4,500 
feet,  where  the  coffee  trees,  cultivated  un- 
der shade,  produce  from  100  to  250  tons 
of  coffee  a  year.  Other  prominent  es- 
tates in  Mysore  are  Cannon's  Baloor  and 

Mylemoney,  the  Hoskahn,  and  the  Sum- 
pigay  Khan. 

Nicaragua.  Coffee  trees  will  grow  well 
anywhere  in  Nicaragua,  but  the  best  loca- 
tions have  altitudes  of  from  2,000  to  3,000 
feet  above  sea  level.  At  such  elevations 
the  yield  varies  from  one  pound  to  five 
pounds  per  tree  annually;  but  above  or 
below  those,  the  average  production  dimin- 
ishes to  from  one  pound  to  one-half  pound 
a  tree. 

Lands  most  suitable  for  the  berry  are 
on  the  Sierra  de  Managua,  in  Diriambe, 
San  Marcos,  and  Jinotega,  and  about  the 
base  of  the  volcano  Monbaeho  near  Gra- 
nada. Good  land  is  also  found  on  the  is- 
land Omotepe  in  Lake  Nicaragua,  and 
around  Boaco  in  the  department  of  Chon- 
tales,  where  cultivation  was  begun  in 

There  are  also  plantations  in  the  vicin- 
ity of  Esteli  and  Lomati  in  the  depart- 
ment of  Neuva  Segovia.  The  most  exten- 
sive operations  are  in  the  departments  of 
Managua,  Carazo,  Matagalpa,  Chontales, 
and  Jinotega,  and  from  those  regions  the 
annual  crop  has  attained  to  such  quantity 
that  it  has  become  the  chief  agricultural 
product  of  th&  republic.  Poor  and  costly 
means  of  transportation  on  the  Atlantic 
slope  have  operated  to  retard  the  develop- 



^jCM*Jb^&  ^^^0^ffK^M^ftl^^^^^^^lHH^^EEHfli^^HH^^'!  "^^b  VHI 





if -5'. 

,         ■     J         "^^mm^- 


Coffee  Growing  Undek  Shade,  Ubban  Estate,    India 

ment  of  the  industry  there,  even  though 
conditions  of  climate  are  not  unfavorable. 

Abyssinia.  In  the  absence  of  any  con- 
clusive evidence  to  the  contrary,  the  claim 
that  coffee  was  first  made  known  to  mod- 
ern man  by  the  trees  on  the  mountains  of 
the  northeastern  part  of  the  continent  of 
Africa  may  be  accepted  without  reserve. 
Undoubtedl.y  the  plant  grew  wild  all 
through  tropical  Africa:  but  its  value  as 
an  addition  to  man's  dietary  was  brought 
forth  in  Abyssinia. 

Abyssinia,,  while  it  may  have  given 
coffee  to  the  world,  no  longer  figures  as  a 
prime  factor  in  supplying  the  world,  and 
now  exports  only  a  limited  quantity. 
There  are  produced  in  the  country  two 
coffees  known  to  the  trade  as  Harari  and 
Abyssinian,  the  former  being  by  far  the 
more  important.  The  Harari  is  the  fruit 
of  cultivated  arahica  trees  grown  in  the 
province  of  Harar,  and  mostly  in  the 
neighborhood  of  the  city  of  Harar,  capital 
of  the  province.  The  Abyssianian  is  the 
fruit  of  wild  arahica  trees  that  grow 
mainly  in  the  provinces  of  Sidamo,  Kaffa, 
and  Guma. 

The  coffee  of  Harar  is  known  to  the 
trade  as  Mocha  longberry  or  Abyssinian 
longberry.     Most  of  the  plantations  upon 

which  it  is  raised  are  owned  by  the  na- 
tive Hararis,  Galla,  and  Abyssinians,  al- 
though there  are  a  few  Greek,  German, 
and  French  planters.  The  trees  are 
planted  in  rows  about  twelve  or  fifteen 
feet  apart,  and  comparatively  little  at- 
tention is  given  to  cultivation.  Crops  av- 
erage two  a  year,  and  sometimes  even  five 
in  two  years.  The  big  yield  is  in  Decem- 
ber, January,  and  February.  The  aver- 
age crop  is  about  seventy  pounds,  and  is 
mostly  from  small  plots  of  from  fifty  to 
one  hundred  trees,  there  being  no  very 
large  plantations.  All  the  coffee  is 
brought  into  the  city  of  Harar,  whence  it 
is  sent  on  mule-back  to  Dire-Daoua  on  the 
Franco-Ethiopian  Railway,  and  from 
there  by  rail  to  Jibuti.  Some  of  it  is  ex- 
ported directly  from  Jibuti,  and  the  rest 
is  forwarded  to  Aden,  in  Arabia,  for  re- 

Abyssinian,  or  wild,  coffee  is  also  known 
as  Kaft'a  coffee,  from  one  of  the  districts 
where  it  grows  most  abundantly  in  a  state 
of  nature.  This  coffee  has  a  smaller  bean 
and  is  less  rich  in  aroma  and  flavor  than 
the  Harari;  but  the  trees  grow  in  such 
profusion  that  the  possible  supply,  at  the 
minimum  of  labor  in  gathering,  is  prac- 
tically unlimited.     It  is  said  that  in  south- 



western  Alwssinia  there  are  immense  for- 
ests of  it  that  have  never  been  encroached 
upon  except  at  the  outskirts,  where  the 
natives  lazily  pick  up  the  beans  that  have 
fallen  to  the  ground.  It  is  shelled  where 
it  is  found,  in  the  most  primitive  fashion, 
and  goes  out  in  a  dirty,  mixed  condition. 

Formerly,  much  of  this  Kaffa  cotfee 
was  sent  to  market  through  Boromeda, 
Ilarar,  and  Dire-Daoua.  An  average  an- 
nual crop  was  about  6,000  bags,  or  800,000 
pounds,  of  which  something  more  than 
one-half  usually  went  through  Harar.  A 
customs  and  trading  station  has  lately 
been  established  at  Gambela,  on  the  Sobat 
Biver:  and  with  the  development  of  this 
outlet,  there  has  been  a  substantial  and 
increasing  exploitation  of  the  wild-coffee 
plants  since  1913.  Large  areas  of  land 
have  been  cleared,  with  a  view  to  cultiva- 
tion, and  attention  is  being  given  to  im- 
proved methods  of  harvesting  and  of  pre- 
paring the  coffee  for  the  market.  At  one 
time  a  fair  amount  of  coffee  from  this  re- 
gion went  to  Adis  Abeba  on  the  backs  of 
pack  mules,  a  journey  of  thirty-five  or 
forty  days,  and  then  was  carried  to  Jibuti, 
nearly  500  miles,  part  of  the  way  by  rail. 
Now  practically  all  of  it  goes  to  Gambela, 
thence   by  steamers  to   Khartum,    and   by 

rail  to  the  shipping-point  at  Port  Sudan 
on  the  Red  Sea. 

Other  African  Countries..  Practi- 
cally every  part  of  Africa  seems  to  be 
suitable  for  coffee  cultivation,  even 
United  South  Africa,  in  the  southern  part 
of  the  continent,  producing  140,212 
pounds  in  1918.  To  name  all  the  coun- 
tries in  which  it  is  grown  would  be  to 
list  nearly  all  the  political  divisions  of 
Africa.  Among  the  largest  producers  are 
the  British  East  African  Protectorate.  18,- 
735,572  pounds  in  1918;  French  Somali- 
land,  11,222,736  pounds  in  1917;  Angola, 
10,655,934  pounds  in  1913;  Uganda, 
9,999, 84o  pounds  in  1918 ;  former  German 
East  Africa,  2,334,450  pounds  in  1913; 
Cape  Verde  Islands,  1,442,910  pounds  in 
1916;  Madagascar,  707,676  pounds  in 
1918;  Liberia,  761,300  pounds  in  1917; 
Eritrea,  728,840  pounds  in  1918;  St. 
Thomas  and  Prince's  Islands,  484,350 
pounds  in  1916;  and  the  Belgian  Congo, 
375,000  pounds  in  1917. 

Angola.  Coffee  is  Angola's  second 
product,  and  there  are  large  areas  of  wild- 
coffee  trees.  With  a  production  of  nearly 
11,000,000  pounds,  Angola  ranks  about 
third  in  Africa  as  a  coffee-growing  coun- 
try.    The  coffee  is  gathered  and  sold  by 


;■  -:^-v*;>:/.  * 



A  Galla  Coffee  Gkower.  and  His  Helper,  in    His    Grove    of    Young    Trees    near    Harab 



the  natives,  and  there  are  also  several  Eu- 
ropean companies  engaged  in  the  coffee 
business.  The  chief  coffee  belt  extends 
from  the  Quanza  River  northward  to  the 
Kongo  at  an  altitude  of  1,500  to  2,500 
feet.  In  the  Cazengo  valley  the  wild 
trees  are  so  thick  that  thinning  out  is  the 
only  operation  necessary  to  the  planta- 
tion-owner. When  the  trees  become  too 
tall,  they  are  simply  cut  off  about  two  feet 
above  ground;  and  new  shoots  appear 
from  the  trunks  the  following  season. 

The  largest  coffee  plantation,  owned  by 
the  Companhia  Agricola  de  Cazengo,  pro- 
duced in  1913,  a  record  year,  nearly  1,500 

Liberia.  Coffee  is  native  to  Liberia, 
growing  wild  in  the  hinterland  of  the 
negro  republic,  and  in  the  natural  state 
the  trees  often  attain  a  height  of  from 
thirty  to  forty  feet.  Cultivated  Liberian 
coffee,  Coffea  liherica,  has  become  a  staple 
of  the  civilized  inhabitants  of  the  country, 
and  is  grown  successfully  in  hot,  moist 
lowlands  or  on  hills  that  are  not  much  ele- 
vated. On  account  of  the  size  of  the  trees, 
only  about  four  hundred  can  be  planted 
to  the  acre.  In  recent  years  the  native 
Africans  have  been  planting  thousands  of 
trees  in  the  district  of  Grand  Cape  Mount. 
Coffee  is  grown  in  all  parts  of  the  repub- 
lic, but  chiefly  in  Grand  Cape  Mount  and 

General  Outlook  in  Africa.  In  the 
African  countries  under  control  of  Euro- 
pean governments  much  recent  progress 
has  been  made  in  promoting  coffee  grow- 
ing and  in  improving  methods  of  cultiva- 

British  interests  were  reported  in  1919 
as  having  started  a  movement  toward 
reviving  interest  in  the  coffee  growing 
industry  in  the  British  possessions  in 
Africa.  The  report  stated  that  Uganda, 
in  the  East  African  Protectorate,  had  21,- 
000  acres  under  coffee  cultivation,  with 
16,000  acres  more  in  other  -parts  of  the 
Protectorate,  and  1,300  acres  in  Nyasa- 
land;  also  that  there  is  no  hope  of  an 
immediate  revival  of  the  industry  in  Natal, 
where  it  was  killed  twenty  years  ago  by 
various  pests ;  ' '  but  it  should  certainly  be 
established  in  the  warmer  parts  of  Rhode- 
sia ;  and  in  the  northern  part  of  the  Trans- 
vaal an  effort  is  being  made  to  bring  this 
form  of  enterprise  into  practical  ex- 

Coffee  growing  possibilities  in  British 
East  Africa  (Kenya  Colony)  are  alluring, 
according  to  reports  from  planters  in  that 
region.  Late  in  1920,  Major  C.  J.  Ross, 
a  British  government  officer  there,  said 
that  "British  East  Africa  is  going  to  be 
one  of  the  leading  coffee  countries  of  the 
world."  Coffee  grows  wild  in  many  parts 
of  the  Protectorate,  but  the  natives  are 
too  lazy  to  pick  even  the  wild  berries. 

On  the  more  advanced  plantations  in  all 
parts  of  Africa  the  approved  cultivation 
methods  of  other  leading  countries  are 
carefully  followed ;  especial  care  being 
given  to  weeding  and  pruning,  because  of 
the  rank  growth  of  the  tropics.  On  the 
whole,  however,  little  attention  is  given 
to  intensive  methods. 

Arabia.  Whether  the  coffee  tree  was 
first  discovered  indigenous  in  the  moun- 
tains of  Abyssinia,  or  in  the  Yemen  dis- 
trict of  Arabia,  will  probably  always  be 
a  matter  of  contention.  Many  writers 
of  Europe  and  Asia  in  the  fifteenth  cen- 
tury, when  coffee  was  first  brought  to  the 
attention  of  the  people  of  Europe,  agree 
on  Arabia;  but  there  is  good  reason  to  be- 
lieve the  plant  was  brought  to  Arabia 
from  Abyssinia  in  the  sixth  century. 

Once  all  the  coffee  of  Arabia  went  to 
the  outside  world  through  the  port  of 
Mocha  on  the  eastern  coast  of  the  Red 
Sea.  Mocha,  which  never  raised  any 
coffee,  is  no  longer  of  commercial  impor- 
tance; but  its  name  has  been  permanently 
attached  to  the  coffee  of  this  country. 

Mocha  {Moka,  or  Morkha)  coffee  (i.  e. 
Coffea  arabica)  is  raised  principally  in 
the  vilayet  of  Yemen,  a  district  of  south- 
eastern Arabia.  Yemen  extends  from 
the  north,  southerly  along  the  line  of  the 
Red  Sea,  nearly  to  the  Gulf  of  Aden. 
With  the  exception  of  a  narrow  strip  of 
land  along  the  shores  of  the  Red  Sea,  the 
Strait  of  Bab-el-Man  deb,  and  the  Gulf  of 
Aden,  it  is  a  rugged,  mountainous  region, 
in  which  innumerable  small  valleys  at 
high  elevations  are  irrigated  by  waters 
from  the  melting  snows  of  the  mountains. 

Coffee  can  be  successfully  grown  in  any 
part  of  Yemen,  but  its  cultivation  is  con- 
fined to  a  few  widely  scattered  districts, 
and  the  acreage  is  not  large.  The  prin- 
cipal coffee  regions  are  in  the  mountains 
between  Taiz  and  Ibb,  and  between  Ibb 
and  Yerim,  and  Yerim  and  Sanaa,  on  the 
caravan    route    from    Taiz   to    Sanaa;    be- 



Wild  Kaffa  Coffee  Trees  Near  Adis  Abeba 

tween  Zabeed  and  Ibb,  on  the  route  from 
Taiz  to  Zabeed;  between  Hajelah  and 
Menakha,  on  the  route  from  Hodeida  to 
Sanaa,  and  in  the  wild  mountain  ranges 
both  to  the  north  and  south  of  that  route ; 
between  Beit-el-Fakih  and  Obal;  and  be- 
tween ]\Ianakha  and  Batham  to  the  north 
of  Bajil.  The  plant  does  best  at  eleva- 
tions ranging  from  3,500  to  6,500  feet. 

In  the  Yemen  district,  cotfee  is  gener- 
ally grown  in  small  gardens.  Large  plan- 
tations, as  they  exist  in  other  coffee-grow- 
ing countries,  are  not  seen  in  Arabia. 
Many  of  these  small  farms  may  be  parts 
of  a  large  estate  belonging  to  some  rich 
tribal  chief.  The  native  Arabs  do  not  use 
coffee  in  the  way  it  is  used  elsewhere  in 
the  world.  They  drink  kisher,  a  beverage 
brewed  from  the  husks  of  the  berry  and 
not  from  the  bean.  Consequently,  the  en- 
the  crop  goes  into  export.  But  bad  con- 
ditions of  trade  routes,  political  disturb- 
ances, and  small  regional  wars,  absence  of 
good  cultivation  methods,  and  heavy  tran- 
sit taxes  imposed  by  the  government,  have 
combined  to  restrict  the  production  of 
Yemen  coffee. 

Land  for  the  coffee  gardens  is  selected 
on  hill-slopes,  and  is  terraced  with  soil  and 
small   walls   of  stone   until  it   reaches  up 

like  an  amphitheater  —  often  to  a  consider- 
able height.  The  soil  is  well  fertilized. 
For  sowing,  the  seeds  are  thoroughly  dried 
in  ashes,  and  after  being  placed  in  the 
ground,  are  carefully  watched,  watered, 
and  shaded.  In  about  a  year  the  shrub 
has  grown  to  a  height  of  twelve  or  more 
inches.  Seedlings  in  that  condition  are 
set  out  in  the  gardens  in  rows,  about  ten 
to  thirteen  feet  apart.  The  young  trees 
receive  moisture  from  neighboring  wells 
or  from  irrigation  ditches,  and  are  shaded 
by  bananas. 

At  maturity  the  trees  reach  a  height  of 
ten  or  fifteen  feet.  Since  they  never  lose 
all  their  leaves  at  one  time,  they  appear 
always  green,  and  bear  at  the  same  time 
flowers  and  fruits,  some  of  which  are  still 
green  while  others  are  ripe  or  approaching 
maturity.  Thus,  in  some  districts,  the 
the  trees  are  considered  to  have  two  or 
even  three  crops  a  year.  All  the  trees  be- 
gin to  bear  about  the  end  of  the  third 

Cuba.  Coffee  can  be  grown  in  prac- 
tically every  island  of  the  West  Indies, 
but  owing  to  the  state  of  civilization  in 
many  of  the  lesser  islands,  little  is  pro- 
duced  for   international   trade,    excepting 





in  Jamaica,  Guadeloupe,  Haiti,  the  Do- 
minican Republic,  Trinidad,  and  Tobago. 
In  past  years  a  considerable  quantity  of 
good-quality  coffee  was  produced  in  Cuba, 
the  annua]  export  in  the  decade  of  1840 
averaging  50,000,000  pounds.  Severe  hur- 
ricanes, adverse  legislation,  the  rise  of 
coffee-growing  in  Brazil,  the  increase  in 
cultivation  of  sugar  and  other  more  profit- 
able crops,  practically  eliminated  Cuba 
from  the  international  coffee-export  trade. 

Martinique.  This  is  a  name  well 
known  to  coffee  men,  the  world  over,  as 
the  pioneer  coffee-growing  country  of  the 
western  hemisphere.  Gabriel  de  Clieu  in- 
troduced the  coffee  plant  to  the  island  in 
1723  by  bringing  it  through  many  hard- 
ships from  France.  For  a  time,  coffee 
flourished  there,  but  now  practically  none 
is  grown.  Such  coffee  as  bears  the  name 
Martinique  in  modern  trade  centers  is  pro- 
duced in  Guadeloupe,  and  is  only  shipped 
through  Martinique. 

Jamaica.  Coffee  was  introduced  into 
Jamaica  in  1730 ;  and  so  highly  was  it  re- 
garded as  a  desirable  addition  to  the  agri- 
cultural resources  of  the  island,  that  the 
British  Parliament  in  1732  passed  a  spe- 
cial act  providing  for  the  encouraging  and 
fostering  of  its  cultivation.  Later,  it  be- 
came one  of  the  great  staples  of  the  coun- 
try. Disastrous  floods  in  1815,  and  the 
gradual  exhaustion  of  the  best  lands  since 
then,  have  brought  about  a  decline  of  the 
industry,  which  is  now  confined  to  a  few 
estates  in  the  Blue  Mountains  and  to  scat- 
tered "settler"  or  peasant  cultivation  in 
the  same  districts  but  at  lower  altitudes. 

The  tree  was  formerly  grown  at  all  al- 
titudes, from  sea-level  to  5,000  feet;  but 
the  best  height  for  it  is  about  4,500  feet. 
Four  parishes  lead  in  coffee  producing: 
Manchester,  with  an  area  of  5,045  acres; 
St.  Thomas,  with  2,315  acres;  Clarendon, 
with  2,172  acres ;  St.  Andrew,  with  1,584 
acres.  Nine  other  parishes  that  raise 
coffee  have  less  than  1,000  acres  each  un- 
der cultivation.  There  were  24,865  acres 
devoted  to  coffee  in  1900.  In  addition,  it 
was  estimated  that  there  were  80,000  acres 
suitable  for  the  cultivation,  nearly  all  be- 
ing owned  by  the  government. 

Dominican  Republic.  Coffee  was  once 
the  leading  staple  in  the  Dominican  Re- 
public as  in  the  adjoining  Haitian  Repub- 
lic; but  in  recent  years  cacao,  sugar,  and 
tobacco    have    become    the    predominating 

crops.  Said  to  have  the  world's  richest 
and  most  productive  soil,  one-half  of  the 
republic's  area  is  particularly  suited  to 
the  cultivation  of  a  good  grade  of  coffee 
of  the  highland  type.  But  political  and 
industrial  conditions  have  made  for  neg- 
lect of  its  cultivation  by  efficient  methods. 
Lack  of  suitable  roads  has  also  militated 
against  the  development  of  the  coffee  in- 

In  spite  of  many  drawbacks,  it  is  to  be 
noted  that,  from  the  beginning  of  the 
twentieth  century,  the  coffee-growing  area 
has  been  gradually  expanded  until  ex- 
ports increased  from  less  than  1,000,000 
pounds  to  5,029,316  pounds  in  1918,  al- 
though in  the  next  two  years  there  was 
a  recession  in  the  total  exports  to  1,358,- 
825  pounds  in  1920. 

The  principal  plantations  are  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  town  of  Moca  and  in  the 


'^VI^I^B    ' 




Picking  Blue  Mountain  Berries,  Jamaica 

districts  of  Santiago,  Bani,  and  Barahona. 
Generally  speaking,  the  methods  of  cul- 
tivation in  the  Dominican  Republic  are 
somewhat  crude  •  as  compared  with  the 
practise  in  the  larger  countries  of  produc- 
tion in  Central  America  and  South 

Guadeloupe,  Guadeloupe  has  an  area 
of  619  square  miles,  and  about  one-third 
of  this  area  is  under  cultivation.  About 
15,000  acres  are  in  coffee,  giving  employ- 
ment to  upward  of  10.000  persons.  The 
average  yield  of  a  plantation  of  mature 
trees  is  about  535  pounds  to  the  acre. 



In  the  early  years  of  the  industry  in 
Guadeloupe,  production  and  export  were 
considerable.  From  old  records  it  ap- 
pears that  in  1784  the  exports  amounted 
to  7,500,000  pounds.  During  the  closing 
years  of  the  eighteenth  century  the  annual 
exports  were  from  6,500,000  to  8,500,000 
pounds,  and  in  the  beginning  of  the  next 
century  they  registered  about  6,000,000 
pounds.  Toward  the  middle  of  the  nine- 
teenth century  the  growing  of  sugar  cane 
overtopped  that  of  coffee  in  profit,  and 
many  planters  abandoned  coffee.  After 
1884,  with  the  decadence  of  the  sugar  in- 
dustry, coffee  was  again  favored,  the  gov- 
ernment giving  substantial  encouragement 
by  paying  bounties  ranging  from  $15  to 
$19  per  acre  for  all  new  coffee  plantations. 

In  recent  years,  considerable  lib  erica 
and  rohnsta  have  been  planted  in  place  of 
the  exhausted  arahica. 

Trinidad  and  Tobago.  The  islands  of 
Trinidad  and  Tobago  are  small  factors  in 
international  coffee  trading.  Coffee  can 
be  grown  almost  any  place  on  the  islands; 
but -its  cultivation  is  confined  principally 
to'  the   districts   of   Maracas,   Aripo,    and 

North  Oropouche.  Both  the  arahica  and 
the  liberica  varieties  are  grown. 

Honduras.  Soil,  surface,  and  climate 
in  Honduras,  as  far  as  they  relate  to  the 
cultivation  of  coffee,  are  similar  to  those 
of  the  adjoining  regions  of  Central  Amer- 
ica. The  tree  grows  in  the  uplands  of  the 
interior,  thriving  best  at  an  altitude  of 
from  1,500  to  4,000  feet.  Scarcity  of  la- 
bor and  insufficient  means  of  transporta- 
tion have  been  the  chief  obstacles  in  the 
way  of  the  large  development  of  the  in- 

The  departments  of  Santa  Barbara, 
Copan,  Cortez,  La  Paz,  Choluteca,  and  El 
ParaisO  have  the  principal  plantations. 
The  ports  of  shipment  are  Truxillo  and 
Puerto  Cortes.  Annual  production  in  re- 
cent years  has  been  about  5,000,000 
pounds.  In  1889  the  United  States  im- 
ported 3,322,502  pounds,  but  in  1915  its 
importations  fell  away  to  665,912  pounds. 

British  Honduras,  British  Honduras 
has  never  undertaken  to  raise  coffee  on  a 
commercial  scale  despite  the  fact  that 
conditions  are  not  unfavorable  to  its  cul- 
tivation. It  has  failed  to  produce  enough 
even  for  domestic  consumption,  importing 

CoFFKE  Pickers  Returning  from  the  Fields,  Guadeloupe 



Three- Year-Old  Coffee  Trees  in  Blossom,  Panama 

most  of  what  it  has  needed.  Annual  pro- 
duction, as  recorded  in  recent  years,  has 
been  upward  of  10,000  pounds. 

Panama.  Panama  presents  a  very  fa- 
vorable field  for  the  growing  of  coffee. 
The  l)est  district  is  situated  in  the  uplands 
of  the  district  of  Bugaba,  where  vast  areas 
of  the  best  lands  for  coffee-growing  exist, 
and  where  climatic  and  other  conditions 
are  most  favorable  to  its  growth. 

No  shade  is  required  in  this  country ; 
and  the  only  cultivation  consists  of  tliree 
or  four  cleanings  a  year  to  keep  down  the 
weeds,  as  no  plowing,  etc.,  are  necessary. 
Coffee  matures  from  October  to  January. 
Water  power  being  abundant,  it  is  used 
for  running  all  machinery. 

The  annual  output  of  the  province  of 
Chiriqui,  which  produces  the  bulk  of  the 
coffee,  is  approximately  4.000  sacks  of  100 
pounds  each;  all  of  which  is  produced  in 

the  Boquete  district  at  present,  as  the 
coffee  planted  in  the  Bugaba  section  is 
still  young  and  unproductive.  The  local 
supply  does  not  meet  the  domestic  de- 
mand; and  instead  of  exporting,  a -great 
deal  is  imported  from  adjoining  countries, 
although  there  is  a  protective  tariff  of  six 
dollars  per  hundred  pounds. 

The  Guianas.  Coffee  has  had  a  precari- 
ous existence  in  the  Guianas.  Plants  are 
said  to  have  been  brought  by  Dutch  voy- 
agers from  Amsterdam  in  1718  or  1720. 
They  flourished  in  the  new  habitat  to 
which  they  were  introduced,  and  in  1725 
were  carried  from- Dutch  Guiana  into  the 
district  of  Berbice  in  British  Guiana  and 
into  French  Guiana.  There  the  berry  was 
a  considerable  success  for  a  time :  Berbice 
coffee  especially  acquiring  a  good  reputa- 
tion ;  and  when  Demerara  was  settled, 
coffee    became    a    staple    of    that    region. 



Shortage  of  native  labor,  and  the  difficulty 
of  procuring  cheap  and  capable  workers 
from  outside  the  country,  ultimately  com- 
pelled the  practical  abandonment  of  the 
crop  in  all  three  sections,  Dutch,  French, 
and  British,  In  British  Guiana  it  is  now 
grown  mainly  for  domestic  consumption, 
and  the  same  is  true  of  French  Guiana, 
which  also  imports. 

From  the  time  of  its  introduction,  about 
1718,  until  about  1880,  the  only  coffee 
grown  in  Surinam,  or  Dutch  Guiana,  was 
the  Coffea  arahica.  It  was  not  a  boun- 
tiful producer,  and  with  labor  scarce  and 
unreliable,  its  cultivation  was  expensive. 
Therefore  experiment  was  made  with  the 
liherica  plant.  This  proved  to  be  very 
satisfactory,  growing  luxuriantly,  produc- 
ing abundantly,  and  requiring  minimum 
labor  in-  care.  In  1918  some  16,000,000 
pounds  were  produced. 

Ecuador.  Though  not  of  great  com- 
mercial importance,  coffee  in  Ecuador 
grows  on  both  the  mainland  and  on  the 
adjacent  islands.  The  area  planted  to 
coffee  is  estimated  at  32,000  acres  having 
an  aggregate  of  about  8,000,000  trees. 
The  trees  blossom  in  December,  and  the 
picking  season  is  through  April,  May  and 
June.  Coffee  ranks  third  in  value  among 
the  exports  of  the  country. 

Peru.  Although  possessed  of  natural 
coffee  land  and  climate,  little  has  been 
done  to  develop  the  industry  in  Peru.  A 
finely  flavored  coffee  grows  at  an  altitude 
of  7,000  feet,  while  that  grown  in  the  low- 
lands along  the  Pacific  coast  is  not  so  de- 
sirable. Such  small  quantities  as  are 
grown  are  cultivated  in  the  mountain  dis- 
tricts of  Choquisongo,  Cajamarca,  Perene, 
Paucartambo,  Chaucghamayo,  and  Huan- 
ace.  The  Pacific-coast  district  of  Paces- 
mayo  also  grows  a  not  unimportant  crop. 

Bolivia.  Comparatively  little  attention 
is  given  to  coffee  cultivation  in  Bolivia. 
Agricultural  methods  are  crude,  and  are 
limited  to  cutting  down  weeds  and  under- 
growth twice  a  year.  The  coffee  is 
planted  in  small  patches,  or  as  hedges 
along  the  roads  or  around  the  fields  of 
other  crops.  The  first  crop  is  picked  at 
the  end  of  one  and  a  half  or  two  years. 
The  trees  bear  for  fifteen  to  twenty  years. 
The  average  yield  is  from  three  to  eight 
pounds  per  tree.  The  best  grades  of 
coffee  are  grown  at  2,000  to  6,000  feet 
above  sea  level. 

Coffee  is  cultivated  in  the  departments 
of  La  Paz,  Cochabamba,  Santa  Cruz,  El 
Beni,  and  Chuquisca.  In  the  department 
of  Santa  Cruz  there  are  plantations  in 
the  provinces  of  Sara,  Velasco,  Chiquitos 
and  Cordillera.  In  the  Yungas  and  the 
Apolobamba  districts  of  La  Paz,  its  cul- 
tivation reaches  the  greatest  importance, 
but  even  there  is  not  of  large  proportions. 

Chile,  Paraguay,  and  Argentina. 
Coffee  is  of  minor,  almost  insignificant, 
importance  in  the  agriculture  of  Chile, 
Paraguay,  and  Argentina.  In  Uruguay 
the  climate  is  altogether  unsuitable  for  it. 

Argentina  and  Paraguay  each  have 
small  growing  districts.  In  the  first 
named,  only  the  provinces  of  Salta  and 
Jujuy  have,  at  the  latest  reports,  a  little 
more  than  3,000  acres  under  cultivation. 
In  Paraguay  some  householders  have 
grown  coffee  iji  their  yards  solely  for  their 
own  use.  In  the  Paraguayan  district  of 
Altos,  north  of  Asuncion,  a  small  group 
of  plantations  was  started  before  the  out- 
break of  the  World  War,  and  produced 
about  300,000  pounds  of  coffee  in  a  year. 

Ceylon.  Coffee  planting  in  Ceylon 
was  an  important  industry  for  a  century, 
until  the  so-called  Ceylon  leaf  disease  at- 
tacked the  plantations  in  1869,  and  a  few 
years  later  had  practically  destroyed  all 
the  trees  of  the  country.  Although  coffee 
raising  has  continued  since  then,  there  has 
been,  especially  since  the  beginning  of  the 
twentieth  century,  a  steady  decline  in 
acreage.  There  were  4,875  acres  under 
cultivation  in  1903,  2,433  acres  in  1907, 
1.389  in  1912,  and  941.5  in  1919.  Only 
2,200  pounds  were  produced  in  1917. 
However,  the  climate  and  soil  of  Ceylon 
seem  adapted  to  coffee  culture,  and  the 
experimental  stations  at  Peradeniya  and 
Anuradhapura  have  been  experimenting 
in  recent  years  with  rohusta,  canepJiora, 
TJgandae,  and  a  rohusta  hybrid  for  the 
purpose  of  reviving  the  industry  in  the 

Ceylon  is  one  of  the  oldest  coffee-grow- 
ing countries,  the  Arabs  having  experi- 
mented with  it  there,  according  to  legend, 
long  before  the  Portuguese  seized  the  is- 
land in  1505,  The  Dutch,  who  gained 
control  in  1658,  continued  the  cultivation, 
and  in  1690  introduced  more  systematic 
methods.  They  sent  a  few  pounds  in  1721 
to  Amsterdam,  where  the  coffee  brought  a 
higher  price  than  Java  or  Mocha.     How- 



RoBusTA   Coffee    Growing   on    the    Suzannah    Estate,  Cociiin-China 

ever,  it  was  not  until  after  the  British 
occupied  the  island  in  1796,  that  coffee 
growing  was  carried  on  extensively.  The 
first  British-owned  upland  plantation  was 
started  in  1825  by  Sir  Edward  Barnes; 
and  for  more  than  fifty  years  thereafter 
coffee  was  one  of  the  island's  leading 
products.  An  orgy  of  speculation  in 
coffee  growing  in  Ceylon,  in  which 
£5,000,000  sterling  are  said  to  have  been 
invested,  culminated  in  1845  in  the  burst- 
ing of  the  coffee  bubble,  and  hundreds 
were  ruined.  The  peak  of  the  export 
trade  was  reached  in  1873,  when  111,495,- 
216  pounds  of  coffee  were  sent  out  of  the 
country.  Even  then,  the  plantations  were 
suffering  severely  from  the  leaf  disease, 
which  had  appeared  in  1869 ;  and  by  1887, 
the  coffee  tree  had  practically  disappeared 
from  Ceylon.  Ceylon's  day  in  coffee  was 
a  cycle  of  fifty-odd  years. 

French  Indo-China.  Coffee  culture  in 
French  Indo-China  is  a  comparatively 
small  factor  in  international  trade,  al- 
though production  is  on  the  increase,  par- 
ticularly from  those  plantations  planted 
to  robiista,  liherica,  and  excelsa  varieties. 
The  average  annual  export  for  the  five- 
year  period  ended  with  1918  was  516.978 
pounds,  nearly  all  of  it  going  to  France. 

The  first  experiments  with  coffee  grow- 
ing were  begun  in  1887,  near  Hanoi  in 
Tonkin.  The  seeds  were  of  the  arabica 
variety,  brought  from  Reunion,  and  the 
production  from  the  first  years  was  dis- 
tributed throughout  the  country  to  foster 
the  industry.  Eventually  arahica  was 
found  unsuitable  to  the  soil  and  climate, 
and  experiments  were  begun  with  robusta 
and  other  hardier  types. 

A  survey  of  the  industry  of  the  coun- 
try in  1916  showed  that  the  plant  was  be- 
ing successfully  grown  in  the  provinces 
of  Tonkin,  Anam,  and  Cochin-China,  and 
that  altogether  there  were  about  1,000,000 
trees  in  bearing.  The  plantations  are 
mostly  in  the  foot-hills  of  the  mountain 
ranges  or  on  the  slopes,  although  a  few 
are  located  near  the  coast  line  at  1,000 
feet,  or  even  less,  above  sea-level. 

The  larger  and  more  successful  planta- 
tions follow  advanced  methods  of  planting 
and  cultivating,  while  the  government 
maintains  experimental  stations  for  the 
purpose  of  fostering  the  industry.  It  is 
believed  that  French  Indo-China  in  com- 
ing years  will  assume  an  important  po- 
sition in  the  coffee  trade  of  the  world, 
particularly  as  a  source  of  supply  for 



Federated  Malay  States,  Including 
Strait's  Settlements.  Rubber  has  been 
the  chief  cause  of  the  decline  of  coffee 
industry  in  the  Federated  Malay  States. 
Since  the  closing  years  of  the  nineteenth 
century  coffee  has  been  steadily  on  the 
downward  path  in  acreage  and  produc- 
tion, with  the  possible  exception  of  parts 
of  Straits  Settlements,  which  in  1918  ex- 
ported, mostly  to  England,  some  3,500,000 
pounds  of  good  grade  coffee.  The  other 
sections  of  the  federation  shipped  less 
than  1,000,000  pounds. 

In  the  early  days,  planters  of  the  Malay 
Peninsula  knew  little  about  proper  meth- 
ods of  cultivating,  and  depended  mostly 
upon  what  they  learned  of  the  practises 
in  Ceylon,  which,  unfortunately  for  them, 
were  not  at  all  suited  to  the  Malay 
country.  They  secured  their  best  crops 
from  lowlands  where  peaty  soil  prevailed, 
and  eventually  all  the  coffee  grown  on  the 
peninsula  came  from  such  regions. 

Liberica  is  mostly  favored,  and  is 
grown  with  some  success  as  an  inter-crop 
with  cocoanuts  and  rubber.  The  rohusta 
variety  has  also  been  introduced,  but  does 
not  seem  to  do  as  well  as  the  liberica.  Be- 
tween 2,300  and  2,600  acres,  according  to 
recent  returns,  have  been  under  coffee  as 
a  catch-crop  with  cocoanuts,  out  of  a  total 

of  40,000  acres  in  cocoanut  estates.  One 
planter  has  been  reported  as  making  quite 
a  success  with  this  method  of  inter-crop- 
ping for  coffee,  but  it  is  not  generally 

There  has  been  a  general  decline  in 
acreage,  product,  and  exports  since  the 
closing  years  of  the  nineteenth  century, 
until  now  the  industry  is  regarded  as  prac- 
tically at  a  stand-still  and  likely  so  to  re- 
main as  long  as  rubber  shall  continue  to 
hold  the  commercially  high  position  to 
which  it  has  attained.  Unsatisfactory 
prices  realized  for  the  crop,  poor  growth 
of  the  trees  in  some  localities,  and  the 
gradual  weakening  of  the  trees  under 
rubber  as  they  mature,  are  offered  as  the 
principal  explanations  of  this  decrease  in 
acreage.  Nearly  all  the  Malay  crop  in 
recent  years  has  been  grown  in  Selangor, 
though  Negri  Sembilan,  Pahang,  and 
Perak  continue  as  factors  in  the  trade. 

Australia.  Although  Australia  is  a 
prospective  coffee-growing  country  of 
large  natural  possibilities,  the  Australian 
Year  Book  for  1921  states  that  Queensland 
is  the  one  state  in  which  experiments  have 
been  tried,  and  that  in  1919  -  20  there 
were  only  twenty-four  acres  under  cul- 
tivation. Queensland  soils  are  of  volcanic 
origin,    exceptionally    rich,    and    support 

Coffee  Trees  of  the  Bourbon  Variety,  French  Indo-China 



Picking  Coffee  on  a  North  Queensland  Plantation 

trees  that  are  vigorous  and  prolific  with 
a  bean  of  fine  quality.  The  arabica  is 
chiefly  cultivated,  and  the  trees  can  be 
successfully  grown  on  the  plains  at  sea- 
level  as  well  as  up  to  a  height  of  1,500  or 
2,000  feet.  The  trees  mature  earlier  than 
in  some  other  countries.  Planted  in  Jan- 
uary, they  frequently  blossom  in  Decem- 
ber of  the  next  year,  or  a  month  later, 
and  yield  a  small  crop  in  July  or  August; 
that  is,  in  about  two  years  and  a  half  from 
the  time  of  planting.  The  bean  closely  re- 
sembles the  choice  Blue  Mountain  coffee 
of  Jamaica.  For  coffee  cultivation  the 
labor  cost  is  almost  prohibitive. 

As  much  as  fifteen  hundredweight  of 
beans  per  acre  have  been  gathered  from 
trees  in  North  Queensland;  and  for  years 
the  average  was  ten  hundredweight  per 
acre.  After  thirty  years  of  cultivation, 
no  signs  of  disease  have  appeared.  Af^ 
late  as  1920,  the  government  was  propos- 
ing to  make  advances  of  fourteen  cents  a 
pound  upon  coffee  in  the  parchment  to 
encourage  the  development  of  the  indus- 
try to  a  point  where  it  would  be  possible 
for  local  coffee  growers  to  capture  at  least 
the  bulk  of  the  commonwealth's  import 
coffee  trade  of  2,605,240  Rounds. 

Coffee  grows  well  in  most  all  the  islands 
of  the  Pacific  Ocean,  and  in  some  of  them^ 
as  in  the  Philippines  and  Hawaii,  the  in- 
dustry in  past  years  reached  considerable 

Hawaii.  Coffee  has  been  grown  in 
Hawaii  since  1825,  from  plants  brought 
from  Brazil.  It  has  also  been  said  that 
seed  was  brought  by  Vancouver,  the  Brit- 
ish navigator,  on  his  Pacific  exploration 
voyage,  1791  -  94.  Not,  however,  until 
1845  was  an  official  record  made  of  the 
crop,  which  was  then  248  pounds.  The 
first  plantations,  started  on  the  low  levels, 
near  the  sea,  did  not  do  well;  and  it  was 
not  until  the  trees  were  planted' at  eleva- 
tions of  from  1,000  to  3,000  feet  above 
sea-level  that  better  returns  were  obtained. 

Coffee  is  grown  on  all  the  islands  of 
the  group,  but  nowhere  to  any  great  ex- 
tent except  on  Hawaii,  which  produces 
ninety-five  percent  of  the  entire  crop.  Next 
in  importance,  though  far  behind,  is  the 
island  of  Oahu.  On  Hawaii  there  are 
four  principal  coffee  districts,  Kona, 
Hamakua,  Puna,  and  Olaa.  About  four- 
fifths  of  the  total  output  of  the  islands  is 
produced  in  Kona.  At  one  time  there 
were    considerable    coffee    afe^s    in    Maui 



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and  Kauai,  but  sugar  cane  eventually 
there  took  the  place  of  coffee. 

The  Kona  coffee  district  extends  for 
many  miles  along-  the  western  slope  of  the 
island  of  Hawaii  and  around  famous 
Kealakekua  Bay.  The  soil  is  volcanic, 
and  even  rocky;  but  coffee  trees  flourish 
surprisingly  well  among  the  rocks,  and 
are  said  to  bear  a  bean  of  superior 

Coffee  trees  in  Kona  are  planted  prin- 
cipally in  the  open,  though  sometimes  they 
are  shaded  by  the  native  kukui  trees. 
They  are  grown  from  seed  in  nurseries; 
and  the  seedlings,  when  one  year  old,  are 
transplanted  in  regular  lines  nine  feet 
apart.  In  two  years  a  small  crop  is  gath- 
ered, yielding  from  five  to  twelve  bags  of 
cleaned  coft'ee  per  acre.  At  three  years 
of  age  the  trees  produce  from  eight  to 
twenty  bags  of  cleaned  coffee  per  acre, 
and  from  that  time  they  are  fully  ma- 
tured. The  ripening  season  is  between 
September  and  January,  and  there  are 
two  principal  pickings.  Many  of  the 
trees  are  classed  as  wild;  that  is,  they  are 
not  topped,  and  are  cultivated  in  an  ir- 
regular manner  and  are  poorly  cared  for; 
but  they  yield  700  or  800  pounds  per  acre. 
The  fruit  ripens  very  uniformly,  and  is 
picked  easily  and  at  slight  expense. 

It  is  calculated  that  in  the  Hawaiian 
group  more  than  250,000  acres  of  good 
coffee  land  are  available  and  about  200,- 
000  acres  more  of  fair  quality.  Com- 
paratively little  of  this  possible  acreage 
has  been  put  to  use.  According  to  the 
census  of  1889,  there  were  then  6,451  acres 
devoted  to  coffee,  having,  young,  and  old, 
3,225,743  bearing  trees.  The  yield,  in 
that  census  year,  was  2,297,000  pounds,  of 
which  2,112,650  pounds  'were  credited  to 
Hawaii,  the  small  remainder  coming  from 
Maui,  Oahu,  Kauai,  and  Molokai. 

A  blight  in  1855  -  56  set  back  the  indus- 
try, many  plantations  being  ruined  and 
then  given  over  to  sugar  cane.  After  the 
blight  had  disappeared,  the  plantations 
were  re-established,  and  prosperity  cou: 
tinued  for  years.  Following  the  Ameri- 
can occupation  of  the  islands  in  1898, 
came  another  period  of  depression.  With 
the  loss  of  the  protective  tariff  that  had 
existed,  prices  fell  to  an  unremunerative 
figure;  and  the  more  profitable  sugar  cane 
was  taken  up  again.  After  1912,  the  in- 
creased demand  for  coffee,  with  higher 
prices,  led  again  to  hopes  for  the  future 

Coffee  Growing  Under  Shade,  Hamakua,  H.  I. 

of  the  industry.  Planting  was  encour- 
aged; and  it  has  been  demonstrated  that 
from  lands  w^ell  selected  and  intelligently 
cultivated  it  is  possible  to  have  a  yield  of 
from  1,200  to  2,100  pounds  per  acre. 
Improvements  have  also  been  made  in 
pulping  and  milling  facilities.  Many  of 
the  plantations  are  cultivated  by  Japanese 

Exports  of  coffee  from  Hawaii  to  the 
principal  countries  of  the  world  in  1920 
were  2,573,300  pounds. 

Philippine  Islands.  Spanish  mission- 
aries from  Mexico  are  said  to  have  carried 
the  coffee  plant  to  the  Philippine  Islands 
in  the  latter  part  of  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury. At  first  it  was  cultivated  in  the 
province  of  La  Laguna ;  but  afterward 
other  provinces,  notably  Batangas  and 
Cavite,  took  it  up ;  and  in  a  short  time  the 
industry  was  one  of  the  most  important 
in  the  islands.  The  coffee  was  of  the 
arahica  variety.  In  the  middle  of  the 
eighteenth  century,  and  after,  the  indus- 
try had  a  position  of  importance;  several 
provinces  produced  profitable  crops  that 
contributed  much  to  the  wealth  of  the 
communities  where  the  berry  was  culti- 
vated. In  those  days  the  city  of  Yipa  was 
an  important  trading  center.  In  the 
period  of  its  prime  Philippine  coffee  en- 
joyed fine  repute,  especially  in  Spain, 
Great  Britain,  and  China  (at  Hong 
Kong),  those  three  countries  being  the 
largest     consumers.     At     one     time  —  in 



1883  and  1884  —  the  annual  export  was 
16,000,000  pounds,  which  demonstrates 
the  importance  of  the  industry  at  the  peak 
of  its  prosperity.  The  leaf  blight  ap- 
peared on  the  island  about  1889,  causing 
destruction  from  which  there  has  not  yet 
been  complete'  recovery.  The  export  of 
3,086  pounds  in  1917  shows  the  depths 
into  which  the  industry  had  fallen. 

The  Bureau  of  Agriculture  at  Manila 
announced  in  1915  that  an  effort  was  to 
be  made  to  re-habilitate  the  coffee  indus- 
try of  the  islands..  Nothing  came  of  the 
effort,  which  died  a-borning.  Since  then, 
several  attempts  to  introduce  disease-re- 
sisting varieties  of  coffee  from  Java  have 
failed  because  of  lack  of  interest  on  the 
part  of  the  natives. 

Despite  the  misfortunes  that  have  over- 
whelmed it  in  the  past  and  are  now  re- 
tarding its  growth,  it  is  still  believed  that 

the  industry  in  these  islands  may  be  re- 
habilitated. Conditions  of  soil  and  cli- 
mate are  favorable;  land  and  labor  are 
cheap,  abundant,  and  dependable:  rail- 
roads run  into  the  best  coffee  regions,  and 
good  cart  roads  are  in  process  of  construc- 
tion. Some  plantations  of  consequence 
are  still  in  existence,  and  serious  consid- 
eration is  being  given  to  their  develop- 
ment and  to  increasing  their  number, 

Guam.  Coffee  is  one  of  the  commonest 
wild  plants  on  the  little  island  of  Guam. 
It  grows  around  the  houses  like  shade 
trees  or  flowering  shrubs,  and  nearly  every 
family  cultivates  a  small  patch.  Climate 
and  soil  are  favorable  to  it;  and  it  flour- 
ishes, with  abundant  crops,  from  the  sea- 
level  to  the  tops  of  the  highest  hills.  The 
plants  are  set  in  straight  rows,  from  three 
and  a  half  to  seven  feet  apart,  and  are 
shaded   by   banana   trees   or   bv    cocoanut 

The  Coffee  Tbee  Thrives  in  the  Lava  Soil  of  South  Kona,  Island  of  Hawaii 



Coffee    Plantation  Near  Sagada,  Bontoc  Province,  P.  I. 

leaves  stuck  in  the  ground.  There  is  no 
production  for  export,  scarcely  enough  for 
home  consumption. 

Other  Pacific  Islands.  Other  islands 
of  the  Pacific  do  not  loom  large  in  coffee 
growing,  though  New  Caledonia  gives 
promise  as  a  producer,  exporting  1,248,- 
024  pounds   in   1916,   most  of  which  was 

rohusta.  Tahiti  produces  a  fair  coffee, 
but  in  no  commercial  quantity.  In  the 
Samoan  group  there  are  plantations,  small 
in  number,  in  size,  and  in  amount  of  pro- 
duction. Several  islands  of  'the  Fiji 
group  are  said  to  be  well  adapted  to  coffee, 
but  little  is  grown  there  and  none  for 



Owner's   Residence  Adjoining   Drying   Grounds  on  One  of  the  Large  Estates 

Drying    Grounds,    Fazenda    Santa    Adelaide,    Kibeiuao    Preto 

Chapter  XXI 


Early  Arabian  methods  of  preparation-  —  Hoiv  primitive  devices  were 
replaced  by  modern  methods  —  A  chronological  story  of  the  develop- 
ment of  scientific  plantation  machinery,  and  the  part  played  by  Brit- 
ish and  American  inventors  —  The  marvelous  coffee  package,  one 
of  the  most  ingenious  in  all  nature  —  Hoiv  coffee  is  harvested  — 
Picking  —  Preparation  by  the  dry  and  the  ivet  methods  —  Pulping  — 
Fermentation  and  washing  —  Drying  —  Hulling,  or  peeling,  and  pol- 
ishing—  Sizing,  or  grading  —  Preparation  methods  of  different 

LA  ROQUE',  in  his  description  of  the 
ancient  coffee  culture,  and  the  prepa- 
ration methods  as  followed  in  Yemen, 
says  that  the  berries  were  permitted  to  dry 
on  the  trees.  When  the  outer  covering  be- 
gan to  shrivel,  the  trees  were  shaken,  caus- 
ing the  fully  matured  fruits  to  drop  upon 
cloths  spread  to  receive  them.  They  were 
next  exposed  to  the  sun  on  drying-mats, 
after  which  they  were  husked  by  means  of 
wooden  or  stone  rollers.  The  beans  were 
given  a  further  drying  in  the  sun,  and  then 
were  submitted  to  a  winnowing  process,  for 
which  large  fans  were  used. 

Development  of  Plantation  Machinery 
The  primitive  methods  of  the  original 
Arab  planters  were  generally  followed  by 
the  Dutch  pioneers,  and  later  by  the 
French,  with  slight  modifications.  As  the 
ultivation  spread,  necessity  for  more  effec- 
live  methods  of  handling  the  ripened  fruit 
mothered  invention's  that  soon  began  to 
transform  the  whole  aspect  of  the  business. 
Probably  the  first  notable  advance  was  in 
curing,  when  the  West  Indian  process,  or 
wet  method,  of  cleaning  the  berries  w^as 

About  the  time  that   Brazil   began  the 
active  cultivation  of  coffee,  William  Panter 

'  La   Koque,   Jean. 
Paris,  1715   (r.  285). 

Voyage  dc   I'Arahie  Heureuae, 

was  granted  the  first  English  patent  on  a 
"mill  for  husking  coffee."  This  was  in 
1775.  James  Henckel  followed  with  an 
English  patent,  granted  in  1806,  on  a  coffee 
drier,  "an  invention  communicated  to  liim 
by  a  certain  foreigner."  The  first  Amer- 
ican to  enter  the  lists  was  Nathan  Reed  of 
Belfast,  Me.,  who  in  1822  was  granted  a 
United  States  patent  on  a  coffee  huller. 
Roswell  Abbey  obtained  a  United  States 
patent  on  a  huller  in  1825 ;  and  Zenos 
Bronson,  of  Jasper  County,  Ga.,  obtained 
one  on  another  huller  in  1829.  In  the  next 
few  years  many  others  followed. 

John  Chester  Lyman,  in  1834,  was  grant- 
ed an  English  patent  on  a  coffee  huller  em- 
ploying circular  wooden  disks,  fitted  with 
wire  teeth.  Isaac  Adams  and  Thomas  Dit- 
son  of  Boston  brought  out  improved  hullers 
in  1835 ;  and  James  Meacock  of  Kingston, 
Jamaica,  patented  in  England,  in  1845,  a 
self-contained  machine  for  pulping,  dress- 
ing, and  sorting  coffee. 

William  McKinnon  began,  in  1840,  the 
manufacture  of  coffee  plantation  machinery 
at  the  Spring  Garden  Iron  Works,  founded 
by  him  in  1798  in  Aberdeen,  Scotland.  He 
died  in  1873 ;  but  the  business  continues 
as  Wm.  McKinnon  &  Co.,  Ltd. 

About  1850  John  Walker,  one  of  the  pio- 
neer English  inventors  of  coffee-plantation 




Walker's  Okiginal  Disk  Pulper,  1860 
Much   favored   in   Ceylon   and   India 

machinery,  brought  out  in  Ceylon  his 
cylinder  pulper  for  Arabian  coffee.  The 
pulping  surface  was  made  of  copper,  and 
was  pierced  with  a  half-moon  punch  that 
raised  the  cut  edges  into  half  circles. 

The  next  twenty  years  witnessed  some  of 
the  most  notable  advances  in  the  develop- 
ment of  machinery  for  plantation  treat- 
ment, and  served  to  introduce  the  inven- 
tions of  several  men  whose  names  will  ever 
be  associated  with  the  industry. 

John  Gordon  &  Co.  began  the  manufac- 
ture in  London  of  the  line  of  plantation 
machinery  still  known  around  the  world  as 
"Gordon  make"  in  1850;  and  John  Gordon 
was  granted  an  English  patent  on  his  im- 
proved coffee  pulper  in  1859. 

Robert  Bowman  Tennent  obtained  Eng- 
lish (1852)  and  United  States  (1853)  pat- 
ents on  a  two-cylinder  pulper. 

George  L.  Squier  began  the  manufacture 
of  plantation  machinery  in  Buffalo,  N.  Y., 
in  1857.  He  was  active  in  the  business  until 
1893,  and  died  in  1910.  The  Geo.  L.  Squier 
Manufacturing  Co.  still  continues  as  one 
of  the  leading  American  manufacturers  of 
coffee-plantation  machinery. 

Marcus  Mason,  an  American  mechanical 
engineer  in  San  Jose,  Costa  Rica,  invented 
(1860)  a  coffee  pulper  and  cleaner  which 
became  the  foundation  stone  of  the  exten- 
sive plantation-machinery  business  of  Mar- 
cus Mason  &  Co.,  established  in  1873  at 
Worcester,  Mass. 

John  Walker  was  granted  (1860)  an 
English  patent  on  a  disk  pulper  in  which 
the  copper  pulping  surface  was  punched, 
or  knobbed,  by  a  blind  punch  that  raised 
rows  of  oval  knobs  but  did  not  pierce  the 
sheet,  and  so  left  no  sharp  edges.  During 
Ceylon's  fifty  years  of  coffee  production, 
the  Walker  machines  played  an  important 
part  in  the  industry.  They  are  still  manu- 
factured by  Walker,  Sons  &  Co.,  Ltd.,  of 
Colombo,  and  are  sold  to  other  producing 

Alexius  Van  Gulpen  began  the  manufac- 
ture of  a  green-coffee-grading  machine  at 
Emmerich,  Germany,  in  1860, 

Following  Newell's  United  States  patents 
of  1857  -  59,  sixteen  other  patents  were  is- 
sued on  various  types  of  coffee-cleaning  ma- 
chines, some  designed  for  plantation  use, 
and  some  for  treating  the  beans  on  arrival 
in  the  consuming  countries. 

James  Henry  Thompson,  of  Hoboken,  and 
John  Lidgerwood  were  granted,  in  1864,  an 
English  patent  on  a  coffee-hulling  machine. 
William  Van  Vleek  Lidgerwood,  American 
charge  d'affaires  at  Rio  de  Janeiro,  was 
granted  an  English  patent  on  a  coffee  hull- 
ing and  cleaning  machine  in  1866.  The 
name  Lidgerwood  has  long  been  familiar  to 
coffee  planters.  The  Lidgerwood  Manufac- 
turing Co.,,  Ltd.,  has  its  headquarters  in 
London,  with  factory  in  Glasgow.  Branch 
offices  are  maintained  at  Rio  de  Janeiro, 
Campinas,  and  in  other  cities  in  coffee- 
growing  countries. 

Probably  the  name  most  familiar  to  cof- 
fee   men    in    connection    with    plantation 

Eaely  English  Coffee  Peeleb 
Largely  used  in  India  and  Ceylon 



Group    of    English    Cylinder    Coffee-Pulping    Machines 

lethods  is  Guardiola.  It  first  appears  in 
the  chronological  record  in  1872,  when  J. 
Guardiola,  of  Chocola,  Guatemala,  was 
granted  several  United  States  patents  on 
machines  for  pulping  and  drying  coffee. 
Since  then,  "Guardiola"  has  come  to  mean 
a  definite  type  of  rotary  drying  machine 
that  —  after  the  original  patent  expired  — 
was  manufactured  by  practically  all  the 
leading  makers  of  plantation  machinery. 
Jose  Guardiola  obtained  additional  United 
States  patents  on  coffee  hullers  in  1886. 

William  Van  Vleek  Lidgerwood,  Morris- 
town,  N.  J.,  was  granted  an  English  patent 
on  an  improved  coffee  pulper  in  1875. 

Several  important  cleaning  and  grading 
machinery  patents  were  granted  by  the 
United  States  (1876-1878)  to  Henry  B. 
Stevens,  who  assigned  them  to  the  Geo.  L. 
Squier  Manufacturing  Co.,  Buffalo,  N.  Y. 
One  of  them  was  on  a  separator,  in  which 
the  coffee  beans  were  discharged  from  the 
hopper  in  a  thin  stream  upon  an  endless 
■carrier,  or  apron,  arranged  at  such  an  in- 
clination that  the.  round  beans  would  roll 
by  force  of  gravity  down  the  apron,  while 
the  flat  beans  would  be  carried  to  the  top. 

C.  F.  Hargreaves,  of  Eio  de  Janeiro,  was 
granted  an  English  patent  on  machinery 
for  hulling,  polishing,  and  separating  cof- 
fee, in  1879. 

The  first  German  patent  on  a  coffee  dry-